Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Wad-Way
WADDEL, Alfred Moore, lawyer, born in Hillsborough, North Carolina, 16 September, 1834, was graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1853, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He became clerk of the court of equity of New Hanover County, North Carolina, edited the " Wilmington Herald" in 1860, and the same year was a delegate to the Conservative-Union convention which nominated John Bell for president. During the Civil War he served in the Confederate Army as lieutenant-colonel of cavalry. He was chosen to Congress as a Democrat in 1870, served by reelection till 1879, and was chairman of the committee on post-offices and post-roads in the 44th Congress. He was defeated in the next election, and resumed the practice of law. He has in manuscript " A Colonial Officer and his Times." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 309.
WADDELL, James Iredell, naval officer, born in Pittsboro, Chatham County, North Carolina, in 1824; died in Annapolis, Maryland, 15 March, 1886, on 10 September, 1841, was appointed a midshipman in the U, S. Navy, and in May, 1842, he received a wound in a duel which incapacitated him from service for eleven months and lamed him for life. He did good service in the war with Mexico, was graduated at the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1847, and while on a cruise on the Brazilian Station in September, 1855, was promoted from passed midshipman to 2d lieutenant and navigator of the "Germantown." He was detached and served on the store-ship "Release " at Aspinwall during the building of the Panama Railroad, where he contracted the yellow fever. The ship went to sea and day by day the officers and crew were stricken down by the disease, until Lieutenant Waddell was the only officer left to command her with a few convalescent seamen. The vessel finally reached Boston. He afterward was on duty at the Naval Academy, as assistant professor of navigation, until 11 July, 1859. In the spring of 1860 he sailed in the " Saginaw" for the China station, where he led a successful expedition. On 20 November, 1861, he forwarded his resignation to the Secretary of the Navy, but on 11 January, 1862, when he arrived in New York, he was offered a command in the U. S. bomb-fleet, then being fitted out for an attack on New Orleans, which he declined. In February, 1862, he ran the blockade from Annapolis to Richmond, where he entered the Confederate Navy, his commission as lieutenant being dated 27 March. 1862. He was assigned to duty on board the ram " Louisiana " at New Orleans, and when the Confederate fleet at that port was dispersed by Farragut, Lieutenant Waddell was sent back to destroy the "Louisiana," which he did by blowing her up. He then served at Drewry's Bluff, on James River, as ordnance officer, and afterward at Charleston, South Carolina, and subsequently was ordered to England to take command of one of the cruisers that was fitting out at Liverpool. He arrived there in May, 1863, and on 5 October, 1864, was ordered to the command of the "Shenandoah" for a cruise in the Pacific Ocean. She was originally a British merchant steamer. The "Shenandoah was commissioned off Madeira, 19 October, 1864, and steered for Australia. Before arriving at Melbourne, 25 January, 1865, Commander Waddell made nine captures. The " Shenandoah" left that port, 8 February, 1865, and in three months began her destructive work among the whalers in the Okhotsk Sea, Bering Sea, and the Arctic Ocean. Long after the fall of the Confederate government he captured and sank or burned vessels until 2 August, 1865, more than three months after the surrender of General Lee, when he met with the British bark "Barracouta," from whose captain he heard of the close of the war. After this he stowed away his guns in the hold and at once sailed for Liverpool, where he surrendered the ship to the British government. He and his crew were liberated, and on 10 November, 1865, the " Shenandoah" was delivered to the U. S. consul at Liverpool. The sultan of Zanzibar afterward bought her, and several years later she went down in a gale with all on board. The " Shenandoah," while under Commander Waddell, captured thirty-eight vessels, of which she released six on bond and destroyed thirty-two. She was the only vessel that carried the flag of the Confederacy around the world. After the release of Waddell he remained in Liverpool, and then went to Paris to reside. He afterward returned to the United States, and in 1875 was made commander of the "San Francisco," of the Pacific Mail Line between Yokohama and San Francisco. On 16 May, 1877, his steamer struck on a rock and sank. All the passengers were saved, and the captain was the last to leave the ship. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 309-310.
WADE, Benjamin Franklin, 1800-1878, lawyer, jurist, U.S. Senator, strong and active opponent of slavery. In 1839, opposed enactment of stronger fugitive slave law, later calling for its repeal. Demanded the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. U.S. Senator, March 1851-1869. Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854. Supported passage of the Confiscation Act, which prevented escaped slaves from being returned to their former owners by the Union Army. Reported a bill in the Senate to abolish slavery in U.S. Territories in 1862. Voted for the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.
(Appletons’, 1888, pp. 310-311; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 10, Pt. 2, p. 303; Blue, 2005, pp. 11-13, 213-237; Filler, 1960, pp. 103, 151, 229; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 23, 25, 48-49, 54, 71, 116, 132, 143-144, 172, 189, 216, 217, 227, 228, 230; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 499; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 22, p. 431; Congressional Globe)
WADE, Benjamin Franklin, senator, born in Feeding Hills, near Springfield, Massachusetts, 27 October, 1800; died in Jefferson, Ohio, 2 March, 1878. His ancestor, Jonathan, came from Norfolk, England, to Massachusetts in 1632. His father, James, a soldier of the Revolution, moved to Andover, Ohio, in 1821. The son's education was received chiefly from his mother. He shared in the pioneer work of his new home, and in 1823, after aiding in driving a herd of cattle to Philadelphia, went to Albany, New York, where he spent two years in teaching, also beginning the study of medicine with his brother, and at one time working as a common laborer on the Erie canal to obtain funds. On his return to Ohio he began the study of law, was admitted to the bar in 1827, and began practice in Jefferson. He formed a partnership with Joshua R. Giddings in 1831, and in 1835 was elected prosecuting attorney of Ashtabula County, which office he held till 1837. In that year he was chosen as a Whig to the state senate, where, as a member of the judiciary committee, he presented a report that put an end to the granting of divorces by the legislature. In 1839 he was active in opposition to the passage of a more stringent Fugitive-Slave Law, which commissioners from Kentucky were urging on the legislature. The law passed, but his forcible speech against it did much to arouse state pride on the subject and to make it a dead letter. His action cost him his re-election to the Senate, but he was chosen again in 1841. In February, 1847, he was elected by the legislature president-judge of the 3d judicial district, and while on the bench he was chosen, on 15 March, 1851, to the U. S. Senate, where he remained till 1869. He soon became known as a leader of the small anti-slavery minority, advocated the homestead bill and the repeal of the Fugitive-Slave Law, and opposed the Kansas-Nebraska bill of 1854, the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton constitution of 1858, and the purchase of Cuba. After the assault on Charles Sumner, Robert Toombs avowed in the Senate that he had witnessed the attack, and approved it, whereupon Mr. Wade, in a speech of great vehemence, threw down the gage of personal combat to the southern senators. It was expected that there would be an immediate challenge from Toombs, but the latter soon made peace. Subsequently Mr. Wade, Zachariah Chandler, and Simon Cameron made a compact to resent any insult from a southerner by a challenge to fight. This agreement was made public many years afterward. Wade was present at the battle of Bull Run with other congressmen in a carriage, and it is related that after the defeat seven of them alighted, at Wade's proposal, being armed with revolvers, and for a quarter of an hour kept back the stream of fugitives near Fairfax Court-House. This incident, as narrated in the journals, made a sensation at the time. Mr. Wade labored earnestly for a vigorous prosecution of the war, was the chairman and foremost spirit of the joint committee on the conduct of the war in 1861-'2, and was active in urging the passage of a confiscation bill. As chairman of the committee on territories, he reported a bill in 1862 to abolish slavery in all the territories. He was instrumental in the advancement to the portfolio of war of Edwin M. Stanton, whom he recommended strongly to President Lincoln. Though he cordially supported the administration, he did not hesitate to criticise many of its acts, and after the adjournment of the 38th Congress he issued, with Henry Winter Davis, what became known as the Wade-Davis manifesto, condemning the president's proposed reconstruction policy. Mr. Wade became president pro tempore of the Senate, and thus acting vice-president of the United States, on 2 March, 1867, succeeding Lafayette S. Foster. He advised President Johnson to put on trial for treason a few of the Confederate leaders and pardon the rest, and was radical in his ideas of reconstruction. In the impeachment of President Johnson he voted for conviction. In 1869, at the close of his second term, he was succeeded in the Senate by Allen G. Thurman, and he then returned to his home in Jefferson, Ohio. He was one of the chief members of the Santo Domingo commission in 1871, and then became attorney for the Northern Pacific Railroad. He was chairman of the Ohio delegation in the Cincinnati national convention of 1876, and earnestly advocated the nomination of Rutherford B. Hayes, but after his accession to the presidency Mr. Wade bitterly condemned his course in relation to the southern states. Though Mr. Wade had been called “Frank Wade” in Ohio, from his middle name, he was known in Congress and throughout the country as Ben or “Old Ben” Wade. He was popularly looked upon as one of the bulwarks of the National cause in the darkest hours of the Civil War, and was widely admired and respected for his fearlessness, independence, and honesty. His rugged and forcible style of oratory always commanded attention. See his “Life,” by Albert G. Riddle (Cleveland, Ohio, 1888).—His son, JAMES FRANKLIN, entered the army on 14 May, 1861, as 1st lieutenant of the 6th U. S. Cavalry, and rose in rank till at the close of the war he was major and brevet brigadier-general of volunteers. He became lieutenant-colonel on 20 March, 1879, and colonel of the 5th U.S. Cavalry on 21 April, 1887. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 310-311.
WADE, Edward, 1802-1866, West Springfield, Massachusetts, Ohio, lawyer, prominent abolitionist. Free Soil party U.S. Congressman from Ohio in the 33rd Congress. Republican representative in the 34th and 35th Congresses. Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. (Blue, 2005, pp. 11-13, 213, 226, 236, 268; Dumond, 1961, pp. 302, 363; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 23, 25, 26, 48, 65, 71, 72; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 56)
WADE, Melancthon Smith, merchant, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 2 December, 1802; died in Avondale, near Cincinnati, Ohio, 11 August, 1868. His father, David E. Wade, moved to Ohio from New Jersey in 1789. The son was educated in his native place, and became a dry-goods merchant, but retired from business in 1840. He was active in militia matters, holding successively the offices of captain, colonel, and brigadier-general, and on 1 October, 1861, was commissioned a brigadier-general of U. S. volunteers. He was the first post-commander of Camp Dennison, Ohio, but resigned from the army, 18 March, 1862, on account of feeble health. He devoted his leisure to the cultivation of fruit, and was an active member of the Cincinnati horticultural society. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 311.
WADSWORTH, James Samuel, soldier, born in Geneseo, New York, 30 October, 1807; died near Chancellorsville, Virginia, 8 May, 1864, was educated at Harvard and Yale and studied law in Albany, completing his course with Daniel Webster. Although he was admitted to the bar in 1833, he never practised his profession, but devoted himself to the management of the family estate in western New York, which amounted to 15,000 acres. In 1852 he was elected president of the State Agricultural Society, in which he was interested during his life. He promoted education and the interests of the community in which he lived. He founded a public library in Geneseo. was a subscriber to the endowment of Geneseo College, aided in establishing the school-district library system, and was active in philanthropical labors. Although a Federalist by education and a Democrat by conviction, he supported the Free-Soil Party in 1848, and continued to act in defence of the anti-slavery movement. He was a presidential elector on the Republican ticket in 1856 and 1860. In 1861 he was a delegate to the Peace Convention in Washington, and at the beginning of the Civil War he was among the first to offer his services to the government. In April, 1861, he was commissioned a major-general by Governor Edwin D. Morgan, but the appointment was subsequently revoked. When communication with the capital was cut off, he chartered two ships upon his own responsibility, loaded them with provisions, and went with them to Annapolis, where he superintended the delivery of the supplies. He was volunteer aide to General Irvin McDowell at the first battle of Bull Run, where he was commended for bravery and humanity. Afterward he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 9 August, 1861, assigned to a command in the advance under General George B. McClellan, and guarded the city of Washington. On 15 March, 1862, he became military governor of the District of Columbia. In the autumn of 1862 he was the Republican candidate for governor of New York, but was defeated by Horatio Seymour. In the following December he was assigned to the command of a division in the Army of the Potomac under General Ambrose B. Burnside, and participated in the battle of Fredericksburg, 13 December, 1862. He displayed great military skill in the command of the 1st Division of the 1st Army Corps under General John F. Reynolds. At Gettysburg his division was the first to engage the enemy on 1 July, 1863, and on that day lost 2,400 out of 4,000 men. During the second and third days' fighting he rendered good service in maintaining the heights on the right of the line. At the council of war held after the victory he was one of the three that favored pursuit of the enemy. Early in 1864 he was sent on special service to the Mississippi Valley, and made an extensive tour of inspection through the southern and western states. On the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac in 1864, he was assigned to the command of the 4th Division of the 5th Corps, composed in part of his old command. While endeavoring to rally his troops during the battle of the Wilderness, 6 May, 1864, he was struck in the head by a bullet, and before he could be removed the enemy had gained possession of the ground where he lay. Although unconscious, he lingered for two days. It is said that his troops were inspired by his heroic bearing continually to renew the contest, when but for him they would have yielded. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 6 May, 1864. Horace Greeley, in his " American Conflict" (Hartford, 1864-'6), says: "The country's salvation claimed no nobler sacrifice than that of James S. Wadsworth, of New York. . . . No one surrendered more for his country's sake, or gave his life more joyfully for her deliverance." In 1888 a movement was in progress for the erection in Washington of a monument to his memory. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 312-313.
WAGNER, Webster, inventor, born near Palatine Bridge, New York, 2 October, 1817; died near Spuyten Duyvil, New York, 13 January, 1882. He received a common-school education and became a wagon-maker. Subsequently he received the appointment of freight agent on the New York Central Railroad, and then invented the sleeping-car. In 1858 he had four of these cars in operation, and their use gradually extended until they were adopted on all the lines of the Vanderbilt system. In 1867 he manufactured the first drawing-room car, and founded the Wagner Palace-car Company, of which he was president until his death. He also invented the oval car-roof, and patented the elevated panel. Mr. Wagner was elected as a Republican to the New York assembly in 1870, and from 1871 till 1882 he was state senator. In 1880 he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention. He was killed in a railroad disaster on the Hudson River Road. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 315.
WAGONER, Henry O., 1816-1901, African American, abolitionist, journalist, political leader. Active in abolitionist newspaper, Western Citizen, and Frederick Douglass’s Frederick Douglass’ Paper, a weekly publication. Active in Underground Railroad in Chicago area. Helped enlist soldiers for the Black Union Army regiments. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 11, p. 356)
WAINWRIGHT, Jonathan Mayhew, naval officer, born in New York City, 27 July. 1821; died near Galveston, Texas, 1 January, 1863, entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 30 June, 1837, attended the naval school at Philadelphia in 1842-'3, and became a passed midshipman, 29 June, 1843. He was appointed acting master, 10 November, 1849, and commissioned lieutenant, 17 September, 1850. He was on special duty at Washington in 1861, and commanded the steamer "Harriet Lane," which was Admiral Porter's flag-ship in Farragut's fleet during the engagements with Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip and the capture of New Orleans in April, 1862. He took part in the operations of the fleet below Vicksburg, and in October, 1862, commanded the "Harriet Lane" in Commander Renshaw's squadron at the capture of Galveston. While he was holding possession of Galveston, General Magruder attacked the " Harriet Lane," then lying above the city. Wainwright was killed while gallantly leading his men to repel the Confederate boarders, and in ten minutes after half the crew of the "Harriet Lane" were shot down and the vessel was captured by the Confederates. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 316.
WAINWRIGHT, Richard, naval officer, born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 5 January, 1817; died near New Orleans, 10 August, 1862. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 11 May, 1831, attended the naval school at Norfolk in 1837-'8, and became a passed midshipman, 15 June, 1837. In 1838-'41 he served on the coast survey in the brig "Consort." He was commissioned lieutenant. 8 September, 1841, commanded the steamer " Water-Witch " on the home station in 1848-'9, served again on coast survey in 1851-'7, and cruised in the steam frigate " Merrimack" in 1857-'60. He was stationed at the Washington Navy-yard on ordnance duty in 1860-'l, promoted to commander, 24 April of the latter year, and given the flag-ship " Hartford" of Admiral Farragut's fleet, fitted out for the capture of New Orleans. During the passage of the forts the Confederate tug " Mosher" pushed a fire-raft alongside of the "Hartford," which threatened the destruction of the ship. Wainwright distinguished himself in this conflict with the flames and continued to fight the forts on 24-25 April. He participated in the operations of Farragut’s fleet below Vicksburg, and was highly commended by the admiral. At the time of his death he still commanded the "Hartford." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 316.
WAITE, Carlos Adolphus, soldier, born in 1800; died in Plattsburg, New York, 7 May, 1866. He entered the U. S. Army as 2d lieutenant of infantry, 28 January, 1820, became 1st lieutenant, 1 Mav. 1828, and captain, 3 July, 1836. From 7 July, 1838, till 8 May, 1845, he was captain and assistant quartermaster. He was appointed major of the 8th U.S. Infantry, 16 February, 1847, and served in the Mexican war, receiving the brevets of lieutenant-colonel, 20 August, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and colonel, 8 September, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct at Molino del Rev, where he was severely wounded. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the 5th U.S. Infantry on 10 November, 1851, and colonel of the 15th U.S. Infantry on 5 June, 1860. In 1864 he was placed on the retired list, owing to impaired health, and he resided in Plattsburg until his death. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, for long and faithful service in the army. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 317.
