Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Mil-Myr
MILES, Dixon S., soldier, born in Maryland in 1804; died in Harper's Ferry. Virginia, 16 September, 1862. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1824, and assigned to the infantry. After serving as adjutant for five years, he was commissioned as captain, 8 June, 1836, and held a staff appointment as quartermaster during the Florida War and until the beginning of the war with Mexico. He was brevetted major for gallantry in the defence of Fort Brown, and lieutenant-colonel for brave conduct at Monterey, was promoted major on 16 February, 1847, and was commandant at Vera Cruz for four months. He was advanced to the grade of lieutenant-colonel on 15 April, 1851, commanded a column in the Gila Expedition in 1857, and in the following year conducted an expedition against the Navajo Indians in New Mexico. He was made colonel of the 28th Infantry on 19 January, 1859, was on duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1861, and after the beginning of the Civil War ordered to the east, taking part in the defence of Washington, and commanding the reserve at the battle of Bull Run. After several months leave of absence, he was given charge of a brigade guarding the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in March, 1862. In September he was intrusted with the command of the post of Harper's Ferry. He asked for re-enforcements, but they were not sent. After Maryland Heights had been evacuated by the force that was posted there, and when the enemy opened fire from commanding positions in two quarters, he offered no further resistance, but surrendered the post with 11,500 troops and arms, ammunition, and supplies. He was mortally wounded by the bursting of a shell after the capitulation. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 321.
MILES, George, Westminster, Massachusetts, abolitionist, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1845-1860.
MILES, Mary E., African American, abolitionist, from Boston, Massachusetts. Wife of abolitionist Henry Bibb. Published with husband the anti-slavery journal Voice of the Fugitive. (Gates, 2013, Vol. 1, p. 533)
MILES, Nelson Appleton, soldier, born in Westminster, Massachusetts, 8 August, 1839. He received an academic education, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits in Boston when the Civil War began. On 9 September, 1861, he entered the volunteer service as lieutenant in the 22d Massachusetts Infantry, and was commissioned lieutenant colonel of the 61st New York Volunteers, to date from 31 May, 1862. He was engaged in the battles of the peninsula, before Richmond, and at Antietam, and on 30 September was made colonel of his regiment. Colonel Miles fought in all the battles of the Army of the Potomac with one exception up to the surrender of Lee at Appomattox Court-House, Virginia, and was wounded three times. He received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry at Chancellorsville, and was advanced to the full rank on 12 May, 1864, for his services at the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court-House. On 25 August, 1864, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for his conduct throughout the Richmond Campaign and valuable service at Ream's Station. He was commissioned major-general on 21 October, 1865, and mustered out of volunteer service on 1 September, 1866, after receiving, on 28 July, an appointment in the regular army as colonel of the 40th U.S. Infantry. On 2 March, 1867, the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general, U. S. Army, were conferred on him for bravery at Chancellorsville and Spottsylvania. He was transferred to the 5th U.S. Infantry on 15 March. 1869, defeated the Cheyenne. Kiowa, and Comanche Indians on the borders of the Staked Plains in 1875, and in 1876 subjugated the Sioux and other Indians in Montana, driving Sitting Bull across the Canada frontier, and breaking up the bands that were led by him and by Crazy Horse, Lame Deer, Spotted Eagle, Broad Trail, Hump, and others. In September, he captured the Nez Perces under Chief Joseph in northern Montana, and in 1878 captured a band of Bannocks near the Yellowstone Park. He was commissioned brigadier-general of the U. S. Army on 15 December, 1880, commanded for five years the Department of the Columbia, in July, 1885, assigned to the command of the Department of the Missouri, and in April, 1886, was transferred to Arizona. After a difficult campaign against the Apaches under Geronimo and Natchez, he negotiated those chiefs to surrender, 4 September, 1886. He deemed it advisable, in the interest of the future tranquillity of the Indians, to accept a conditional surrender from Geronimo, agreeing that neither the chief nor any of his lieutenants should suffer death for their past crimes. He received the thanks of the legislatures of Kansas, Montana, New Mexico, and Arizona for services in the west, and the citizens of Arizona presented to General Miles a sword of honor at Tucson on 8 November, 1887, in the presence of a large gathering of citizens of the Territory. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 322-323.