WAITE, Charles Burlingame, jurist, born in Wayne County, New York, 29 January, 1824. He was educated at Knox College, Illinois, studied law at Galesburg and Rock Island, and was admitted to the bar in 1847. After fifteen years' successful practice, chiefly in Chicago, he was appointed by President Lincoln in 1862 associate justice of the supreme court of Utah. In 1865 he resigned this post and became district attorney of Idaho, and a year later he returned to Chicago, since which time he has devoted himself to literary pursuits. Judge Waite has published a " History of the Christian Religion to the Year A. D. 200" (Chicago, 1881), and made numerous contributions to the press on suffrage and other politico-legal questions. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 317.
WAITE, Morrison Remick, jurist, born in Lyme, Connecticut, 29 November, 1816; died in Washington, D. C., 23 March, 1888. He was graduated at Yale in 1837, where he was a classmate of William M. Evarts, Benjamin Silliman, and Samuel J. Tilden, and began the study of law in his father's office, but in 1838 travelled extensively, and then completed his legal education with Samuel M. Young in Maumee City, Ohio. In 1839 he was admitted to the bar, and formed a partnership with Mr. Young. He proved himself capable of grasping all the minute details of legal controversies and rose rapidly. The firm moved to Toledo in 1850, and continued until his youngest brother, Richard, came to the bar, when the two brothers formed a partnership. Mr. Waite in the meantime had become widely known for his successful management of difficult cases, and his studious habits and upright character. Opposing counsel often said that his assertion on any question of law was unanswerable. During more than three decades he was the acknowledged leader of the Ohio bar. Politically he was a Whig until the disbandment of that party, after which he was a Republican. But he took no part in political affairs, although repeatedly solicited to accept a nomination to Congress, and he declined a seat on the bench of the Supreme Court of Ohio. In 1849 he was a member of the Ohio legislature. He first attracted national attention as counsel for the United States before the tribunal of arbitration at Geneva, Switzerland, in 1871-'2,: his associates being Caleb Cushing and William M. Evarts. He assisted in the preparation of the case, and was chosen to argue the liability of the English government for permitting Confederate steamers to be supplied with coal in British ports during the Civil War, the robust clearness and directness of his logic carrying conviction on all the points he raised. His argument was published (Geneva, 1872). When he returned in 1872, the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Yale. In 1874 he was the choice of both political parties as a delegate to the Ohio constitutional convention, and on its assembling in Cincinnati he was unanimously elected its president. When the death of Chief-Justice Chase had created a vacancy in the highest judicial office of the United States, two or three eminent jurists were successively nominated for the post, but their names were withdrawn. On 19 January, 1874, the president sent to the Senate the name of Mr. Waite. The nomination met with general approval, and the nominee received every vote that was cast. Mr. Waite took the oath of office on 4 March, 1874, and immediately entered upon its duties. He rigidly enforced the rules and precedents of the court in all matters of practice, watched the docket, and pushed the business rapidly. The second great period of constitutional interpretation began with his first year on the bench. The amendments were coming up for judicial exposition, and questions were to be settled as to the powers of Congress, the rights of states, and the privileges of citizens. Some of the most important corporation cases that were ever argued in the United States came before him, involving the most intricate questions of interstate commerce. One of his associates on the bench says: "His administrative ability was remarkable. None of his predecessors more steadily or more wisely superintended the court or more carefully observed all that is necessary to its workings. He has written many of the most important opinions of the court — too many to be particularized." Among these opinions are the decision on the head-money-tax cases in 1876, on the polygamy cases in 1879, on the election laws in 1880, on the powers of removal by the president, and the Virginia land cases in 1881, on the civil-rights act in 1883, on the Alabama claims, the legal tender act, and the Virginia coupon tax cases in 1885, on the express companies and the extradition cases in 1886, and on the Kansas prohibition cases, the Virginia debt cases, the national banks, and the affair of the Chicago anarchists in 1887. A marked feature of Chief-Justice Waite's judicial career was the pronounced advocacy of the doctrine of state rights in his opinions. His conception of our novel and complex theory of government, and his independence of political considerations, are clearly shown in the Ku-klux, civil rights, and other decisions, in which he did not hesitate to set aside Republican legislation if he deemed it necessary; nor was he deterred, by fear of being accused of friendliness to large corporations, from pronouncing decisions in their favor—for example, his decision on the validity of the Bell telephone patents, which was his last official action. He was assigned to the 4th circuit, which included Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and the Carolinas, and also acted as circuit judge in New York in consequence of the disability of Justice Ward Hunt. He often was known to hurry away from a state dinner, to bestow conscientious labor upon some important opinion, working late into the night. It will be remembered to his honor that he never allowed any whisperings of ambition to divert his attention from his duties. He made it clear to the country in the most emphatic language in 1876 that he would not be considered a possible candidate for president. He also declined to serve on the electoral commission. Judge Waite was from 1874 till his death one of the Peabody trustees of southern education, continuously served on one of the standing committees of that body, and was also on the special committee of three that urged on Congress the bestowal of national aid for the education of the southern Negroes. Robert C. Winthrop, chairman of the trustees, at their annual meeting in 1888, in the course of remarks on Judge Waite's life and character, said of him: "Coming to the office without the prestige of many, or perhaps of any, of those whom he followed, he had won year by year, and every year, the increasing respect and confidence of the whole country, and the warm regard and affection of all who knew him." Services were held in the capital by the two houses of Congress before the removal of his remains to Toledo. In the U. S. circuit court in Charleston, South Carolina, where he had often presided, members of the bar of that city spoke in his praise, especially alluding to his kindliness of manner and impartiality during the reconstruction period. “Fortunate, indeed, said one of the speakers, "that there was a man who, amidst the furious passions which rent the country and shook the land, could hold in his steady and equal hand the balances of justice undisturbed." The degree of LL. D. was given him by Kenyon in 1874. and by the University of Ohio in 1879. Chief-Justice Waite was of medium height, broad-shouldered, compactly built, and erect. His step was light and firm, and all his movements were quick and decisive. His well-poised, classically shaped head was massive and thickly covered with handsome grayish hair. His manners were graceful and winning, but unassuming. He was one of the most genial of men, and his whole bearing commanded instant respect. His private character was singularly pure and noble. Judge Waite was a member of the Protestant Episcopal church, and a regular attendant on its services. Mrs. Waite, four sons, and one daughter survive him. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 317-318.
WALBRIDGE, Hiram, lawyer, born in Ithaca, New York, 2 February, 1821; died in New York City, 6 December, 1870. He moved to Ohio with his parents at an early age, was educated at the university of that state, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1842, was elected colonel of militia the same year, and in 1848 he was appointed brigadier-general. With others he formed a plan to establish four newspapers in Texas, to advocate the independence of that country, and to create an anti-annexation sentiment; but the annexation of Texas rendered their enterprise futile, and Walbridge returned to Toledo, whence he moved to New York in 1847 to engage in commercial transactions. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 5 December, 1853, till 3 March, 1855, and advocating a Pacific Railroad Bill and the introduction of a bill to regulate the militia of the seas, which attracted public attention. He was a personal friend of President Lincoln, and during the war he frequently addressed the boards of trade in western cities, advocating a support of the government. He was vice-president of the National Commercial Convention at Chicago, and subsequently presided at similar conventions in Detroit and Louisville. At these meetings he advocated free banking, a reduction of taxation, and the development of the resources of the west.—His brother, Henry S. (1809-1869), served in Congress as a Whig from 1 December, 1851, till 3 March, 1853, and was a judge of the Supreme Court of New York. He was killed in a railroad accident in the Bergen tunnel, near Hoboken. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 319.
WALDEN, John Morgan, M. E. bishop, born in Lebanon, Warren County, Ohio, 11 February, 1831. He was graduated at Farmers' (now Belmont) College, near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1852, and engaged in educational work for two years and in editorial work for four years, during the last year and a half of which he was editor and publisher of a free-state paper in Kansas. He was also a member of the Topeka legislature, and of the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention at the time of its adoption of a constitution in 1858, under which he was elected superintendent of public instruction. In September of that year he left Kansas and entered, as a minister, the Cincinnati conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, where he occupied several important posts. After a few years he was elected corresponding secretary of the Freedmen's Aid Commission, an undenominational society. He remained in this office until August, 1866, when, on the organization of the Freedmen's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, he was chosen its first corresponding secretary, and he has been officially connected with it ever since, being its president at the present time. In 1868 he was elected one of the publishing agents of the Western Methodist book concern, and he held that post sixteen years. He was a member of every general conference from 1868 till 1884, when he was elected bishop. He is a man of great industry and capacity for business and giving attention to energy thing that is committed to his care. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 320.
WALES, Philip Skinner, surgeon, born in Annapolis, Maryland, 27 February, 1837. He was educated at the University of Maryland, and, after a course of study in the medical department there, settled in Baltimore, and finally in Washington. He entered the U.S. Navy as an assistant surgeon, 7 August, 1856, was commissioned surgeon, 12 October, 1861, and served in the steamer " Fort Jackson," of the North Atlantic and Western Gulf Squadrons, in 1862-'5. He was a member of the board of examiners in 1873-'4, commissioned medical inspector. 30 June, 1873, and appointed surgeon-general of the navy and chief of the bureau of medicine and surgery on 26 January, 1880, serving until 27 March, 1884. When President Garfield was shot he assisted in attendance for a short time. While he was chief of the bureau of medicine, unscrupulous clerks in his office contrived to defraud the government, and he was tried by a court-martial and suspended for five years for neglect of duty, though acquitted of all real responsibility for the acts of his subordinates. He is a member of various medical societies, and the author of "Mechanical Therapeutics" (Philadelphia, 1867); "A New Method of controlling the Velum Palati" in the New York " Medical Record" for November, 1875; "A New Rectal Dilator and Explorer" (Washington, 1877); and papers in the " American Journal of Medical Science" and in the "Philadelphia Medical and Surgical Reporter." He has in preparation a large work on medical science. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 323.
WALKE, Henry, naval officer, born in Princess Ann County, Virginia, 24 December, 1808. He was appointed from Ohio a midshipman in the U.S. Navy, 1 February, 1827, became a passed midshipman, 10 June,1833, and a lieutenant. 9 February, 1839, and during the Mexican War served in the Gulf Squadron as executive of the bomb brig "Vesuvius, was present at the capture of Vera Cruz and participated in the expeditions to Alvarado, Tobasco. and Tuspan. He was promoted to commander, 14 September, 1855, and during the secession excitement in the southern states he was at Pensacola Navy-yard, where he assisted in the removal of Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer's command to Fort Pickens, by which that, fort was saved to the Union. In January. 1861, he was ordered to Vera Cruz, but took the responsibility of conveying the loyal officers, seamen, and marines, with their families, to New York, when the U.S. Navy-yard was seized by the secessionists. He was court-martialed for this disobedience of orders, and reprimanded by the Secretary of the Navy; but as this reprimand was published by Secretary Gideon Welles, it was more of a compliment to him for his good judgment than a censure for the disobedience of orders. He commanded the steamer "Mount Vernon " from May till September, 1861, after which he was assigned to duty in the Mississippi River Flotilla, where he served with ability until September, 1863. He commanded the gunboat "Taylor" and the squadron of gun-boats at the battle of Belmont in co-operation with General Grant, by whom he was complimented for his services in protecting the retreat. He had the gunboat " Carondelet " in the engagement and capture of Fort Henry, 6 February, 1862. for which he, with other officers of Flag-Officer Foote's squadron, received a vote of thanks from Congress and the state of Ohio. With the same vessel he was in the capture of Fort Donelson, 13-16 February, 1862, during which he bore the brunt of the engagement. In this ship he ran the batteries of Island No. 16, 17 March, 1862, a feat that had never been performed before by the Mississippi River Flotilla. It was done at night during a violent storm with only the lightning and the flashes of the enemy's guns to indicate the course down the river. After this he led in the "Carondelet" at the battle at Fort Pillow, 11 May, 1862, and at Memphis, 6 June, 1862, when the Confederate gun-boats were captured and sunk, during which contest he chiefly engaged the ram "Arkansas." He was commissioned a captain, 16 July, 1862, and took command of the iron-clad ram "Lafayette," in which he ran the batteries at Vicksburg, and served in the battle of Grand Gulf, Mississippi, 29 April, 1863. He dispersed General Richard Taylor's army at Simmsport, Louisiana, and blockaded the mouth of Red River, 4 June, 1863. He was transferred to the steamer " Fort Jackson," 24 July, 1863, and continued to render valuable services on the Mississippi River until 24 September, 1863, when he was detached and placed in command of the steamer " Sacramento" to chase the "Alabama." He was promoted to commodore, 25 July, 1866, and to rear-admiral, 13 July, 1876. and voluntarily went on the retired list, 26 April, 1871. He is the author of " Naval Scenes in the Civil War" (New York, 1877). He is a good artist, and his sketches of the scenes in the Civil War are valuable additions to the above-mentioned work. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 323-324.
WALKER, Alexander, journalist, born in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 13 October, 1819. He received a good education, taught while pursuing legal studies, was graduated at the law department of the University of Virginia, and moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he practised law and became a journalist at the same time. He was the editor of the "Jeffersonian," which was established as the organ of the Louisiana Democracy, and afterward of the "Delta," the "Times," the "Herald," the "Picayune," and for some time of the Cincinnati " Enquirer." He was appointed judge of the city court of New Orleans by the governor, and in January, 1861, was a member of the secession convention of Louisiana. He has published "Jackson and New Orleans" (New York, 1850): "Life of Andrew Jackson "; and, during the Civil War. "History of the Battle of Shiloh (New Orleans) and "Butler at New Orleans." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 324.
WALKER, Amasa, 1799-1875, Boston, Massachusetts, political economist, abolitionist. Republican U.S. Congressman from Massachusetts. Active and vigorous opponent of slavery. Walker was an early supporter of the New England Anti-Slavery Society, 1834. He submitted a resolution outlining the objectives of the Society to be the principles of religion, philanthropy and patriotism. American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) Manager, 1837-1840, 1840-1841, 1843-1844, Counsellor, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1840-1841. Co-founder of Free Soil Party in 1848. Served in Congress December 1862 through March 1863.
(Filler, 1960, pp. 60, 254; Mabee, 1970, pp. 258, 340, 403n25; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 324-325; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 10, Pt. 1, p. 338; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 22, p. 485; Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 1. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 223-230; Annual Report of the New England Anti-Slavery Society, 1834)
Biography from Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography :
WALKER, Amasa, political economist, born in Woodstock, Connecticut, 4 May, 1799; died in Brookfield, Massachusetts, 29 October, 1875. He received a district-school education in North Brookfield, where among his fellow-students was William C. Bryant. In 1814 he entered commercial life, and in 1820 formed a partnership with Allen Newell in North Brookfield, but three years later withdrew to become the agent of the Methuen manufacturing Company. In 1825 he formed with Charles G. Carleton the firm of Carleton and Walker, of Boston, Massachusetts, but in 1827 he went into business independently. In 1840 he withdrew permanently from commercial affairs, and in 1842 he went to Oberlin, Ohio, on account of his great interest in the college there, and gave lectures on political economy at that institution until 1848. After serving in the legislature, he became the Free-Soil and Democratic candidate for speaker, and in 1849 was chosen to the Massachusetts Senate, where he introduced a plan for a sealed-ballot law, which was enacted in 1851, and carried a bill providing that Webster's Dictionary should be introduced into the common schools of Massachusetts. He was elected Secretary of State in 1851, re-elected in 1852, and in 1853 was chosen a member of the convention for revising the state constitution, becoming the chairman of the committee on suffrage. He was appointed in 1853 one of the examiners in political economy in Harvard, and held that office until 1860, and in 1859 he began an annual course of lectures on that subject in Amherst, which he continued until 1869. Meanwhile, in 1859, he was again elected to the Massachusetts legislature, and in 1860 he was chosen a member of the electoral college of that state, casting his ballot for Abraham Lincoln. He was also elected as a Republican to Congress, and served from 1 December, 1862, till 3 March, 1863. Mr. Walker is best known for his work in advocating new and reformatory measures. In 1839 he urged a continuous all-rail route of communication between Boston and Mississippi River, and during the same year he became president of the Boston temperance society, the first total abstinence association in that city. He was active in the anti-slavery movement, though not to the extent of recommending unconstitutional methods for its abolition, and in 1848 he was one of the founders of the Free-Soil party. Mr. Walker was a member of the first International Peace Congress in London in 1843, and was one of its vice-presidents, and in 1849 he held the same office in the congress in Paris. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by Amherst in 1867. In 1857 he began the publication of a series of articles on political economy in “Hunt's Merchant's Magazine,” and he was accepted as an authority on questions of finance. Besides other contributions to magazines, he published “Nature and Uses of Money and Mixed Currency” (Boston, 1857), and “Science of Wealth, a Manual of Political Economy” (1866), of which eight editions have been sold, and it has been translated into Italian. With William B. Calhoun and Charles L. Flint he issued “Transactions of the Agricultural Societies of Massachusetts” (7 vols., 1848-'54). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 324-325.
WALKER, Edwin G., 1831?-1901, African American, lawyer, politician, abolitionist. Participated in Boston’s abolition groups. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 11, p. 380)
WALKER, Francis Amasa, statistician, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 2 July, 1840, was graduated at Amherst in 1860, and began the study of law under Charles Devens, and George F. Hoar in Worcester. He joined the 15th Massachusetts Volunteers, commanded by Colonel Devens, on 1 August, 1861, as sergeant-major, and became assistant adjutant-general of the brigade under General Darius N. Couch on 14 September, 1861, with the rank of captain. On 11 August. 1862, he was made adjutant-general of General Couch's division, with the rank of major, and he was promoted colonel on the staff of the 2d Army Corps, 23 December, 1862. Thereafter he continued with that corps as adjutant-general, serving successively on the staffs of General Gouverneur K. Warren and General Winfield S. Hancock, and was severely wounded at Chancellorsville, 1 May, 1863, and captured at Ream's Station, 25 August, 1864. He was confined in Libby prison, in consequence of which his health was impaired, so that he resigned on 12 January, 1865. The brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers was conferred on him on 13 March, 1865. He taught Latin and Greek at Williston Seminary during 1865-'7, and then was assistant editor of the "Springfield Republican." In 1869 he became chief of the bureau of statistics in the Treasury Department at Washington, and in 1870-'2 he held the office of superintendent of the 9th census. During 1871-'2 he was also commissioner of Indian Affairs. He was called to the professorship of political economy and history in the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale in 1873, and held that chair till 1881, when he was elected to the presidency of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Meanwhile, from May till November, 1870, he was chief of the bureau of awards at the World's Fair in Philadelphia, and during 1879-'81 he was superintendent of the 10th Census while on leave of absence from Yale. He held the lectureship on tenure of land at Harvard in 1883. While residing in New Haven he was a member of the city and state boards of education, and on his removal to Boston, Massachusetts, he was called on to serve similarly in that state. The degree of A. M. was conferred on him by Amherst in 1863 and by Yale in 1873, that of Ph. D. by Amherst in 1875, and that of LL. D. by Amherst and Yale in 1881, by Harvard in 1883, by Columbia in 1887, and by St. Andrews, Scotland, in 1888. He was U. S. Commissioner to the International Monetary Conference in Paris in 1878, and was elected in 1878 to the National Academy of Sciences. He is president of the American Statistical Society and of the American Economic Association, and is an honorary fellow of the Royal Statistical Society of London, his writings include annual reports as superintendent of the 9th Census (3 vols., Washington, 1870-'2), as commissioner of Indian Affairs (1872), as superintendent of the 10th Census (8 vols., 1879-'81), and as president of the Massachusetts institute of technology (5 vols.. Boston, 1883-8); and he has compiled 'Commerce and Navigation of the United States " (2 vols., Washington, 1808-9); " Ninth Census " (4 vols., 18723); 'Statistical Atlas of the United States" (1874); "Judges' Reports on Awards" (8 vols., Philadelphia, 1878); and "Tenth Census " (24 vols., Washington. 1883 et seq.). President Walker is the author of "The Indian Question" (Boston, 1874); "The Wages Question" (1870): "Money " (1878); "Money, Trade, and Industry " (1879); " Land and its Rent" (1883); "Political Economy" (New York, 1883); and "History of the Second Army Corps " (1880). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 325.
WALKER, Isaac P., 1813-1872, lawyer, U.S. Senator, anti-slavery Democrat from Wisconsin. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 326-327)
WALKER, Isaac P, senator, born in 1813; died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1 April, 1872. He adopted the profession of law, moved to Wisconsin in 1841, practised in Milwaukee, and took an active part in early political events in the state. He served in the territorial congress in 1847-'8, and in the latter year was chosen to the U. S. Senate as an Anti-slavery Democrat. His policy in that body was deemed timid by his constituents, for, although he wished to preserve the Union, he did not properly represent their attitude on the Wilmot Proviso. He was not returned in the next election, retired from politics, and resumed the practice of law. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 326-327.
WALKER, James Daniel, senator, born in Logan County, Kentucky, 13 December, 1830. He moved to Arkansas in 1847, was educated in private schools and at Ozark Institute, Arkansas, studied law, and was admitted to practice in Fayetteville, Arkansas, in 1850. During the Civil War he served as colonel of an Arkansas regiment in the Confederate Army. After the war he resumed the practice of his profession, was solicitor-general of the state of Arkansas, a presidential elector in 1876 on the Tilden and Hendricks ticket, and in 1878 was chosen to the U. S. Senate as a Democrat, serving till 3 March, 1885. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 327.
WALKER, John Grimes, naval officer, born in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, 20 March, 1835. He was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1856, promoted to master, 22 January, 1858. and became lieutenant, 23 January. 1858. During the Civil War he served on the Atlantic Coast Blockade in the steamer "Connecticut" in 1861, and was transferred to the steamer " Winona" of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron in 1862. In this vessel he participated in the engagements that ended in the capture of New Orleans, with the subsequent operations against Vicksburg in 1862. He was promoted to lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, and had command of the river iron-clad "Baron de Kalb" of the Mississippi Squadron in 1862-'3, in which he participated in the attacks on Vicksburg and operations in Yazoo River in the winter of 1862-'3, co-operating with General William T. Sherman and the army. He participated in both attacks on Haines's Bluff, in the Yazoo River Expedition against the Confederate gun-boats, in the capture of Fort Hindman and Yazoo City, and in the attack on Fort Pemberton. For these services he was highly commended by Admiral Porter in his report, and also in his "Naval History of the Civil War." After he had forced a passage through Yazoo pass, he took command of the naval battery with cannon from the gun-boats in the bombardment of Vicksburg from the rear, which contributed greatly to the final surrender. After the fall of that place he had command of the naval expedition against Yazoo River in co-operation with 5,000 troops in transports. Walker led in the "De Kalb," and while engaging the batteries his vessel ran afoul of a torpedo, which exploded and caused the vessel to sink almost instantly, a second torpedo exploding under her stern as she went down. He commanded the steamer "Saco" on the North Atlantic Blockade in 1864, and the " Shawmut" in 1865, in which he participated in the capture of forts near Wilmington. He was promoted and advanced over others for his services during the war to the grade of commander on 25 July, 1866, served at the naval academy in 1866-'9, and commanded the frigate "Sabine "on a special cruise in 1869-'70. He was promoted to captain, 25 June, 1877, appointed chief of the Bureau of Navigation and office of detail, 22 October, 1881, for four years, and reappointed in 1885 for a second term. He is the senior captain on the list, and is entitled to be promoted to commodore upon the first occurrence of a vacancy. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 328.
WALKER, Leroy Pope, lawyer, born near Huntsville, Alabama, 8 July, 1817; died there, 22 August, 1884, studied law, attained a high place at the bar of northern Alabama, early entered public life, was speaker of the Alabama House of Representatives in 1847-'50, and served as judge of the state circuit court in 1850-'3. He became well known as an advocate of the policy of internal improvement and of secession, and in 1861-'2 was Confederate Secretary of War, directing the military operations by which the Civil War was begun. He was also commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, but resigned. 1 March, 1862. After the war he resumed the practice of law at Huntsville. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 328.
WALKER, Jonathan, Captain, 1799-1878, abolitionist, reformer. Attempted to aid escape of slaves from Pensacola, Florida. Was caught, tried and convicted, and branded on hand with “SS” for “slave stealer.” His story revealed evil of slave trade and slave laws. (Filler, 1960, p. 164; Mabee, 1970, pp. 266, 268, 269, 298; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 328; Wilson, 1872, Vol. 2, pp. 82-83)
Biography from Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography
WALKER, Jonathan, reformer, born on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 1799; died near Muskegon, Michigan, 1 May, 1878. He was captain of a fishing vessel, in his youth, but about 1840 he went to Florida, where he became a railroad-contractor. He was interested in the condition of the slaves, and in 1844 aided several of them in an attempt to make their escape in an open boat from the coast of Florida to the British West Indies. After doubling the capes, he was prostrated by illness, and the crew being ignorant of navigation, they would all have been drowned had they not been rescued by a wrecking sloop that took Walker to Key West, whence he was sent in irons to Pensacola. On his arrival there he was put in prison, chained to the floor, and deprived of light and proper food. Upon his trial in a U. S. court, he was convicted, sentenced to be heavily fined, put on the pillory, and branded on his right hand with a hot iron with the letters “S. S.,” for “slave-stealer,” a U. S. marshal executing the sentence. He was then remanded to jail, where he was confined eleven months, and released only after the payment of his fine by northern Abolitionists. For the subsequent five years he lectured on slavery in the northern and western states. He moved to Michigan about 1850, where he resided near Muskegon until his death. A monument was erected to his memory on 1 August, 1878. He was the subject of John G. Whittier's poem “The Man with the Branded Hand.” See “Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America,” by Henry Wilson (Boston, 1874). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 328.
Chapter: “Underground Railroad. - Operations at the East and in the Middle States,” by Henry Wilson, in History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, 1872.
About the year 1840, Captain Jonathan Walker, of Massachusetts, took a contract to build a portion of a projected railroad in Florida. In fulfilling that contract, he employed several Negroes. Being a Christian man, he so far carried his religion into his daily life, as to treat his workmen as human beings, permitting them to sit at the same table with himself, and to bend the knee around the same family altar. The natural result followed. Kindness begat kindness, and they loved him and trusted in him. Accordingly, in 1844, they persuaded him to enter upon the every-way hazardous venture of aiding them in an attempt, in an open boat, to escape from the land of chains to a neighboring island, belonging to the British crown. After doubling the capes of Florida, he was prostrated by violent sickness. He helpless, and the fugitives ignorant of navigation, they were at the mercy of the winds and waves. Found by the crew of a wrecking-sloop, he was taken into Key West, where he was thrown into prison, and kept in irons until he was despatched to Pensacola. During the passage he was compelled, like a criminal of the vilest sort, to lie on the bottom of the steamer in chains. Arriving in Pensacola, he was cast into a cell in which, two days previously, a man had committed suicide, the floor still saturated with blood. There, chained to the floor, he was allowed neither bed, chair, nor table. He was tried in a United States court, convicted, and sentenced to be branded on the right hand with the capitals “S. S.''; to stand in the pillory one hour; to pay as many fines as there were slaves "stolen"; to suffer as many terms' imprisonment; to pay the costs, and to stand committed until the fines were paid. The execution of these sentences was at once entered upon. A United State marshal branded his hand with the initials of the words "slave stealer,” he was compelled to stand in the pillory, was pelted with rotten eggs by a renegade Northerner, and remanded to prison, where he lay for eleven months, with a heavy chain on his leg, which the jailer would not remove, even for the purpose of changing his clothing. By efforts of friends, in which Loring Moody took a leading part, a sufficient sum was raised to liquidate his fines, and in the summer of 1845 he was set at liberty. The most impressive lessons of that strange and revolting incident lie in the sharp and broad contrast between the personal bravery and moral grandeur of the man and the craven cowardice and heartless ignominy of the nation; and in the profound mistake they made who supposed that they could thus fix a stigma upon such a person, or tarnish his good name, and that the disgrace was not all their own, and all the honor his. For there were many, even in those days of darkness, who saw, with Whittier, that that brand was "highest honor;" and who welcomed the "brave seaman" back to his New England home as the chivalrous possessor of the old "heroic spirit of an earlier, better day." Like him, too, they said in thought, if not in his own ringing words:
“Then lift that manly right hand, bold ploughman of the wave,
Its branded palm shall prophesy "SALVATION TO THE SLAVE'':
Hold, up its fire-wrought language, that whoso reads may feel
His heart swell strong within him, his sinews change to steel.
"Hold it up before our sunshine, up against our Northern air.
Ho! men of Massachusetts, for the love of God, look there!
Take it henceforth for your standard like the Bruce's heart of yore;
In the dark strife closing round ye, let that hand be seen before."
Source: Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 2. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 82-84.
WALKER, Mary Edwards, 1832-1919, feminist, physician (surgeon), Union Army surgeon, women’s rights and suffrage activist, abolitionist. Received the Medal of Honor for her services during the Civil War, the only woman to have received this honor. (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 10, Pt. 1, p. 352)
WALKER, Robert John, 1801-1869, Northumberland, Pennsylvania, statesman, lawyer, United States Senator. Sustained treaty for suppressing the African slave trade. Advocate for gradual emancipation and colonization of slaves. Freed his own slaves. During Civil War, supported emancipation as a necessity for Union victory. Strong supporter of the Union. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 329; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 10, Pt. 1, p. 355)
WALKER, Robert John, statesman, born at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, 23 July, 1801; died in Washington, D. C., 11 November, 1869. His father was a soldier of the Revolution, and a judge of the common pleas, of the high court of errors and appeals of Pennsylvania, and of the U. S. district court. After his graduation in August, 1819, at the state university at Philadelphia, with the first honor of a large class, he began the practice of law at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1822, with great success. In 1826 he moved to Mississippi, where he entered vigorously into law and politics, taking an active part in 1832 and 1833 against nullification and secession. In January, 1833, in the Natchez “Journal,” he made an extended argument against the doctrine of disunion and in favor of coercion against rebellious states, which was highly extolled by James Madison. In January, 1836, he was Union candidate for the U.S. Senate in opposition to George Poindexter, and was elected, and at this time he influenced the legislature of Mississippi to adopt resolutions denouncing nullification and secession as treason. In 1840 he was re-elected to the U. S. Senate by a two-to-one majority over the orator Sergeant S. Prentiss. During his service in the Senate he took an active part in its debates, especially in opposition to John C. Calhoun. He supported the administrations of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren; but when the latter disapproved of the annexation of Texas, Walker opposed him, and in the Baltimore convention of 1844 labored for the nomination of James K. Polk to the presidency. By Mr. Polk he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury, which office he held till 5 March, 1849. In his course in the Senate Mr. Walker opposed the Bank of the United States and the distribution of the surplus revenue among the states, advocating, instead, its application to the public defences. He opposed a protective tariff, and in a speech on 3 March, 1836, proposed the celebrated Homestead Bill. He sustained with much energy the treaty for suppressing the African slave-trade, and throughout his political career always and consistently advocated gradual emancipation, exhibiting his sincerity in 1838 by manumitting all his own slaves. He sustained New York in the McLeod case, and introduced and carried the resolution of 1837 recognizing the in dependence of Texas. He was the first to propose the annexation of Texas by a letter in the public prints in January, 1844, recommending, as a condition, a scheme for gradual emancipation and colonization, which was fiercely attacked by John C. Calhoun. While Secretary of the Treasury he prepared and carried the tariff of 1846, various loan bills, the warehousing system, the Mexican tariff, and the bill to organize the department of the interior. After leaving the treasury, he was offered by President Pierce in 1853 the post of commissioner to China, which he declined. The part that he took in the events that immediately preceded the Civil War was active. He opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, though after it became a law he supported it on the ground that was assumed by Stephen A. Douglas. In 1857 he accepted the post of governor of Kansas on the pledge of President Buchanan that the state constitution should be submitted to the vote of the people; but after rejecting the forged and fraudulent returns in Kansas, and opposing the Lecompton Constitution, Mr. Walker resigned, and, going before Congress, defeated the attempt to force the corrupt measure on the territory. After Abraham Lincoln's election Mr. Walker took ground, earnestly and immediately, in favor of re-enforcing the southern forts and of sustaining the Union by force if necessary. In April, 1861, he addressed a great meeting in Union square, New York, advocating prompt and vigorous measures, and he did this when many of the best men of both parties deprecated a resort to extremities. His decided course had great influence in shaping the policy of the government. Early in 1863 he joined James R. Gilmore in the conduct of the “Continental Monthly,” which the latter had established the year before to advocate emancipation as a political necessity, and he wrote for it some of its ablest political articles. In the same year he was appointed by the government financial agent of the United States in Europe, and succeeded in negotiating $250,000,000 of the 5-20 bonds. Returning to the United States in November, 1864, he devoted himself thereafter to a large law-practice in Washington, and to writing for the “Continental Monthly” articles on financial and political topics, in which he was understood to present the views of the state and treasury departments. During this period he was influential in procuring the ratification of the Alaska Treaty and in securing the passage of the bill for a railroad to the Pacific. During his public life of nearly forty years Mr. Walker exercised a strong and often controlling influence on affairs. He had a broad and comprehensive mind, and a patriotism that embraced the whole country. As a financier he takes high rank. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 329.
WALKER, William, adventurer, born in Nashville, Tennessee, 8 Mav, 1824: died in Trujillo, Honduras, 12 September, 1860. He studied law in Nashville and medicine in Heidelberg. Germany, was a journalist in New Orleans and San Francisco, and finally settled in the practice of law in Marysville, California. In July, 1853, he organized an expedition for the conquest of the state of Sonora, Mexico, and, eluding the vigilance of the authorities of the port of San Francisco, early in November landed at La Paz, Lower California, with 170 men and three field-guns. He then issued a manifesto to the people, proclaimed himself president of the Pacific Republic and, having received re-enforcements, set out in January, 1854, for Sonora. He was pursued by a strong force of Mexicans, and, as he was near the frontier, he surrendered to the U. S. commander at San Diego, California In May, 1854, he was tried at San Francisco for violating the neutrality laws, and was acquitted. He continued to plan expeditions against Sonora. but was compelled to abandon them, and in 1855 he was induced by American speculators in Nicaragua to interfere in the intestine troubles in that country, ostensibly in aid of the Democratic party there. He landed at Realejo on 11 June, with sixty-two followers, was joined by a small native force, and endeavored to take possession of the southern transit route. He was defeated at Rivas, but, being re-enforced with 170 native soldiers, routed the Nicaraguan Army of 540 men at La Virgen on 1 September, took possession of the city of Grenada on 15 October, and by a treaty with General Ponciano Corral, the opposing leader, was made Secretary of War and commander-in-chief. Recruits rapidly arrived from the United States, and on 1 March, 1856, Walker had 1.200 men. In the meantime he charged Corral with conspiracy, presided over a court-martial for his trial, and sentenced him to be shot on 8 November, 1855. War began with Costa Rica, and Walker was defeated at Guanacaste on 20 March. 1856, but routed the enemy at Rivas on 11 April, and hostilities ceased. He was then in undisputed control of Nicaragua, but to replenish his treasury he broke up the interoceanic transit route by confiscating the property and revoking the charter of the Vanderbilt steamship Company, he caused himself to be elected president, and in September, 1850, annulled the existing prohibition of slavery. His minister, whom he sent to Washington, was recognized by President Pierce. Walker's arbitrary acts soon provoked an insurrection, which was assisted by several surrounding states and by agents of the Vanderbilt Company. He was defeated in several encounters, burned the city of Grenada, which he was unable to hold, and on 1 Mav, 1857, surrendered with sixteen officers, at San Juan del Sur, lo Commodore Charles H, Davis, of the U. S. sloop-of-war ' Mary." which conveyed him to Panama. Thence he went to New Orleans and was put under bonds to keep the peace, but returned to Nicaragua in November. He soon organized a new force, but in December Commodore Hiram Paulding, of the U. S. Navy, compelled him and his 182 men to surrender, and took them to New York. President Buchanan declined to recognize Walker as a prisoner, on the ground that his arrest on foreign soil was illegal. He sailed with a new expedition from Mobile, Alabama, in October, 1858, but was arrested at the mouth of Mississippi River and tried at New Orleans and acquitted. In June, 1860, he again set out with a small force from that city, intending to create a revolution in Honduras. He reached Trujillo and issued a proclamation against the government; but his arrest was demanded by the commander of the British man-of-war "Icarus," and he was forced to retreat to Tinto River, where he surrendered on 3 September, 1850. The commander of the "Icarus" delivered him to the Honduras authorities on their demand, and he was tried by court-martial and shot. He published "The War in Nicaragua " (Mobile, 1860). See also " Walker's Expedition to Nicaragua" by William Vincent Wells (New York, 1850) and "Reminiscences of the Filibuster War in Nicaragua," by Colonel Charles W. Doubleday (1880). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 331-332.