MILES, Pliny, author, born in Watertown, New York., 16 November, 1818; died on the island of Malta, 7 April, 1865. He was brought up on a farm, taught for some time, and on coming of age entered upon commercial pursuits, and subsequently studied law. He next passed five years in travelling through the United States, delivering lectures and contributing to newspapers for his support, and then five years in exploring the countries, of Europe, sending home descriptive letters. All of his communications were signed " Communipaw." During the last period of his life he labored in advocacy of postal reform, urging the reduction of postage to one cent for half-ounce letters. For the last twenty years of his life he made London his home, but continued his travels in various parts of the world. He died while on the journey to Egypt to report the opening of the Suez Canal for a New York newspaper. He published " Statistical Register" (New York, 1848); "Elements of Mnemotechny, or Art of Memory" (1848), which passed through several editions and was republished in London; "Northurfari, or Rambles in Iceland" (1854), republished in England: "Ocean Steam Navigation"; and "Postal Reform, its Urgent Necessity and Practicability " (1855). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 323.
MILLARD, Harrison, musician, born in Boston, Massachusetts. 27 November, 1829. He was educated at public schools in his native city. In May, 1861, he was appointed 1st lieutenant in the 19th U. S. Infantry, and served during the Civil War as aide-de-camp, division commissary, and division inspector, on the staffs of Generals Lovell H. Rousseau, William S. Rosecrans, and Innis H. Palmer. While with the Army of the Cumberland he was wounded at Chickamauga, 19 September, 1863, and soon afterward resigned from the army. He then settled in New York City, where he was appointed in 1864 to a place in the custom-house, and remained there until 1885. Meanwhile he has devoted his leisure to musical composition, producing many songs and several masses. His ability in this direction has been conspicuous, and his efforts have tended toward giving character and dignity to American song literature, going far toward placing them on a level with similar German productions. His best-known songs are " Waiting, "When the Tide comes in," "Viva L' America,'' "Under the Daisies," and "Say not Farewell." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 324.
MILLER, Elizabeth Smith, 1822-1911, feminist dress reformer, abolitionist. Active in women’s suffrage and rights. Originated bloomer costume for women. (American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 479; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 587-589)
MILLER, Homer Martin Virgil, senator, born in Pendleton County, South Carolina, 29 April, 1814. He moved with his parents to Raburn County, Georgia, where he received a classical education, was graduated at the Medical College of South Carolina in 1835, and completed his professional studios in Paris in 1838. On his return he settled in Cassville, Georgia, became a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was licensed to preach without joining the itinerancy. He also participated in the presidential canvass of 1840 and in that of 1844, in which his eloquence won for him the title of the Demosthenes of the mountains. He was professor in the Medical College of Memphis, Tennessee, in 1846-'8, and occupied a similar office in the Medical College of Augusta, Georgia, in 1849-'65. During the Civil War, he was surgeon and division surgeon in the Confederate Army, and subsequently medical inspector of the Military Department of Georgia. After the war, he was an active member of the Constitutional Convention under the Reconstruction Acts of Congress. In 1870 he was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Democrat, to fill the seat that had been vacant since the Civil War, and served till 1871. Since 1869 he has been professor of the principles and practice of medicine in Atlanta Medical College. He is an editor of the "Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal," and for thirty years has been a trustee of the University of Georgia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 326.
MILLER, Jacob Welsh, senator, born in German Valley, Morris County, New Jersey, in November, 1800; died in Morristown, New Jersey, 30 September, 1862. He received an academic education, studied law, was admitted to the bar of his native county, and attained eminence there. He was state senator in 1838-'40, and in the latter year was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Whig, serving till 1853. He opposed the compromise measures of 1850, and in 1855 joined the Republican Party, of which he continued an active member until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 326
MILLER, James Ferguson, naval officer, born in Peterborough, New Hampshire, 29 April, 1805; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 11 July, 1868. He was appointed midshipman in 1826, passed midshipman in 1832, and lieutenant in 1837. He served through the Mexican War, but in consequence of African fever, from which he never fully recovered, was placed in the reserved list in 1855, He became commander on the retired list in 1861, and commodore in 1867. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 326.