WALKER, William H. T., soldier, born in Georgia in October, 1810; died near Decatur, Georgia, 20 July, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1837, served in the Florida War, was wounded three times at the battle of Okeechobee, 25 December, 1837, and was brevetted 1st lieutenant for services in that action. He resigned from the army in 1838, was reappointed in 1840 as 1st lieutenant of infantry, served in the Florida war of 1840-'2, and became captain in 1845. During the Mexican war he participated in all the important battles, and was brevetted major in the U. S. Army for gallant conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and lieutenant-colonel for Molino del Rey, where he was severely wounded. He was on recruiting service in 1849-'52, became deputy governor of the East Pascagoula Branch Military Asylum in the latter year, and in 1854-'6 was commandant of cadets, and instructor in military tactics at the U. S. Military Academy. He became major in 1855, served on the frontier, and in 1860 resigned. He entered the Confederate Army in 1861, became a major-general, served principally in the west, and was killed at the battle of Decatur. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 332.
WALKER, William McCreary, naval officer, born in Baltimore. Maryland, 2 September, 1813; died in New York City, 19 November, 1860. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 1 November, 1827, became a passed midshipman, 10 June, 1833, and was promoted to lieutenant, 8 December, 1838, serving in Lieutenant Charles Wilkes's Exploring Expedition in command of the "Flying Fish," in which he participated in the discovery of the Antarctic Continent in 1838-'42. He commanded the steamer " Union " on the home station in 1843-'4, and cruised in the Mediterranean Squadron as aide in 1844-'6. He was promoted 14 September, 1855, and commanded the frigate "Constellation" in 1856. He served on special duty on boards and inspecting duty until the beginning of the Civil War, was commissioned a captain, 16 July, 1862, and commanded the steamer " De Soto" throughout the Civil War. He was one of the most successful blockaders during the war, and captured more prizes than any other vessel. Captain Walker died of heart disease at the Naval Hospital in New York. He was the author of a work on "Screw Propulsion" (New York. 1861). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 332.
WALKER, William S., naval officer, born in New Hampshire, 6 December, 1793; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 24 November, 1863. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 30 November, 1814, was promoted to lieutenant, 13 January, 1825, and to master-commandant, 8 September, 1841, and commanded the sloop " Concord " on the coast of Africa in 1841—'2, and the receiving-ship at Boston in 1843-'6. He saw no service during the Mexican War. He commanded the sloop "Saratoga," on the Asiatic Station, in 1850-'4, was promoted to captain, 14 September, 1855, and served at the receiving-ship at Boston in 1854-'5, after which he was on leave until the Civil War began, when he was ordered to command the steam sloop " Brooklyn," but his failing health compelled him to decline to go to sea. He was placed on the retired list, and promoted to commodore, 16 July, 1862. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 332.
WALL, James Walter, senator, born in Trenton, New Jersey, 26 May. 1820; died in Elizabeth, New Jersey, 9 June, 1872, was graduated at Princeton in 1838, studied law with Daniel Haines; was admitted to the bar in 1841, and began to practice in his native place, holding the office of commissioner in bankruptcy. He moved to Burlington, New Jersey, in 1847, and devoted himself to literary pursuits, becoming mayor of the city in 1854. During the early part of the Civil War he attacked the administration for interfering with the liberty of the press, writing a severe letter to Montgomery Blair, and he was imprisoned for several weeks in Port Lafayette. It is said that he offered to furnish 20,000 Belgian rifles to the so-called "Knights of the Golden Circle" for use against the U. S. government. He was chosen to the U. S. Senate in 1863 to fill the unexpired term of John R. Thomson, deceased, and served from 21 January till 3 March of that year. In 1869 he moved to Elizabeth, New Jersey. Mr. Wall's publications include "Foreign Etchings" (Burlington, 1856); "Essays on the Early English Poets.” which appeared in the "Knickerbocker Magazine "; and various essays and addresses. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 333.
WALLACE, David, congressman, born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 4 April, 1799; died in Indianapolis, Indiana. 3 September, 1859. He moved with his father's family to Brookville, Indiana, in 1817, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1831, and was assistant professor of mathematics there for two years, but resigned from the army, studied law, and established a lucrative practice in Franklin County, Indiana. He served several terms in the legislature, was a member of the Constitutional Convention, lieutenant-governor in 1831-'4, and governor in 1837-'40. During that service he was active as an advocate of internal improvements and in establishing a school system. He was chosen to Congress as a Whig in 1840, served one term, and, as a member of the committee on commerce, gave the casting-vote in favor of an appropriation to develop Samuel F. B. Morse's magnetic telegraph, which vote cost him his re-election. He returned to practice in 1843, and from 1850 until his death was judge of the Marion County Court of Common Pleas. He was a popular political speaker and a laborious and impartial jurist. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 333.
WALLACE Lewis, soldier, born in Brookville, Franklin County, Indiana, 10 April, 1827, received a common-school education, and at the beginning of the Mexican War was a law-student in Indiana. At the call for volunteers he entered the army as a 1st lieutenant in company H, 1st Indiana Infantry. He resumed his profession in 1848, which he practised in Covington and subsequently in Crawfordsville, Indiana, and served four years in the state senate. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed adjutant-general of Indiana, soon afterward becoming colonel of the 11th Indiana Volunteers, with which he served in West Virginia, participating in the capture of Romney and the ejection of the enemy from Harper's Ferry. He became brigadier-general of volunteers, 3 September, 1861, led a division and the centre of the Union lines at the capture of Fort Donelson. and displayed such ability that his commission of major-general of volunteers followed on 21 March, 1862. The day before the battle of Shiloh, his division was placed on the north side of Snake Creek, on a road leading from Savannah or Crump's Landing, to Purdy. He was ordered by General Grant, on the morning of 6 April (the first day of the battle), to cross the creek and come up to General William T. Sherman's right, which covered the bridge over that stream, that general depending on him for support; but he lost his way, and did not arrive until the night. He rendered efficient service in the second day's fight, and in the subsequent advance on Corinth. In November, 1862, he was president of the court of inquiry on the military conduct of General Don Carlos Buell in the operations in Tennessee and Kentucky. In 1863 he prepared the defences of Cincinnati, which he saved from capture by General Edmund Kirby Smith, and was subsequently assigned to the command of the middle department and the 8th Army Corps, with headquarters in Baltimore, Maryland. With 5,800 men he intercepted the march of General Jubal A. Early with 28,000 men on Washington, D.C. and on 9 July, 1864, fought the battle of the Monocacy. Although he was defeated, he gained sufficient time to enable General Grant to send re-enforcements to the capital from City Point. By order of General Henry W. Halleck. he was removed from his command, and superseded by General Edward O. C. Ord; but when General Grant learned the particulars of the action, he immediately reinstated Wallace, and in his official report in 1865 says: "On 6 July the enemy (Early) occupied Hagerstown, moving a strong column toward Frederick City. General Wallace, with Ricketts's division and his own command, the latter new and mostly undisciplined troops, pushed out from Baltimore with great promptness and met the enemy in force on the Monocacy, near the crossing of the railroad bridge. His force was not sufficient to insure success, but he fought the enemy nevertheless, and, although it resulted in a defeat to our arms, yet he detained the enemy and thereby served to enable Wright to reach Washington before him." Returning to his command. General Wallace was second member of the court that tried the assassins of President Lincoln, and president of that which tried and convicted Henry Wirz, commandant of Andersonville prison. General Wallace was mustered out of volunteer service in 1865, returned to the practice of law in Crawfordsville, was governor of Utah in 1878-'81, and in 1881 became U. S. minister to Turkey, serving till 1885, when he again resumed practice in Crawfordsville. He has lectured extensively in this country, and is the author of two successful novels, entitled "The Fair God," a story of the conquest of Mexico (Boston. 1873). “Ben-Hur, a Tale of the Christ," of which 200,000 copies have been sold (New York, 1880); a " Life of Benjamin Harrison" (1888); and "The Boyhood of Christ" (1888).—His wife, Susan Arnold Elston, author, born in Crawfordsville. Indiana, 25 December, 1830. was educated there, and married General Wallace in 1852. Her maiden name was Elston. She has written many articles for newspapers and magazines, her short poem, " The Patter of Little Feet," attaining wide popularity. Her other publications are " The Storied Sea "(Boston, 1884); "Ginevra. or the Old Oak Chest" (New York, 1887); the "Land of the Pueblos," with other papers (1888); and "The Repose in Egypt" (1888). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 333-334.
WALLACE, William Harvey Lamb, soldier, born in Urbana, Ohio. 8 July, 1821; died in Savannah, Tennessee, 10 April, 1862. He moved with his father to Illinois in 1832, and adopted the profession of law, which he was licensed to practice in 1846, but the same year volunteered as a private in the 1st Illinois Regiment for the Mexican War. He rose to the rank of adjutant, participated in the battle of Buena Vista and other engagements, and after the peace resumed his profession, becoming district attorney in 1853. In May, 1861. he was appointed colonel of the 11th Illinois Volunteers, and at the battle of Fort Donelson, in February, 1862. He commanded a brigade in General John A. McClernand's division, with ability that led to his appointment as brigadier-general of volunteers. In the succeeding battle of Shiloh he commanded General Charles F. Smith's brigade, which for six hours withstood the assault of the enemy, and was the last to leave the field. Wallace fell, mortally wounded, in an ineffectual attempt to resist the enemy. See James Grant Wilsons "Sketches of Illinois Officers " (Chicago, 1862). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 335.
WALLACE, William Ross, poet, born in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1819; died in New York City, 5 May, 1881. He was educated at Bloomington and South Hanover College, Indiana, studied law in Lexington, Kentucky, and in 1841 moved to New York City, where he practised his profession, and at the same time engaged in literary pursuits. His first work that attracted favorable criticism, a poem entitled " Perdita," published in the "Union Magazine," was followed by " Alban." a poetical romance (New York, 1848), and "Meditations in America, and other Poems " (1851). Other fugitive verses that attained popularity include " The Sword of Bunker Hill." a national hymn (1861): "Keep Step with the Music of the Union" (1861): and "The Liberty Bell " (1862). William Cullen Bryant said of his writings: "They are marked by a splendor of imagination and an affluence of diction which show him the born poet." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 335.
WALLEN, Henry Davies, soldier, born in Savannah, Georgia, 19 April, 1819; died in New York City, 2 December, 1886. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840 in the class with William T. Sherman and George H. Thomas, and was assigned to the 4th U.S. Infantry. His first service was in the Florida War in 1840-'2, and, after garrison duty during 1842-'5, he was engaged in the military occupation of Texas and in the war with Mexico, being wounded at Palo Alto. After five years of frontier duty at Detroit and Plattsburg, he was sent to the Pacific Coast, where he remained until the beginning of the Civil War, serving in various forts, with the Yakmia Expedition in 1855, and in command of the exploring expedition to Salt Lake in 1859. Meanwhile he had been promoted captain on 31 January, 1850, and major on 25 November, 1861. He was acting assistant inspector-general of the Department of New Mexico from June, 1862, till June, 1864, and in command of a regiment at Fort Schuyler, New York, thereafter until May, 1865. The brevets of lieutenant-colonel and colonel were given him on 23 February, 1865, and that of brigadier-general on 13 March, 1865, while the actual rank of lieutenant-colonel was conferred on him, 30 July, 1865. For a year he served in the west, and commanded successively the District of the Gila and the district of Arizona, but in 1867 he was given command of Governor's Island, New York harbor, which post he held until 1869. In 1872 he was on the Yellowstone Expedition, and on 19 February, 1873, he was made colonel of the 2d U.S. Infantry. He was retired from active service on 18 February, 1874, and subsequently resided in New York City. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 337.
WALLIS, Severn Teaekle, lawyer, born in Baltimore. Maryland, 8 September, 1810. He was graduated at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, in 1832, studied law with William Wirt and John Glenn, and in 1837 was admitted to the bar. Mr. Wallis early developed a taste for literature and contributed to periodicals many articles of literary and historical criticism, also occasional verses. He became a proficient in Spanish literature and history and was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Academy of History of Madrid in 1843. In 1846 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal society of northern antiquaries of Copenhagen. In 1847 he visited Spain and in 1849 the U. S. government sent him on a special mission to that country to examine the title to the public lands in east Florida, as affected by royal grants during the negotiations for the treaty of 1819. From 1859 till 1861 he contributed largely to the editorial columns of the Baltimore "Exchange," and he has also written for other journals. He was a Whig till the organization of the American or Know-Nothing Party, after which he was a Democrat. In 1861 he was sent to the house of delegates of Maryland, and took an active part in the proceedings of the legislature of that year at Frederick. He was chairman of the committee on Federal relations, and made himself obnoxious to the Federal authorities by his reports, which were adopted by the legislature, and which took strong ground against the Civil War, as well as against the then prevailing doctrine of military necessity. In September of that year Mr. Wallis was arrested with many members of the legislature and other citizens of the state, and imprisoned for more than fourteen months in various forts. He was released in November, 1862, without conditions and without being informed of the cause of his arrest. He then returned to the practice of the law in Baltimore. In 1870, on the death of John P. Kennedy, he was elected provost of the University of Maryland. In December, 1872, as chairman of the art committee of private citizens appointed by the Maryland legislature, he delivered the address upon the unveiling of William H. Rinehart's statue of Chief-Justice Taney. He has contributed to periodicals, and has published "Glimpses of Spain" New York, 1849); "Spain: her Institutions, Politics, and Public Men" (Boston, 1853); a "Discourse on the Life and Character of George Peabody " (Baltimore, 1870); and numerous pamphlets on legal and literary subjects. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 338-339.
WALTER, Thomas Ustick, architect, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 4 September, 1804; died there, 30 October, 1887. His early education was liberal but not collegiate, and at the age of fifteen he entered the office of William Strickland, the architect of the mint and the custom-house, Philadelphia. After acquiring a knowledge of linear drawing and a general acquaintance with the professional practice of architects, he resumed his general studies, prosecuted them for seven years, and after two more years with Mr. Strickland he began practice as an architect in 1830. His first important work was the now county prison (1831), which is now generally known as Moyamensing jail, and in 1833 he made the original designs for Girard College, and was sent to Europe by the building committee of that institution, that he might study there. On his return he took charge of the college building, which was completed in 1847, and which it is claimed is the finest specimen of classic architecture on this continent. Mr. Walter's next great work was the breakwater at Laguayra for the Venezuelan government; in 1851 his design for the extension of the capitol at Washington was adopted. Having been appointed government architect, he moved to Washington, and remained there till the completion of the work in 1865. (See illustration.) While in Washington he also designed the extensions of the patent-office, treasury, and post-office buildings, the dome on the old capitol, the Congressional library, and the government hospital for the insane. Among the works of his private practice in Philadelphia were the designs for St. George's hall, the Preston retreat, and the Biddle and Cowperthwaite places on Delaware River. He assisted the architect of the new Public buildings at Philadelphia in their erection, and was so engaged till his death. He was a member of the Franklin Institute after 1829, held its professorship of architecture, and in 1860 delivered a course of lectures on that subject in Columbia College, New York. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society after 1841, and was one of the original members of the American Institute of Architects, of which he was president at the time of his death. He received the degree of D. C. L. from the University of Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1853, and that of LL. D., from Harvard in 1857. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 341-342.
WALTERS, William Thompson, merchant, born on the Juniata River, Pennsylvania, 23 May, 1820. He is of Scotch-Irish ancestry, and his father, Henry Walters, a banker of Pennsylvania, sent him to Philadelphia to be educated as a civil engineer. He was placed in charge of a large smelting establishment in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, where under his management the first iron that was manufactured in the United States from mineral coal was made. In 1841 he moved to Baltimore, Maryland, and engaged in the general commission business, and in 1847 he established the firm of W. T. Walters and Company, wine-merchants. When the first line of steamers between Baltimore and Savannah was established he was chosen its president, and from that time he has been a director in every line from Baltimore to the south. After the Civil War he aided in the reorganization of the Southern Steamship Lines. For many years he has been a director of the Northern Central Railway Company, and he is also interested in many southern lines. From 1861 till 1865 he resided in Europe, where he became the personal friend of many prominent continental artists, and travelled extensively to study the history and development of art and to purchase pictures for the collection that he had begun at an early period. He was art commissioner from the United States to the Paris exposition of 1867, that in Vienna in 1873, and that in Paris in 1878. He is one of the permanent trustees of the Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington, D. C., and is also chairman of the purchasing committee, a trustee of the Peabody Institute, and chairman of its committee on art. He is also a trustee of the estate left for art uses by the sculptor William H. Rinehart, who was enabled to procure his art education largely through the generosity of Mr. Walters. Albert Wolff, the French critic, says that Mr. Walters's private collection is the most complete gallery of French pictures in the world with a single exception. He owns a large and rare collection of Bonvin's water-colors, and many Barye bronzes. […]. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 342.
WARD, Elijah, congressman, born in Sing Sing, New York, 16 September, 1816; died in Roslyn, Long Island, 7 February, 1882, received a classical education, engaged in commercial pursuits in New York City, and was chosen president of the Mercantile library association in 1839. Afterward he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1843, and practised in New York City. He was judge-advocate-general of the state in 1853-'5, and was elected as a Democrat to Congress, serving from 7 December, 1857, till 3 March, 1859. He was defeated at the next election, but was successful in the following two, serving from 4 July, 1861, till 3 March, 1865. On being again defeated, he spent two years in Europe and was not again a candidate till 1874, when he defeated his Republican competitor, but he was beaten in the succeeding election by a rival Democrat. In Congress he took part in the discussion of commercial questions, advocating an interoceanic canal, uniform bankruptcy laws, postal subsidies to steamships, and reciprocity with Canada, and opposing a paper currency. In March, 1861, he addressed commercial bodies in New York City in favor of free canals, and in 1871, in response to a request from members of Congress for an expression of his views, proposed freedom of commercial intercourse between the United States and Canada, on which subject he published two reports. Besides single speeches on commercial relations with Canada, the Geneva award, the Hawaiian Treaty, and the shipping act, there has been published a volume of his " Speeches on Commercial, Financial, and other Subjects " (New York, 1877). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 347.
WARD, Durbin, lawyer, born in Augusta, Kentucky, 11 February, 1819; died in Lebanon, Ohio, 22 May, 1886. He moved with his family to Fayette County, Indiana, where he was brought up on a farm, entered Miami University at the age of nineteen, remaining two years, then studied law with Thomas Corwin, and, on being admitted to practice in 1842, became his partner. From 1845 till 1851 he was prosecuting attorney of Warren County, Ohio. He was elected to the first legislature under the present constitution in 1851, was defeated as a Democratic candidate for Congress in 1856, also as nominee for the office of attorney-general of Ohio in 1858, and in 1860 was a member of the Democratic National Convention that met at Charleston. South Carolina, and reassembled at Baltimore, Maryland, in which he supported the candidacy of Stephen A. Douglas. He enlisted in the National Army as a private, served in West Virginia under General George B. McClellan, and subsequently took part in the campaigns of General George H. Thomas, being appointed major of the 17th Ohio Infantry on 17 August, 1861, and lieutenant-colonel on 31 December, 1862. He received a disabling wound at Chickamauga and was mustered out without his knowledge; but he obtained the recall of the order, was made colonel of his regiment on 13 November, 1863, and with a crippled arm served through the remainder of the war, being brevetted brigadier-general on 18 October, 1865. In November, 1866, he was appointed U. S. district attorney for the southern district of Ohio, but he was removed when General Grant became president. He entered the state senate in 1870. The plan of the present circuit-court system of Ohio was drafted by him. General Ward was a political orator, and at the Democratic national convention of 1884 presented the name of Allen G. Thurman as a candidate for the presidency. He began, but did not live to complete, a work on constitutional law, to be entitled "The Federal Institutes." A volume of his speeches has been published by his widow (Columbus. 1888). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 348.
WARD, James Harman, naval officer, born in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1806; died near Matthias point, Potomac River, 27 June, 1861. He was appointed as a midshipman in the U.S. Navy, 4 March. 1823, and was allowed to remain under instruction in the military school at Norwich, Vermont, with several other midshipmen. He made a cruise in the "Constitution" in 1824-'8, became a passed midshipman, 23 March, 1829, and was commissioned lieutenant, 3 March, 1831. He was an instructor at the naval academy at Annapolis from its establishment on its present basis in 1845 till 1847. He commanded the steamer " Vixen " of the home Squadron in 1849-50, and was promoted to commander, 9 September, 1853. He was appointed to command the Potomac Flotilla in May, 1861, and immediately essayed to open that river and silence the Confederate batteries on its banks. His flotilla consisted of three small improvised gun-boats, the steamer " Freeborn," "Anacostia," and "Resolute." He attacked and silenced the batteries at Acquia creek, 20 May, 1861, the first time the navy engaged the Confederate batteries during the war. The next day the battle was renewed, and Ward's flotilla was re-enforced by the arrival of the "Pawnee " under Commander Stephen C. Rowan. Ward conducted a series of fights with his flotilla, and succeeded in clearing the banks and keeping the river open. On 27 June, 1861, he planned a landing expedition at Matthias point, and in the bombardment of the batteries he was killed while sighting a gun. He was the author of "Elementary Course of Instruction in Naval Ordnance and Gunnery" (Philadelphia, 1851); "Manual of Naval Tactics" (New York, 1859); and “Steam for the Million" (1860). The first two were used as a text-book at the United States Naval Academy for many years. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 349-350.
WARD, John Elliott, lawyer, born in Sunbury, Liberty County, Georgia, 2 October, 1814. He entered Amherst in 1831, but left on account of the indignation that was manifested toward Georgians after the imprisonment of two Cherokee missionaries, studied law in Savannah, Georgia, and was admitted to the bar in 1835. He attended the lectures in the Harvard law-school before beginning practice, and on his return to Savannah was appointed, in January, 1836, solicitor-general for the eastern district of his state, to fill an unexpired term, at the close of which the legislature continued him in the office. He was appointed U. S. district attorney for Georgia in 1838, but resigned in the following year in order to enter the state legislature. He returned to the house in 1845 and in 1853, when he was chosen speaker, and in 1854 was elected mayor of Savannah. In 1856 he presided over the Democratic National Convention that met in Cincinnati. In 1857 he entered the state senate, and was chosen its president and acting lieutenant-governor of the state, resigning in 1858 on being appointed U. S. minister to China. He departed for his post in January, 1859, and remained till April, 1861, when he returned and resigned in consequence of the adoption by Georgia of the ordinance of secession, although he was strongly opposed to that measure. In January, 1866, he moved from Savannah to New York City, where he has since practised law. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 350.
WARD, John Henry Hobart, soldier, born in New York City, 17 June, 1823. His grandfather, John, a soldier of the Revolution, and his father, James, who fought in the war of 1812, were both disabled by wounds that they received in the service. The son was educated at Trinity Collegiate School, enlisted at the age of eighteen in the 7th U. S. Infantry, and in four years rose through the several grades to that of sergeant-major. In the Mexican War he participated in the siege of Fort Brown, received wounds at Monterey, and was at the capture of Vera Cruz. He was assistant commissary-general of the state of New York from 1851 till 1855, and commissary-general from 1855 till 1859. In the beginning of the Civil War he recruited the 38th New York Volunteers, was appointed colonel of the regiment, and led it at Bull Run and in all the battles of the Peninsula Campaign, and subsequently at the second Bull Run and Chantilly. Being promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 4 October, 1862, he commanded a brigade in the 3d Corps at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and Spottsylvania. On the third day at Gettysburg, where he was wounded, as also at Kelly's Ford and Wapping Heights, he was in temporary command of the division. He was again wounded at Spotsylvania, and was frequently commended for courage and capacity, in official reports. After the war he engaged in a civil employment in New York City. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 350.
WARD, John Quincy Adams, sculptor, "born in Urbana, Champaign County, Ohio, 29 June. 1830. At the age of nineteen he began to study with Henry K. Browne, with whom he remained until 1857, assisting him in many of his works. In 1857-'8 he was in Washington modelling busts of Joshua R. Giddings, Alexander H. Stephens, John P. Hale, Hannibal Hamlin, and other public men. At this time he also made his first sketch for the "Indian Hunter," and he subsequently visited the Indian country to make studies for this subject. In 1861 he opened a studio in New York, where he has since resided. He was elected an associate of the National Academy the following year, and an academician in 1863. During this period he made many designs in wax for presentation swords, and executed in 1861 a bronze statuette, "The Freedman," his first full-length figure. It attracted much attention by its subject, and its merits as a work of art won for it the admiration of critics. It was exhibited, together with the "Indian Hunter," at the Paris exposition of 1867, and has been repeated several times by the artist. The " Indian Hunter," completed in 1864 and now in the Central park, was his next work of importance. It won universal praise for its excellence in design and execution, and is among the best of his statues. (See illustration.) New York City possesses several other of his most important works. They are a colossal statue of a citizen soldier for the 7th Regiment (1868); "Shakespeare" (1870-'l); a colossal statue of Washington, on the steps of the Sub-Treasury building in Wall street (1882); ' The Pilgrim" (1884): and a statue of William E. Dodge (1887). His other notable works are "The Good Samaritan," a group to commemorate the discovery of sulphuric ether as an anesthetic (1865), in Boston; statues of Matthew C. Perry, in Newport, Rhode Island (1866), General John F. Reynolds, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (1871), Israel Putnam, in Hartford, Connecticut (1874), George Washington, in Newburyport, Massachusetts (1876), an equestrian statue of General George H. Thomas, in Washington, D. C. (1878), General Daniel Morgan, at Spartansburg, South Carolina, and General Lafayette, in Burlington, Vermont (1880); and the monument to James A. Garfield, in Washington (1887). He is engaged on a large statue of Henry Ward Beecher for the city of Brooklyn. He has also executed various portrait busts, including, besides those already mentioned, Valentine Mott, James T. Brady, Dr. Orville Dewey, and Governor William Dennison, of Ohio. Mr. Ward was vice-president of the National Academy in 1870-'l and president in 1872—His brother, Edgar Melville, artist, born in Urbana, Ohio. 24 February, 1839, studied at the National Academy in 1870-'1, and under Alexandra Cabanel at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, during 1872-'8. He was elected an associate of the National Academy in 1875. and an academician in 1883, and is director of its schools. His more important works are " Paternal Pride" (1878): " Locksmith"; " Lace-Makers "; " Motherly Care "; "The Tobacco-Field" (1881): "Scene in a Foundry"; The Last Shock "; and " The Cobblers " and " The Blessing" (1886). His "Brittany Washerwomen" was at the salon of 1876, the Philadelphia exhibition of 1876, and at Paris in 1878 with " Venetian Water-Carriers " and " The Sabot-Maker." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 350.
WARD, Marcus Lawrence, governor of New Jersey, born in Newark, New Jersey, 9 November, 1812; died there, 25 April, 1884. He received a good education and engaged in mercantile pursuits. He was originally a Whig, aided in forming the Republican Party, and was a delegate to the National Republican Conventions in Chicago in 1860 and in Baltimore in 1864. During the Civil War he frequently visited the camps and battle-fields to alleviate suffering, and for his many services was called the Soldiers' Friend. He devised a system by which communication could be transmitted without cost from the soldier on the field to his family, and also established a free pension bureau, which he maintained at his personal expense. In recognition of his patriotism the government gave to the hospital that he equipped in Newark the name of the " U. S. Ward hospital," which after the war was converted into a home for disabled soldiers. In 1862 he was defeated as a candidate for governor of New Jersey, but he held this office in 1865-8. In 1866 he was chosen chairman of the National Republican Committee. He was afterward elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 1 December, 1873, till 3 March, 1875. In the latter year he declined the office of Indian Commissioner. Governor Ward was an early member of the New Jersey Historical Society, of the Newark Library Association, and the New Jersey Art Union, aided education in the state, improved the condition of the state prison, and was an active philanthropist. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 352.
WARD, Samuel Ringgold, 1817-1866, New York, American Missionary Association (AMA), African American, abolitionist leader, newspaper editor, author, orator, clergyman. Member of the Liberty Party and the Free Soil Party. Wrote Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro, His Anti-Slavery Labours in the United States, Canada and England, 1855. Lecturer for American Anti-Slavery Society. Member and contributor to the Anti-Slavery Society of Canada.
(Dumond, 1961, p. 330; Mabee, 1970, pp. 128, 135, 136, 294, 307, 400n19; Sernett, 2002, pp. 54-55, 62-64, 94, 117, 121, 126, 142, 149, 157-159, 169, 171-172; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 34, 46, 48, 53, 166, 446-447, 454; Sorin, 1971, pp. 85-89, 96, 104, 132; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 10, Pt. 1, p. 440; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 22, p. 649; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 11, p. 380)
WARD, Thomas W., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1837-40.
WARD, William Greene, soldier, born in New York City, 20 July, 1832, was graduated at Columbia in 1851, and became a banker. He was lieutenant-colonel of the 12th Regiment of New York Militia, with which he served in the field from 21 April till 5 August, 1861. As colonel of the same regiment he was again in the United States service in 1862, participating as acting brigadier, and personally directing his artillery fire, in the defence of Harper's Ferry, where he was made prisoner and paroled. In 1863 he served again as colonel of the regiment in the Pennsylvania Campaign. He partly invented and greatly improved the Ward-Burton breech-loading rifle. After the war he was made a brigadier-general in the state militia service, and served for nearly twenty years.—William Greene's brother, John, soldier, born in New York City, 30 November, 1838, was graduated at Columbia College in 1858 and at Columbia Law-School in 1860, then studied medicine at the New York University Medical College, taking his degree of M. D. in 1864. During the Civil War he served with his brother in the field as lieutenant, and afterward captain, in the 12th New York National Guard, taking part in September, 1862, in the defence of Harper's Ferry, under a heavy artillery fire for three days, when surrounded by a large part of Lee's army under Stonewall Jackson, when he was made prisoner and paroled. Subsequently he became colonel of the 12th New York Regiment for eleven years, till October, 1877, and for some time he acted as secretary to the National Rifle Association. He is the author of many historical papers and of "The Overland Route to California, and other Poems" (New York, 1875). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp.
WARD, William Thomas, soldier, born in Amelia County, Vs., 9 August, 1808; died in Louisville, Kentucky, 12 October, 1878. He was educated at St. Mary's College, near Lebanon, Kentucky, studied law, and practised in Greensburg. In 1847 he joined a regiment of Kentucky volunteers, was commissioned as major, and served in Mexico till July, 1848. He was elected to the Kentucky legislature on his return, and was a representative in Congress from 1 December, 1851, till 3 March, 1853. He was appointed a brigadier-general in the National Army on 18 September, 1861, organized a brigade of volunteers in Kentucky, commanded all troops south of Louisville and was engaged in the pursuit of General John H. Morgan in 1862. was attached to the Army of the Ohio in November, commanded at Gallatin, Tennessee, and served through General William T. Sherman's campaigns, relinquishing the command of a division in the Cumberland at the beginning of the Atlanta Campaign to assume that of a brigade in the 20th Corps. His men effected a lodgment in the enemy's fortifications at Reseca, and he was severely wounded in the arm and side, but would not leave the field. He was also in the battles before the fall of Atlanta, and in the march to the sea commanded a division, performing effective services in the fights that preceded the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston's army. He was brevetted major-general on 24 February, 1865, and mustered out on 24 August, after which he practised law in Louisville, Kentucky. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 356.
WARE, John Fothergill Waterhouse, clergyman, born in Boston, 31 August, 1818; died in Milton, Massachusetts, 26 February, 1881, was graduated at Harvard in 1838 and at the divinity-school in 1842. He was first settled as a pastor of the Unitarian Society at Fall River, Massachusetts, afterward was stationed at Cambridgeport, and in 1864 became pastor of the Unitarian Church in Baltimore, Maryland. During his residence in Baltimore he gave much attention to the religious needs and other wants of the Negroes, and before and during the Civil War was an anti-slavery man. Mr. Ware returned to Boston, and in 1872 became pastor of the Arlington Street Church. He organized a Unitarian Society at Swampscott, Massachusetts, of which he was pastor at the time of his death, as well as of the Boston church. He was a favorite with the members of the Grand Army of the Republic, having been a worker among the soldiers during the Civil War, and was a frequent orator before their organizations. He published "The Silent Pastor" (Boston, 1848); "Hymns and Tunes for Sunday-School Worship " (1853-'56-'60); and " Home Life: What it Is, and what it Needs (1873). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 357.
WARE, S., S. Deerfield, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Vice-President, 1839-
WARING, George E., sanitarian, born in Poundridge, New York. 4 July, 1833. He was educated at College Hill, Poughkeepsie, and then studied agriculture with James J. Mapes. During the winter of 1854 he made an agricultural lecture tour through Maine and Vermont, and in 1855 he took charge of Horace Greeley's farm at Chappaqua, New York, which he conducted on shares for two years. In August, 1857. he was appointed agricultural and drainage engineer of Central Park, New York City, where he remained for four years, during which time, among other duties, he prepared the soil of the Mall and set out the four rows of elms upon it. He was appointed in May, 1861, after the opening of the Civil War, major of the Garibaldi Guard, with which he served three months. In August, 1861, he was made major of cavalry by General John C. Fremont and went to St. Louis to join him. There he raised six companies of cavalry under the name of the Fremont Hussars, which were afterward consolidated with the Benton Hussars to form the 4th Missouri Cavalry, of which he was commissioned colonel in January, 1862. In this capacity he served throughout the war, chiefly in the southwest. He settled in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1867, where he became the manager of Ogden farm. Colonel Waring then devoted himself to agriculture and cattle-breeding and to engineering, until the latter occupation required his full attention in 1877. Since that date he has been in active practice as an engineer of drainage. He was appointed in June, 1879, expert and special agent of the 10th Census of the United States, with charge of the social statistics of cities, and he has been a member of the National Board of Health since 1882. After the yellow-fever epidemic in Memphis in 1878 he devised the system of sewerage that was accepted for that city and since that time has been generally adopted. He has invented numerous sanitary improvements chiefly in connection with the drainage of houses and towns. He has been connected with various journals and edited the " Herd-Books of the American Jersey Cattle Club" in 1868-'81, of which organization he was the founder. His other works are "Elements of Agriculture" (New York, 1854); "Draining for Profit and Draining for Health" (1867); "Handy Book of Husbandry" (1870, now called " Book of the Farm"); "A Farmer's Vacation" (Boston, 1875); " Whip and Spur" (1875); " Sanitary Drainage of Houses and Farms" (1876); "The Bride of the Rhine" (1877); "Village Improvements and Farm Villages" (1877); "Sanitary Condition of City and Country Dwelling-Houses" (1877); "Tyrol and the Skirt of the Alps " (New York, 1879); " How to Drain a House" (1885); and "Sewerage and Land Drainage" (1888). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 358-359.
WARNER, Adoniram Judson, soldier, born in Wales, Erie County, New York, 13 January, 1834. He was educated at Beloit, Wisconsin, and in New York Central College. Soon after leaving college he became principal of the Lewiston, Pennsylvania Academy and superintendent of public schools of Mifflin County, and he was principal of the Mercer Union schools from 1856 till 1862. In the latter year he entered the National Army as captain in a Pennsylvania regiment, and was successively promoted to lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brevet brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. He participated in several engagements, and was severely wounded at Antietam. After the close of the war he studied law and was admitted to the bar at Indianapolis, Indiana, but never practised, and since 1866 has engaged in the railroad, coal, and iron business. He was elected to Congress from Ohio as a Democrat in 1878, 1882, and 1884. He has published "Appreciation of Money" (Philadelphia, 1877); "Source of Value in Money " (1882); and various pamphlets on the silver and other economic questions. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 359.
WARNER, Charles Dudley, author, born in Plainfield, Massachusetts, 12 September, 1829. His father, a man of culture, died when Charles was five years old. During his early boyhood he had access to few books except biblical commentaries, biographies of austere divines, and some Calvinistic treatises, but he was fond of study, especially of the classics, and in 1851 was graduated at Hamilton with the first prize for English. He has embodied his recollections of his youth in New England in one of his most popular works, " Being a Boy " (Boston, 1877), which is partly an autobiography, and a faithful and amusing picture of rural life in a Calvinistic New England neighborhood fifty years ago. While in college he contributed to the "Knickerbocker " and "Putnam's Magazine." He also prepared a "Book of Eloquence" (Cazenovia, New York, 1853), which displayed a critical and appreciative judgment. He joined a surveying party on the Missouri frontier in 1853, became familiar with varied phases of frontier life, returned to the east in 1854, and was graduated at the law department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1856. He then practised his profession in Chicago, Illinois, till 1860, when he returned to the east and became assistant editor of the " Press," an evening newspaper in Hartford, Connecticut, of which he assumed control in the following year. In 1867 the "Press" was consolidated with the "Courant," of which he became a co-editor. He spent fourteen months abroad in 1868-'9, and gained reputation by a series of foreign letters to that journal, which were widely copied. He subsequently travelled extensively in Europe and the East, on his return resumed the editorship of the "Courant," and in 1884 became a co-editor of "Harper's Magazine." His most important work in connection with that monthly has been a series of papers beginning with "Studies in the South," followed by "Mexican Papers" and "Studies in the Great West," in which the educational, political, and social condition of these states are carefully discussed. He has also interested himself in the treatment of social science topics in Connecticut, and was for several years a member of the State commission on prisons, and of the National prison association. He has delivered lectures before educational and other societies, which for the most part have been pleas for a higher individual and national culture, for an enlargement of our collegiate courses, and an improvement in their methods. These include an address at Bowdoin on "Higher Education" (Brunswick, Maine, 1871), a series of lectures on "Literature in Relation to Life," delivered before the law department of Yale (1884), address at the unveiling of Paul Gerhardt's statue of Nathan Hale in the capitol at Hartford (1887), that before the literary societies of Washington and Lee University. Lexington, Virginia, 1888, and one on "Shelley " (1888). He was an ardent Abolitionist during the anti-slavery agitation, and has been a Republican since the formation of the party. Yale gave him the degree of A. M. in 1872, and Dartmouth the same honor in 1884. His career as an author began in 1870. In the spring and summer of that year he wrote for the "Courant a series of sketches, lightly and humorously depicting the experiences of an amateur gardener, into which were woven caustic comments on some of the foibles of social and political life. These papers were published in book-form, with an introduction by Henry Ward Beecher, under the title of "My Summer in a Garden," and met with immediate favor (Hartford, 1870). It was followed by "Saunterings," reminiscences of the author's travels on the European continent (Boston, 1870), and " Backlog Studies" (1872), a collection of essays, a part of which first appeared in "Scribner's Monthly." This book is a panegyric of the kindly influences of the fireside circle, and a discussion of current topics of social life, in the peculiar vein of humor that characterizes the writer. His other works include contributions to the magazines on social, artistic, and literary topics; "Baddeck, and That Sort of Thing" (1874); "My Winter on the Nile" (Hartford. 1876); "In the Levant" (1877); "In the Wilderness" (Boston, 1878); "Captain John Smith" (New York, 1881); "Washington Irving," in the "Men of Letters " series, of which he is editor (Boston, 1881); "Roundabout Journey " (1883); " Their Pilgrimage," a serial, depicting the exploits of an author and an artist on a tour of the Atlantic coast and inland northern and southern watering-places (New York, 1886); and "On Horseback” (1888). He has also published, with Samuel L. Clemens, "The Gilded Age" (1873). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 358-360.
WARNER, Hiram, jurist, born in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, 29 October, 1802; died in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1881. He received an academical education, moved to Georgia in 1819, and taught there for three years. He was admitted to the bar in 1825, and began practice in Knoxville, Georgia ne was a member of the state House of Representatives in 1828-31, was elected in 1833 a judge of the superior court of Georgia, re-elected in 1836, and served till 1840. He was appointed in 1845 a judge of the supreme court of the state, served till 1853, when he resigned, and was elected to Congress in 1855. He was a member of the Charleston Democratic convention in 1860, and opposed the secession movement there and in the Georgia secession convention of 1861. After the war he sustained the Reconstruction Acts of Congress. On the reorganization of the judiciary of the state, he was appointed a judge of the supreme court, and in 1872 he was appointed chief justice of that court. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 360.
WARNER, Olin Levi, sculptor, born in Suffield, Connecticut, 9 April, 1844, began life as a telegraph-operator, but subsequently adopted sculpture as a profession, studying at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, under Francois Jouffroy, during 1869-'72. His studio is in New York, where he was elected a member of the Society of American Artists in 1877, and an associate of the National Academy in 1888. His works include the statuettes "May" (1872) and "Twilight" (1878); a colossal medallion of Edwin Forrest, which was exhibited at Philadelphia in 1876; "Dancing Nymph " (1879): a fountain for Portland, Oregon, completed in 1888; "Diana" (1888); portrait-statues of Governor William A. Buckingham, which was placed in the capitol in Hartford in 1883, and William Lloyd Garrison (1885) in Boston; and numerous portrait-busts, among them those of Rutherford B. Hayes, owned by the Union league club, New York (1876), and the Reverend William F. Morgan, D. D. (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 360.
WARNER, James, Brooklyn, New York, abolitionist, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, Executive Committee, 1844-1855.
WARNER, John, abolitionist leader, founding member, Electing Committee, Acting Committee, Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 1787 (Basker, 2005, pp. 92, 102; Nathan, 1991)
WARNER, Willard, senator, born in Granville, Ohio, 4 September, 1826. He was graduated at Marietta College in 1845, went to California in 1849, engaged in mercantile business in Cincinnati after his return in 1852, and a few years later became general manager of the Newark Machine-Works. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1860. In December, 1861, he joined the volunteer army as major of the 76th Ohio Infantry, and was engaged at Fort Donelson, at the siege of Corinth, and in the Vicksburg Campaign. In 1863 he became lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, which he led from Vicksburg to Chattanooga, and through the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge, and at Ringgold, where he broke through General Patrick Cleburne's strongly posted lines. In the Atlanta Campaign he served on the staff of General William T. Sherman as inspector-general. On 20 October, 1864, he was appointed colonel of the 180th Ohio Volunteers. He was brevetted brigadier and major-general of volunteers in March, 1865 for gallant and meritorious services, and was mustered out in July. He served one term in the Ohio state senate immediately after the war, moved to the south in 1867, where he engaged in cotton-planting, was a member of the Alabama legislature in the succeeding year, and was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican from Alabama on the reorganization of the state government, serving from 25 July, 1868, till 3 March; 1871, when his term ended. He was collector of customs at Mobile. Alabama, from July, 1871, till February, 1872, when he declined the appointment of governor of New Mexico, as he did also that of minister to the Argentine Republic. He was a member of the Republican National Convention of 1868, of the Cincinnati Convention that nominated Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, and of all that have since been held. In 1873 he organized the Tecumseh Iron Company, of which he has since been the general manager, and in 1887 he was elected president and manager of the Nashville Iron, Steel, and Charcoal Company. He resides at Tecumseh, Alabama. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 361.
WARNER, William, congressman, born in Wisconsin in 1840. He was educated at Lawrence University, Wisconsin, and at the University of Michigan, but was not graduated. He studied law and was admitted to the bar, but entered the army in 1862, and served till the end of the Civil War in the 33d and 34th Wisconsin Regiments. He then settled in the practice of his profession at Kansas City, Missouri., became city attorney in 1867, and circuit attorney in 1869, and in 1871 was elected mayor. He was a Republican presidential elector in 1872, U. S. district attorney for western Missouri in 1882-'4, and twice received the votes of the Republican members of the legislature for U. S. Senator. In 1884 he was chosen to Congress, and he was re-elected in 1886. He was the first department commander of the Grand Army of the Republic in Missouri, and was chosen commander-in-chief at the National Encampment in 1888. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 361.
WARREN, Asa, New York, abolitionist leader (Sorin, 1971).
WARREN, Fitz-Henry, soldier, born in Brimfield, Massachusetts, 11 January, 1816, died there, 21 June, 1878. He emigrated to Burlington, Iowa, in 1844, and became interested in journalism and politics in that locality. He was appointed second assistant postmaster-general in 1849, and afterward served as first assistant. During the Civil War he was in command of the 1st Iowa Cavalry, and he became brigadier-general of volunteers, 16 July, 1862, and afterward major-general by brevet, being mustered out of the service, 24 August, 1865. He was a member of the Iowa State Senate in 1866, minister to Guatemala in 1867-'8, and a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1872. He was editor of the Burlington (Iowa) " Hawkeye" for a time, and was also, at a later period, connected with the "Sun " and the " Tribune " in New York City. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 361-362.
WARREN, Gouverneur Kemble, soldier, born in Cold Spring. New York 8 January, 1830; died in Newport, Rhode Island, 8 August, 1882. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1850, standing second in his class, and was assigned to the Topographical Engineers as brevet 2d lieutenant. After four years of duty in connection with the surveys of the delta of the Mississippi and other river surveys under Captain Andrew A. Humphreys, he engaged in compiling reports of the Pacific Railroad Exploration. In 1855 he accompanied the Sioux Expedition as chief topographical engineer on General William S. Harney's staff, being engaged in the action of Blue Water, and subsequently until 1859 he was occupied in Dakota and Nebraska in making maps of those territories for the exploration of the routes for railroads between Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. The general direction of this route was under Captain Humphreys, and Lieutenant Warren was his principal assistant. He then served at the military academy as assistant professor of mathematics until the beginning of the Civil War, when he entered active service as lieutenant-colonel of the 5th New York Volunteers, of which regiment he became colonel on 31 August, 1861. He was also promoted captain in the engineers on 9 September, 1861. His regiment was ordered to Fortress Monroe and he took part in the action of Big Bethel, where he was the last to leave the field, remaining to rescue the body of Lieutenant John T. Greble, the first officer in the regular army killed in the Civil War. During the remainder of the year he was stationed at Baltimore, where he constructed the fort on Federal Hill. In the spring of 1862 he joined the Army of the Potomac, serving in the Peninsular Campaign, and at Yorktown his regiment formed part of the siege-train under the command of the chief of artillery. He was given a brigade in the 5th Army Corps in May, with which he covered the extreme right of the army and took part in the capture of Hanover Court-House, the pursuit of Confederate cavalry under General James E. B. Stuart, the battle of Gaines's Mills, the affair at Malvern Hill and subsequent battle, and the skirmish at Harrison's Landing. His brigade was then sent to, re-enforce General John Pope, and he participated in the battle of Manassas. In the subsequent campaign he served with the 5th Corps, was engaged at Antietam, and then took part in the Rappahannock Campaign and the battle of Fredericksburg. On 26 September, 1862, he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers for his services at Gaines's Mills. During the winter months of 1862-'3 he did much individual work in reconnoitering and correcting maps, and on 2 February, 1863, he was ordered, as chief of Topographical Engineers, to the staff of General Joseph Hooker, then in command of the Army of the Potomac. Soon after the consolidation of the two Corps of Engineers on 3 March, 1863, he was appointed chief of engineers of the Army of the Potomac, and during the Chancellorsville Campaign he took part in the action on Orange Pike, the storming of Marye's Heights, and the battle of Salem. He continued as chief of engineers under General George G. Meade, and was engaged at Gettysburg, where he seized Little Round Top, the key to the entire National position, and, using General Meade's name as his staff-officer, ordered the 140th New York Regiment, under Colonel Patrick H. O'Rorke (q. v.), to occupy the hill. This was accomplished after a severe hand-to-hand fight. Thereafter he was engaged in engineering duties connected with the passage of the Potomac until 11 August, when on the receipt of his major-general's commission, bearing date of 3 May previous, he was assigned to the temporary command of the 2d Corps. His next important service was during the march on Centerville in October, 1863, when he was attacked by General Ambrose P. Hill, arid, although his force was about one half that of the Confederates, he held his position until he was re-enforced by the 5th Corps. In the official report it was said: "The handling of the 2d Corps in this operation, and the promptitude, skill, and spirit with which the enemy was met, were admirable." When the Army of the Potomac was reorganized into three corps for the Richmond Campaign, he received the permanent command of the 5th Corps and participated in the battles of the Wilderness, North Anna, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, and those around Petersburg. Before the battle of Five Forks, General Sheridan, having expressed to General Grant his dissatisfaction with General Warren's habit, of criticising the acts and orders of his superior officers, received authority to remove him, should there be satisfactory reasons for so doing. At Five Forks, when the 5th Corps advanced according to General Sheridan's orders, it was found that the indicated point of attack was too far to the right. This error was corrected by General Warren, who in person led the charge that closed the battle and secured the victory. At this moment he received an order relieving him from the command of his corps. The reasons given by General Sheridan for this act were: 1. "That Warren failed to reach me on the 1st of April, when I had reason to expect him ": 2. ''That the tactical handling of his corps was unskilful ": 3. "That he did not exert himself to get his corps up to Gravelly run church "; and 4. "That when portions of his line gave way he did not exert himself to restore confidence to his troops." In reply to these charges General Warren answered that his first order to relieve General Sheridan on 31 March was received from General George G. Meade at 9.17 P. m., when he had already accomplished General Sheridan's relief by sending troops to his assistance without orders, on his own responsibility, earlier than 5 P. M., also that he carried out his orders to General Meade's entire satisfaction and joined General Sheridan sooner than General Meade had expected: that the only lack of skill was that of General Sheridan, who delivered the attack of the 5th Corps at a point three quarters of a mile distant from the point intended. A court of inquiry, convened in 1879 at General Warren's request, found: 1. That General Warren, after the receipt of General Meade's first order, should have moved his main force sooner than he did. 2. It did not find that his handling of the corps was unskilful. 3. "That there was no unnecessary delay in this march of the 5th Corps, and that General Warren took the usual methods of a corps commander to prevent delay." 4. That "by continuous exertions of himself and staff he substantially remedied matters "; and the court thinks '"that this was for him the essential point to be attended to, which also required his whole efforts to accomplish." General Warren after his removal was assigned by General Grant to the charge of the defences of the Petersburg and Southside Railroad, and then had command of the Department of the Mississippi. On 27 May, 1865, he resigned his commission in the volunteer army and returned to duty as major in the Corps of Engineers, to which grade he had been advanced on 25 June, 1864. He received the successive brevets in the U. S. Army up to major-general, of which the last two were given him on 13 March, 1865. From May, 1865, till his death he was employed in various parts of the country in making surveys and in other works connected with his department. He was made lieutenant-colonel on 4 March, 1879. General Warren was elected a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1858, of the American Philosophical Society in 1867, of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1874, and to the National Academy of Sciences in 1876. A heroic statue by Paul Gerhardt (shown in the accompanying illustration) was unveiled with appropriate ceremonies on Little Round Top, Gettysburg, on 8 August, 1888. His works include "Explorations in the Dakota Country" (2 vols., Washington, 1855-'6); "Preliminary Report of Explorations in Nebraska and Dakota in the Years 1855-'7" (1858): various reports to the government on military and engineering subjects; and a pamphlet giving " An Account of the 5th Army Corps at the Battle of Five Forks" (New York, 1866). See sketch by General Henry L. Abbot in "Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences" (vol. ii., Washington, 1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 362-363.
WARREN, James, Cincinnati, Ohio, abolitionist. Manager, 1833-1834, and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), December 1833. (Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833)
WASHBURN, Elihu Benjamin, 1816-1887, statesman, lawyer. Member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Congressman from December 1853 through march 1869. Called “Father of the House.” Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 370-371; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 10, Pt. 1, p. 504; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 22, p. 750; Congressional Globe)
WASHBURN, Elihu Benjamin, statesman, born in Livermore, Maine, 23 September, 1816; died in Chicago, Illinois, 22 October, 1887, wrote his family name with a final “e.” He was educated at public schools, and, after working on his father's farm, entered the office of the “Christian Intelligencer” in Gardiner in 1833 as a printer's apprentice. The paper was discontinued a year later, and he was chosen to teach in the district school. In May, 1835, he entered the office of the “Kennebec Journal,” at Augusta, where he continued for a year, during which time he rose gradually until he became an assistant of the editor, and acquired his first knowledge of political life during the sessions of the state legislature. He then decided to study law, and entered Kent's Hill Seminary in 1836. After a year in that institution he began his professional studies in the office of John Otis in Hallowell, who, impressed by his diligence and ambition, aided him financially and took him into his own home to board. In March, 1839, he entered the law-school at Harvard, where among his class-mates were Richard H. Dana. Charles Devens, and William M. Evarts. He was admitted to the bar in 1840, and at once determined to establish himself in the west. Settling in Galena, Illinois, he there entered into law-partnership with Charles S. Hempstead, and, being a strong Whig, made speeches in behalf of that party, which had nominated William H. Harrison for the presidency. In 1844 he was a delegate to the Whig national convention in Baltimore that selected Henry Clay as its candidate, and on his return he visited that statesman in Washington. Meanwhile his business increased, and he was frequently called upon to practise in the supreme court of the state. In 1848 he was nominated for Congress in the Galena District, but was defeated by Colonel Edward D. Baker. In 1852, as a delegate to the National Whig Convention, he advocated the nomination of General Winfield Scott, and in the same year he was elected to congress, serving thereafter from 5 December, 1853, till 6 March, 1869. He soon gained an excellent reputation, and, on the election of Nathaniel P. Banks as speaker in 1855, was given the chairmanship of the committee on commerce, which he held for ten years. He was selected by the house to accompany William H. Seward, representing the Senate, to receive Abraham Lincoln when he arrived in Washington after his election. From the length of his continuous service he became recognized as the “Father of the House,” and in that capacity administered the oath as speaker to Schuyler Colfax three times, and to James G. Blaine once. From his continual habit of closely scrutinizing all demands that were made upon the treasury and persistently demanding that the finances of the government should be administered with the strictest economy, he acquired the name of the “Watch-dog of the Treasury.” He was a steadfast friend of Ulysses S. Grant during the Civil War, and every promotion that the latter received was given either solely or in part upon the recommendation of Mr. Washburne. Subsequently he originated the bills that made General Grant lieutenant-general and general. Mr. Washburne was a member of the joint committee on reconstruction and chairman of the committee of the whole house in the matter of the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. He opposed all grants of the public lands and all subsidies to railroad companies, and resisted with all his power what he called “the greatest legislative crime in history”—the bill that subordinated the first mortgage of the government on the Pacific Railroad to the mortgage of the railroad companies. He also opposed “log rolling” river and harbor bills, all extravagant appropriations for public buildings, all subsidies for steamship lines, and all undue renewals of patents. Among the important bills that he introduced was the one that provided for the establishment of national cemeteries. At the beginning of his administration President Grant appointed Mr. Washburne Secretary of State, which office he resigned soon afterward to become minister to France. This place he held during the Franco-Prussian war, and on the withdrawal of the German ambassador, the latter was ordered by Count Bismarck to turn over his archives to the American legation. At the request of Bismarck, and with the permission of the French minister of foreign affairs, he exercised his official influence with remarkable tact and skill for the protection of the Germans in Paris and acted as the representative of the various German states and other foreign governments. When the empire was overthrown, Mr. Washburne was the first foreign representative to recognize the new republic. He remained in Paris during the siege, and was at his post when the Commune ruled the City. He visited the venerable archbishop Darboy of Paris when he was hurried to prison, and succeeded in having the prelate moved to more comfortable quarters, but failed to prevent his murder. He retained the respect and good-will of the French during all the changes of government, and the emperor of Germany recognized his services by conferring upon him the Order of the Red Eagle. This he declined, owing to the provision of the U. S. constitution that prevented its acceptance, but on his resignation in 1877 the emperor sent him his life-size portrait, and he was similarly honored by Bismarck, Thiers, and Gambetta. On his return to this country he settled in Chicago, and in 1880 his name was brought forward as a candidate for the presidency, but he refused to have it presented to the convention. He was president of the Chicago historical society from November, 1884, till his death, and was frequently invited to lecture on his foreign experiences. He wrote a series of articles on that subject for “Scribner's Magazine,” which were expanded into “Recollections of a Minister to France, 1869-1877” (2 vols., New York, 1887). His collection of pictures, documents, and autographs he desired to be given to the city of Chicago, provided they should be exhibited free to the general public. Efforts are being made to secure the erection of a suitable building in Lincoln park for their exhibition. Mr. Washburne edited “History of the English Settlement in Edwards County, Illinois” (Chicago, 1882); and “The Edwards Papers” (1884). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 370-371.
WASHBURN, Israel, governor of Maine, born in Livermore, Maine, 6 June, 1813; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 12 May, 1883. He was descended from John Washburn, who was secretary of Plymouth colony in England and who came to this country in 1631 and settled in Duxbury, Massachusetts. His grandfather, Israel, served in the Revolutionary war and attained the rank of captain. He was repeatedly elected to the legislature, and was a member from Massachusetts of the convention which ratified the constitution of the United States. In 1806 Israel, son of the foregoing, moved to Maine, where he taught at first, but in 1808 settled at White's Landing (now Richmond), on Kennebec River, where he engaged in ship-building. He established a trading-post at Livermore, Maine, in 1809, at what is now called The Norlands, and soon afterward settled there. Israel, the subject of this sketch, was educated at public schools and by private tutors, and was admitted to the bar in October, 1834. Settling in Orono, Maine, he soon acquired a large practice, and in 1842-'3 was a member of the legislature. In 1850, he was sent to Congress, serving as a Whig from 1 December, 1851, to 1 January, 1861, when he resigned, having been chosen governor of Maine. Declining a re-election, he was appointed in 1863 by President Lincoln collector of customs at Portland, Maine, which office he held until 1877. He was president of the board of trustees of Tufts College, and was elected to the presidency of that institution in 1875, but declined. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by Tufts College in 1872. Governor Washburn was a member of historical and genealogical societies, and, in addition to many of his addresses and speeches, which have had a wide circulation, published "Notes, Historical. Descriptive, and Personal, of Livermore, Maine" (1874). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 370.
WASHBURN, Cadwallader Colden, lawyer, born in Livermore, Maine, 22 April, 1818; died in Eureka Springs, Arkansas, 14 May, 1882, worked on his father's farm in summer and attended the town school in winter until about 1835, when he went to Hallowell and was employed in a store. He also served in the post-office, and during the winter of 1838-'9 taught in Wiscasset. In the spring of 1839 he set out for the west and settled at Davenport, Iowa, where he joined the geological survey of that state under David Dale Owen. Toward the close of the year he entered the law-office of Joseph B. Wells, having previously studied under his uncle, Reuel Washburn, in Livermore, Maine, and was admitted to the bar on 29 March, 1842. In 1840 he was elected surveyor of the county of Rock Island, Illinois, the duties of which he performed while preparing for his profession. He moved to Mineral Point, Wisconsin, in 1842, and in 1844 entered into partnership with Cyrus Woodman, agent of the New England Land Company, but their law-practice gradually diminished as they paid greater attention to financial matters. They dealt largely in the entry of public lands for settlers and the location of Mexican land-warrants. In 1852 the firm established the Mineral Point Bank, which never suspended specie payments and during its existence had a high reputation. On the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, Washburn was chosen as a Whig to Congress, and served with re-elections from 3 December, 1855, till 3 March, 1861. He then declined a renomination, but was sent as a delegate from Wisconsin to the Peace Congress that was held in Philadelphia in 1861. At the beginning of the Civil War he raised the 2d Wisconsin Cavalry, and was commissioned its colonel, 10 October, 1861. His first service was under General Samuel R. Curtis in Arkansas. Among his acts at this period were the dislodging of a Confederate force that was preparing to obstruct the progress of the National Army at the crossing of the Tallahatchie, and the opening of the Yazoo pass; and he was conspicuous in the battle of Grand Coteau, where he saved the 4th Division, under General Stephen G. Burbridge, from annihilation by an overwhelming force of the enemy. He was commissioned brigadier on 16 July, 1862, and on 29 November, 1862, major-general of volunteers. He took part in the siege of Vicksburg, and on its surrender was given command of the 13th Corps and sent to the Department of the Gulf. On 29 November, 1863, he landed on the coast of Texas with 2,800 men and compelled the evacuation of Fort Esperanza, a bomb-proof work, which was cased with railroad iron, surrounded by a deep moat filled with water, manned by 1,000 men. and mounted ten guns. This fort was at Pass Cavallo, and guarded the entrance to Matagorda bay. In April, 1864. he was ordered to relieve General Stephen A. Hurlburt, in command at Memphis, of the district of West Tennessee. This post he held almost continuously until his resignation on 25 May, 1865. General Washburn was sent as a Republican from the 6th District of Wisconsin to Congress, and served with re-election from 4 March, 1867, till 3 March, 1871. In the autumn of 1871 he was elected governor of Wisconsin and held that office for the years, beginning 1 January, 1872. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the office in 1873, and afterward for the U. S. Senate. On retiring from office, he directed his attention to the care of his property. The timber lands that he had purchased soon after he settled in the state had become very valuable, and he operated extensively in lumber. In 1876 he erected an immense flouring-mill in Minneapolis, where first in this country was introduced the "patent process" and the Hungarian system. It was destroyed by an explosion in 1878, but he at once replaced it with one more capacious. He was also one of the largest owners of the water-power at St. Anthony Falls, and a heavy stock-holder in the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad. General Washburn was actively interested in the Wisconsin Historical Society, and was its president for several years. He founded, in connection with the State University of Wisconsin, the Washburn observatory, which, with its instruments, cost more than $50,000. The legislature of the state made him a life regent of the university, which in 1873 conferred upon him the degree of L.L. D. His country-house of Edgewood, near Madison, worth $20,000, he presented to the Dominican Sisters for use as a school for girls. In his will he bequeathed $50,000 to found a public library at La Crosse, and $375,000 for the establishment of an orphans' home in Minneapolis. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 371-372.
WASHBURN, Charles Ames, editor, in Livermore, Maine, 16 March, 1822, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1846, and after studying law was admitted to practice in Mineral Point, Wisconsin. In 1850 he went to California and connected himself with the press, settling in San Francisco in 1853, where he became editor and then proprietor of the " Alta California." Mr. Washburn took an active part in the foundation of the Republican Party, and his journal was the first on the Pacific Coast to advocate the distinctive principles of that organization. From 1858 till 1860 he edited and owned the San Francisco "Daily Times." In 1860 he was an elector-at-large from California, and in 1861 he was appointed by President Lincoln commissioner to Paraguay, where he was afterward minister-resident from 1863 till 1868. His term of office included the period of the war between Paraguay and Brazil, and in 1868, when the foreign residents were accused of conspiring against President Francisco S. Lopez, Mr. Washburn escaped through the opportune arrival of the U. S. war-steamer "Wasp," while two of his subordinates, unable to escape, were seized and tortured. (See Lopez.) His action in trying to save the lives of those that were supposed to be connected with the conspiracy brought him into collision with officers of the U. S. Navy, but a congressional committee exonerated him. On his return to this country he settled at first in Oakland, California, but ultimately made Morristown, New Jersey, his home. He has devoted his attention to the invention of several ingenious machines, notably the typograph, a form of type-writer. In addition to various contributions to periodicals, he has published two works of fiction, "Philip Thaxter" (New York, 1861) and "Gomery of Montgomery" (1865); a "History of Paraguay" (2 vols., Boston, 1870); "Political Evolution (Philadelphia, 1887), and " From Poverty to Competence " (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 372.
WASHBURN, Ichabod, 1798-1868, Worcester, Massachusetts, manufacturer, philanthropist, abolitionist. Church Anti-Slavery Society, Treasurer, 1859-1864. (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 10, Pt. 1, p. 501)
WASHBURN, Peter Thacher, lawyer, born in Lynn, Massachusetts, 7 September, 1814; died in Woodstock, Vermont, 7 February, 1870. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1835, studied law at Harvard, was admitted to the bar in 1838, and practised in Ludlow, Vermont, till 1844.Moving then to Woodstock, he was reporter of the state, supreme court for eight years, and for several terms a member of the legislature, serving as chairman of the judiciary committee. In 1861 he was a member of the Chicago Convention, and was the first to give the vote of his state to Lincoln. He was adjutant and inspector-general of the state in 1861 and his records show only 75 men unaccounted for out of more than 34,000. He served in the field as a lieutenant, and afterward as acting colonel of the 1st Vermont Volunteers, which, with the Massachusetts troops, he commanded at the battle of Big Bethel. In 1869 he was elected governor by the Republicans, and died in office. He was trustee of the University of Vermont, and president of the Woodstock Railroad. He was the author of "Digest of all Cases in the Supreme Court of Vermont, including the First Fifteen Volumes of Vermont Reports" (Woodstock, 1845): supplement to " Aiken's Forms " (Claremont, New Hampshire, 1847); "Digest of Cases in the Supreme Court of Vermont, vols., xvi-xxii. (1852): and "Reports of the Supreme Court of Vermont," vols., xvi-xxiii. (1845-52). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 372.
WASHBURN, William Barrett, 1820-1887, businessman. Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts. U.S. Senator. Served in Congress 1863-1872, and U.S. Senate May 1874-March 1875. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 372; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936; Congressional Globe)
WASHBURN, William Barrett, senator, born in Winchendon, Massachusetts, 31 January, 1820; died in Springfield, Massachusetts, 5 October, 1887. He was graduated at Yale in 1844, and became a manufacturer at Greenfield, Massachusetts, where he was for many years president of the National bank, and which he represented in both branches of the legislature in 1850-'4. He was identified with the Republican party from its organization in 1856, and at the beginning of the Civil War contributed liberally to the National cause. In 1862 he was sent to Congress as a Republican, and he was returned biennially till on 1 January, 1872, he resigned his seat to become governor of Massachusetts. This office he resigned also during his third term to fill the vacancy that was made in the U. S. Senate by the death of Charles Sumner, serving from 1 May, 1874, till 3 March, 1875, when he withdrew from public affairs. Besides holding many offices of trust under corporate societies, he was a trustee of Yale, of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, and of Smith College, of which he was also a benefactor, and a member of the board of overseers of Amherst from 1864 till 1877. Harvard conferred the degree of LL. D. upon him in 1872. By his will he made the American board, the American Home Missionary Society, and the American Missionary Association residuary legatees, leaving to each society about $50,000. He was also a great benefactor of the Greenfield public library. He died suddenly while attending a session of the American Board of Commissioners for foreign missions, of which he was a member. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 372.
WASHINGTON, Augustus, 1820-1875, African American, abolitionist, newspaper publisher, Liberian statesman, Black civil rights activist, educator. Rejected, then later supported African colonization. Emigrated to Liberia. Elected to Liberian House of Representatives in 1863 and later became Speaker. In 1871, elected to Liberian Senate. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 11, p. 458)
WASHINGTON, Lewis William, born in Georgetown, D. C., about 1825; died at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, 1 October. 1871. He was carefully educated, became a planter, and settled in Jefferson County, Virginia. He was conspicuously connected with the incidents of the John Brown raid on Harper's Perry in 1859, serving at that time as aide on the staff of Governor Henry A. Wise. Brown captured and held him as one of his hostages. Mr. Washington took no active part in the Civil War, passing most of that time in Europe, but his estate was confiscated, although the government subsequently released it. He possessed a valuable collection of General Washington's relics, including the sword that was sent him by Frederick the Great, on which was inscribed "From the oldest general in the world to the greatest." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 385.
WASHINGTON, John Augustine, soldier, great-great-grandson of General Washington's brother, John Augustine, born in Blakely, Jefferson County, Virginia, 3 May, 1821; died near Rich Mountain, Virginia, 13 September, 1861, was the son of John A. Washington, and on his mother's side the grandson of General Richard Henry Lee. He was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1840. He served as aide-de-camp, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, on the staff of General Robert E. Lee, and was killed with a reconnoitering party near Rich Mountain, Virginia He inherited the Mount Vernon property, but, being unable to keep it in proper preservation, he sold it to the association of ladies that now has possession of it. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 385.
WATERMAN, Robert Whitney, governor of California, born in Fairfield, Herkimer County, New York, 15 December, 1826. His father was a merchant, and died while the son was quite young. Two years afterward Robert moved to Sycamore, Illinois, where three elder brothers had preceded him. Until his twentieth year he was a clerk in a country store, and in 1846 he engaged in business for himself in Belvidere, Illinois. In 1849 he was postmaster at Genoa, Illinois. In 1850 he went to California and engaged in mining on Feather River, but two years later he returned to Wilmington, Illinois, where in 1853 he published the Wilmington "Independent," at the same time carrying on other business enterprises. In 1854 he was a delegate to the convention at Bloomington. Illinois, that gave a name to the Republican Party, and he was an associate of Abraham Lincoln, Lyman Trumbull, Richard Yates, David Davis, and Owen Lovejoy. In 1856 he took an active part in the Fremont Campaign, and in 1858 he was engaged in the senatorial contest between Lincoln and Douglas. In 1873 he returned to California, and he established his home at San Bernardino in that state the following year. He was successful in discovering and developing silver-mines in what has since come to be known as the Calico mining district in San Bernardino County. In 1886 he was elected lieutenant-governor as a Republican. Upon the death of Governor Washington Bartlett, 12 September, 1887, Mr. Waterman was called to the duties of chief executive. During recent years Governor Waterman has engaged in numerous business enterprises in various parts of California. He is the owner of the famous Stonewall gold-mine in San Diego County, and has extensive ranch properties in southern California. He is president of the San Diego, Cuyamaca and Eastern Railway, and is connected with many other public enterprises. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 386-387.
WATIE, Stand, soldier, born in Cherokee, Georgia (the site of the present city of Rome), in 1815; died in August, 1877. He was a full-blooded Cherokee Indian, was educated at the mission schools in the Indian country, served as a member of the Cherokee legislative council, and was speaker of the lower house from 1862 till 1865. He became colonel of the 1st Cherokee Confederate Infantry Regiment in October. 1861, and was promoted brigadier-general in the Confederate Army on 10 May, 1864. His brigade was composed of the 1st and 2d Cherokee Regiments of Infantry, a Cherokee battalion of infantry, and a battalion each of Seminole and Osage Indians. He was a younger brother of Elias Boudinot and nephew of Major Ridge, who were assassinated in the Cherokee Nation in 1839. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 388.
WATKINS, Louis Douglas, soldier, born in Florida about 1835: died in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 29 March, 1808. He joined the U. S. Army as 1st lieutenant. 14th U.S. Infantry, 14 May, 1861, was transferred to the 5th U.S. Cavalry, 22 June, 1861, and became captain, 17 July, 1862, and colonel of the 20th U.S. Infantry, 28 July, 1866. He received the brevets of major, 8 January, 1863, for gallant service in the expedition to east Tennessee under General Samuel P. Carter, lieutenant-colonel, 24 June. 1864. for service at Lafayette, and that of brigadier-general. 13 March, 1865. He was mustered out on 1 September, 1866. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 388.
WATKINS, Samuel, donor, born in Campbell County, Virginia, in 1794; died in Nashville, Tennessee, 16 October, 1880. His parents died in his infancy, and he was bound to a Scotch family, whose cruelty to him attracted attention, and, owing to this, the county court placed him with the family of James Robertson, upon whose plantation he labored for several years. He then joined the U. S. Army, served in the war against the Creek Nation under General Andrew Jackson, and was also at the battle of New Orleans. When peace was declared he returned to Nashville and became a brick-mason, pursuing this craft until 1827, when he began to erect houses and churches, among which were the 1st Baptist church and the 2d Presbyterian church in Nashville. During the Civil War his farm of 600 acres was the battle-field of Nashville, his city buildings were destroyed, and his mansion was sacked and robbed, his loss amounting to $300,000. After the Civil War he engaged in banking, manufacturing, and building, and dealt in real estate, was president of the Nashville gas-light Company, and acquired a fortune. He bequeathed $130,000 for the establishment of a polytechnic institution in Nashville, which was erected there in 1882. Mr. Watkins made liberal provision for courses of free, public lectures, and also classes in mathematics for those who could not attend colleges and schools. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 388.
WATKINS, William, Baltimore, Maryland, African American, abolitionist leader, American Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1834-35. Worked with abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison. Opposed colonization to Africa. Advocate of Black education. (Sinha, 2016, pp. 83, 116, 170, 199, 202-204, 206, 220, 301, 303)
WATKINS, William J., African American abolitionist. Son of William Watkins.
WATMOUGH, James Horatio, naval officer, born in Whitemarsh, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 30 July, 1822, was an acting midshipman in the U.S. Navy from 24 November, 1843, till October. 1844, and on 12 December, 1844, became paymaster. During the Mexican War he was in most of the operations in California, including the bombardment of Guaymas. From 1849 till 1855 he was on the brig "Perry" and the frigate "Constitution," on the coast of Africa; in 1857-8 on the steamer " Michigan," on the lakes: in 1859-'60 on the sloop " Saratoga" and in action with two Spanish steamers, which were taken. In 1864-'5 he was fleet paymaster of the South Atlantic Squadron and was in most of the operations of that squadron, including those on Stono River and on James and John Islands previous to the evacuation of Charleston, South Carolina. He was subsequently general inspector, and from July, 1873, till November, 1877, paymaster-general. In 1884 he was retired. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 389.
WATMOUGH, Pendleton Gaines, naval officer, born in Whitemarsh, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 3 May. 1828, entered the U.S. Navy in 1841, served on the Brazil Station, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and shared in the capture and occupation of California during the Mexican War. He returned home in 1847, the following year was graduated at the naval academy, served in the Mediterranean and Pacific and on the coast of China, and resigned in 1858. In April, 1861, he volunteered for the Civil War and was reappointed in the navy. The same month he was sent to plant a battery at Perryville, Maryland, to cover the transportation thence to Annapolis, and for a short time was in command of a steamer on Chesapeake Bay, keeping open communications, and subsequently on other active duty afloat. In October, 1861, he commanded the "Curlew," of Admiral Dupont's fleet, and shared in the capture of Port Royal. Later he was in command or the "Potomska'' in the capture of Fernandina and occupation of the inland waters of the South Atlantic. In 1863 he was ordered to the " Kansas," was in the two attacks on Fort Fisher, and in James River participated in the final operations against Richmond. He resigned as lieutenant-commander in July, 1865, and in 1869 was appointed by President Grant collector of the port of Cleveland, Ohio, which post he held for eight years. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 389.
WATSON, Alfred Augustin, P. E. bishop, born in New York City, 21 August. 1818. He was graduated at the University of New York in 1837, studied law, and was admitted to practice in the supreme court of the state of New York in 1841. He followed his profession for little more than a year and then began his studies for holy orders, he was ordered deacon in St. Ann's church, Brooklyn, by Bishop Onderdonk, 3 November, 1844, and ordained priest in St. John's church, Fayetteville, North Carolina, by Bishop Ives, 25 May, 1845. He was rector of Grace church, Plymouth, and St. Luke's, Washington County, N. C., soon afterward, and remained there fourteen years. In 1858 he became rector of Christ church, New Berne, North Carolina. he served as chaplain to the 2d Regiment of North Carolina state troops from 1861 till 1863, when he was elected assistant to Bishop Atkinson, in charge of St. James's church, Wilmington, North Carolina, of which he became rector in 1864, and served there until his consecration to the episcopate. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 389.
WATSON, Benjamin Frank, lawyer, born in Warner, New Hampshire, 30 April, 1826. He lived in Lowell, Massachusetts, from 1835 until 1848, studied law there and in Lawrence and Boston, and was admitted to the bar in 1850. He was editor and proprietor of the Lawrence " Sentinel," postmaster of the city under Presidents Pierce, Buchanan, and Lincoln, was nominated for mayor, and subsequently elected city solicitor. He was major of the 6th Regiment of Massachusetts Militia, and on 19 January, 1861, at a meeting of its field and company officers, Colonel Edward F. Jones presiding, offered a resolution tendering the services of the regiment to the president of the United States, which was the first offer of any military organization. In April, 1861, the 6th Massachusetts Regiment was the first to respond to the president's call for volunteers. The colonel with eight companies passed through Baltimore, on their way to Washington, with no interruption except insulting demonstrations, but as the car that contained Major Watson and part of his command was turning into Pratt Street, it was derailed by the mob. He superintended its righting, and kept the driver of the horses to his duties at the muzzle of his revolver. The mob fired into the ear repeatedly, and after one of his men had been wounded severely the order to fire was given by Major Watson. Afterward the detachment left the shattered car and marched to the depot, where the main body under the colonel had arrived in safety. Several soldiers were injured by stones and pistol-shots during the transit, and this was undoubtedly the first bloodshed in the war. Shortly after this Major Watson was elected lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and its command devolved upon him. In 1867 he moved to New York, where he has since practised law. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 389-390.
WATSON, Beriah Andre, physician, born in Lake George, New York, 26 March, 1836. He obtained his education through his own exertion and was graduated at the medical department of the University of New York in 1861, and settled at White House, New Jersey. In 1862 he entered the U. S. service as contract surgeon, and he was engaged in hospital and field service until the end of the war. At his retirement, on 10 July, 1865, he was surgeon in charge of the 1st Division 6th Army Corps hospital, and also acting medical purveyor. He then settled in Jersey City, where he still practices his profession. […]. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 390.
WATSON, James Muir, naval officer, born in Virginia, 15 July. 1808; died in Vallejo, California, 17 April, 1873. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 1 February, 1823, and became a lieutenant, 30 December, 1831. On 14 March, 1847, he took command of the store ship "Erie," in which he served during the Mexican War. On 11 November, 1847, under direction of Commodore Shubrick, he commanded the naval force of 600 men in the boats of the "Independence," "Congress," "Cyane," and "Erie," with which he captured the city of Mazatlan without resistance from the Mexicans, who retreated to the interior. He returned from this cruise in command of the "Erie," 24 June, 1848, was placed on the reserved list, 13 September, 1855, and was unemployed, waiting orders, the rest of his life, except in 1863-6, when he served as light-house inspector. He was commissioned a commander on the reserved list, 1 February, 1861, retired 21 December, 1861, and was promoted to commodore on the retired list, 16 July, 1862. He resided in California after he was put on the reserved list until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 392.
WATTERS, John, naval officer, born in Michigan, 5 January, 1831; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 22 January. 1874. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 12 February, 1846, was promoted to lieutenant, 16 September, 1855, and was on duty as an instructor at the naval academy in 1857-'9. While he was attached to the "Minnesota" the Civil War began, and he was actively employed in engagements and captures at Hatteras inlet and in the sounds of North Carolina. He served in command of boat expeditions by which he captured several blockade-runners in the vicinity of Fort Monroe, and he also participated in the engagements with the " Merrimac" and the batteries at Sewell's point. He was promoted to lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, was executive officer of the steamer " Monongahela" in Farragut's squadron, and during the operations against Port Hudson and Vicksburg commanded the gun-boat "Kineo." he was assigned to patrol Mississippi River in this vessel in 1863-'5, and convoyed army transports by the Confederate batteries along the banks of the river. He was promoted to commander, 14 April, 1867, and was attached to the Naval Academy in 1860-'8. He was assigned the sloop "Cyane," in the Pacific Squadron, in 1868-'9, and was stationed at the New York Navy-yard, in 1870-'3, on the receiving-ship. In 1873 he had of charge the "Ossipee" on the North Atlantic station, from which he was detached just before his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 394.
WATTERSON, Harvey McGee, journalist, born in Bedford County, Tennessee, 23 November, 1811. He was educated at Cumberland College, Princeton, Kentucky, and established a newspaper at Shelbyville, Tennessee, the capital of his native county, in 1831. He was elected to the legislature in 1835, served in Congress in 1839-'43, having been chosen as a Democrat, declined a re-election in the latter year, and was sent by the president on a diplomatic mission to Buenos Ayres. On his return in 1845 he was elected to the state senate, and chosen president of that body. He was owner and editor of the Nashville " Union " from 1850 till the close of 1851. He was connected with the editorial department of the Washington " Union " in 1853-'4, was a delegate to the National Democratic convention of 1860, where he voted for the nomination of Stephen A. Douglas, was an elector for the state at large on the Douglas ticket the same year, and chosen to the state convention in February, 1861, as a Unionist. He practised law in Washington for fourteen years after the war, and since 1878 has been a member of the editorial staff of the Louisville "Courier-Journal."—his son, Henry, journalist, born in Washington, D. C, 16 February, 1840, in consequence of defective eyesight, was educated chiefly by private tutors. He entered the profession of journalism in Washington in 1858, and in 1861, returning to Tennessee, he edited the "Republican Banner" in Nashville. He served on the Confederate side during the Civil War in various capacities, being a staff-officer in 1861-8, and chief of scouts in General Joseph E. Johnston's army in 1864. After the, war he revived the “Banner”, but soon afterward went to Louisville, Kentucky, to reside, and in 1867 succeeded George D. Prentice as editor of the "Journal." In the year following he united the "Courier" and the ' Times" with it, and in connection with Walter N. Haldeman founded the ' Courier-Journal," of which he has since been the editor. He was a member of Congress from 12 August, 1876, till 3 March, 1877, being chosen to fill a vacancy, but, with this exception, has always declined public office, he has sat for Kentucky as delegate-at-large in four National Democratic conventions, presiding over the St. Louis convention in 1876, and serving as chairman of the platform committees in the Cincinnati convention in 1880 and in the one at St. Louis in 1888. He is identified with the revenue-reform movement of the Democratic party as an aggressive advocate of free-trade ideas. He was a personal friend and a resolute follower of Samuel J. Tilden. Mr. Watterson has often appeared as a public speaker, notably on political occasions, and his advice is sought by the leaders of his party. He has also contributed freely to periodicals, and edited " Oddities of Southern Life and Character" (Boston, 1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 394.
WATTLES, Augustus, 1807-1883, established school for free Blacks. He donated his entire inheritance to found trade and agricultural schools for them in Indiana and Ohio. Agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Worked with Emigrant Aid Society in Lawrence, Kansas. Edited the anti-slavery Herald of Freedom in Lawrence. (Dumond, 1961, pp. 164-165; Mabee, 1970, pp. 104, 155, 394n31, 403n29)
WATTLES, John O., Clermont County, Ohio, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1840-42.
WATTS, Thomas Hill, statesman, born in Butler County, Alabama, 3 January, 1819. He was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1840, and began the practice of law at Greenville, in his native county, in 1841. In 1842, he was elected to the legislature, and he was returned in 1844 and 1845. He moved to Montgomery County in 1847, and was in 1849 sent to the legislature from that district and in 1853 to the state senate. In 1861, with William L. Yancey, he represented Montgomery County in the Secession convention. In the same year he went to the seat of war as colonel of the 17th Alabama Regiment, remaining there until April, 1862, when he was called by Jefferson Davis to act as Attorney-General in his cabinet. In 1863, he was elected governor of Alabama, and he held this post until the close of the Civil War. He is active in the religious enterprises of the Baptist denomination, to which he belongs. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 396.
WAUL, Thomas N., lawyer, born in Sumter district, S. C., 8 January, 1815. He was educated at the University of South Carolina, studied law in Vicksburg. Mississippi, under Sargeant S. Prentiss, and began to practice in 1835. While residing in Mississippi he was chosen judge of the circuit court. Having moved to Texas, he was elected one of her representatives in the 1st Confederate Congress. He was a brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, having raised a command that was known as "Waul's legion," and he was severely wounded during an engagement in Louisiana. Both in Mississippi and Texas he has been active in the affairs of the Baptist denomination, with which he is associated. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 396.
WAYLAND, Heman Lincoln, clergyman, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 23 April, 1830, was graduated at Brown in 1849, and, after spending a year (1849-'50) in studying theology at Newton, taught for a short time at the academy in Townshend, Vermont, and spent the years 1852-'4 as tutor in the University of Rochester. From 1854 till 1861 he was pastor of the Main street Baptist church in Worcester, Massachusetts, and during the Civil War he served as chaplain of the 7th Connecticut Volunteers. After the war he spent a year in missionary work among the colored people in Nashville. Tennessee, and from 1865 till 1870 he was professor of rhetoric and logic in Kalamazoo College, Michigan. He was president of Franklin College, Indiana, for two years, and then became editor of the " National Baptist" in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which office he still holds. He received the degree of D. D. from Brown in 1869. Dr. Wayland has contributed articles to the " New Englander" and the " Baptist Quarterly," and has published numerous sermons and addresses on education. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, pp. 397-398.
WAYMAN, Alexander Washington, A.M.E. bishop, born in Caroline County, Maryland, in September, 1821. He is of African descent and was brought up on a farm. In 1843 he was admitted into the Philadelphia Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal church, and he was elected the secretary of three successive general conferences of his church —those of 1856, 1860, and 1864. He was made bishop in 1864, and received from Howard University the degree of D. D. in 1877. He has visited almost every county of the Union, and has written "My Recollections," " Cyclopaedia of African Methodism," and "Wayman on the Discipline." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 398.
WAYNE, William, born 6 December, 1828, is the grandson of General Anthony Wayne's daughter, and took the name of Wayne, being the representative of the family and the owner of Waynesborough. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1846, and during the Civil War held the rank of captain in the 97th Pennsylvania Volunteers. From 1881 till 1887 he served as a member of the Pennsylvania assembly. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 400.
WAYNE, Henry Constantine, soldier, born in Savannah, Georgia, 8 September, 1815; died there, 15 March, 1883. He was educated at Northampton and Cambridge, Massachusetts, and at the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1838. He served on the northern frontier at Plattsburg, New York, in 1838-40, during the Canadian border disturbances; on the Maine frontier at Houlton in 1840-'l, pending the disputed-territory controversy, and at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841-'6 as assistant instructor of artillery and cavalry, of the sword-exercise and of infantry tactics, and as quartermaster. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery, 16 May, 1842. He was on quartermaster duty during the war with Mexico, 1846-'7. He took part in the battles of Churubusco and Contreras, being brevetted major for gallant conduct in those engagements. From 1848 till 1855 he was in charge of the clothing bureau of the quartermaster-general's other at Washington. D. C. Soon after the annexation of the territory acquired by the United States from Mexico, the question of transportation coming up, Major Wayne suggested that camels should be used as a means of conveyance over the plains of Texas and New Mexico. The government adopted the suggestion, and Major Wayne was sent to Egypt to investigate and report upon the subject. On his return his recommendations were adopted, and he was employed in Texas in 1857-'8 in testing the adaptability of these animals for army transportation. He was again employed at the quartermaster-general's office from 1858 till 1860, when he resigned to become adjutant and inspector-general of the state of Georgia under the Confederacy. He received in 1858 a first-class gold medal from the Societe Imperiale Zoologique d' Accliratation of Paris, for the successful introduction and acclimation of the camel in the United States. He was also the author of "The Sword Exercise, arranged for Military Instruction " (1856). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. VI, p. 400.