MILLER, Elihu Spencer, lawyer, born in Princeton, New Jersey, 3 September, 1817; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 6 March, 1879. He was graduated at Princeton in 1836, and studied law, first with James S. Green in Princeton, afterward with Reverdy Johnson in Baltimore. He was admitted to the bar in Baltimore and subsequently, in 1843, in Philadelphia, where he practised his profession during the remainder of his life. As a lawyer, he attained a very high standing among his contemporaries, and was well known for his integrity, intrepidity, and skill. He was a close thinker, a deliberate and careful speaker, and a man of pungent and refined wit. The great facility which he possessed for turning instantly from even the pleasures of life to the most serious work was a remarkable trait, and no less so was the tenacity with which he clung to any course in the conduct of legal work upon which he had deliberately entered. He occupied the chair of real estate and equity in the law department of the University of Pennsylvania for twenty years. During the Civil War he raised and commanded an artillery company. He died suddenly in his office at the close of his day's work. He published a " Treatise on the Law of Partition by Writ in Pennsylvania" (Philadelphia, 1847); and edited the second edition of Sergeant's "Treatise of the Lien of Mechanics and Material Men in Pennsylvania" (1856). He also printed a small collection of fugitive poems entitled "Caprices" (1849). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 327.
MILLER, Samuel, John, clergyman, born in Princeton, New Jersey, 6 April, 1819, was graduated at Princeton in 1836, and at the theological seminary there in 1842. He was pastor successively of Presbyterian Churches in Frederick, Maryland, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Petersburg, Virginia. During the Civil War he was a captain of artillery in the Confederate Army, and since 1871 he has resided in Princeton, where he has founded three "Evangelical" churches and officiated in them. In 1877 he was dismissed from the presbytery of his church for holding heterodox views on the subject of the Trinity, and other minor points of ecclesiastical difference affecting the peccability of Christ, and the state of the dead, but on appealing to the synod of New Jersey was permitted to withdraw as an independent clergyman without deposition. His later years for the most part have been devoted to controversial writings, and his publications include " Design of the Church " (Philadelphia. 1846); "A Commentary on the Proverbs” (New York, 1863); "Fetich in Theology" (1874); "Metaphysics" (1875); "Are Souls Immortal?" (Philadelphia, 1877): "Was Christ in Adam?" (1877): "Is God a Trinity!" (1877); "Creed" (Princeton, 1879); "Theology" (1887): and "Commentary on Romans" (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 327
MILLER, John Franklin, senator, born in South Bend, Indiana, 21 November, 1831; died in Washington, D. C, 8 March, 1886. He was educated in the academies of his native state, graduated at the New York State Law-School in 1852, and began practice in South Bend, Indiana. The failure of his health induced him to spend the next three years in California, but he returned in 1855, resumed his profession, and took an active part in the Republican presidential canvass of 1856. He was a member of the state senate in 1860, but resigned to enter the army, and, after serving on the governor's staff as colonel, was in command of the 29th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers. He was engaged from the beginning of hostilities in the west. At the battle of Stone River he charged at the head of a brigade across the river, drove General John C. Breckinridge from his position, and received a bullet-wound in his neck. For his gallantry in this action he was promoted brigadier general of volunteers. In the battle of Liberty Gap he made another charge with his brigade, and at the moment of victory he was severely wounded in the eye. He commanded a division of 8,000 men on the left at the battle of Nashville, and was brevetted major-general of volunteers in 1860. At the close of the war he was offered a colonel's commission in the regular army, but declined, settled in San Francisco, and for four years was collector of the port. He then engaged in business, and was an originator and president of the Alaska Commercial Fur Company, in which he amassed a large fortune. He was a Republican presidential elector in 1872, 1876, and 1880, a member of the California Constitutional Convention in 1879 and was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican in January, 1881, serving from the following March until his death. He was a member of the Senate Committees on Foreign Relations and Naval Affairs in the 47th Congress, and in the 48th and 49th chairman of the former, and a member of that on Civil Service and Retrenchment. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 327-328.
MILLER, Jonathan Peckham, 1797-1874, Montpelier, Vermont, reformer, abolitionist, Manager, 1834-1837, American Anti-Slavery Society. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 328; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 632)
MILLER, Jonathan P., reformer, born in Randolph, Vermont, in 1797; died in Montpelier in 1847. He was educated at the University of Vermont and became a lawyer. In 1824 he went to Greece as a volunteer, and after the siege and fall of Missolonghi in April, 1826, he returned to Vermont and lectured through New York and the New England States for the benefit of the Greek cause. At the solicitation of the Boston and New York Greek Committee, Colonel Miller went to Greece a second time as their general agent, and distributed several cargoes of provisions and clothing to the suffering Greeks, returning to Montpelier, Vermont, in 1827. He introduced anti-slavery resolutions into the Vermont Legislature in 1833. He was a delegate from his state to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, and from that time until his death gave a large part of his time and fortune to the furtherance of the anti-slavery cause. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 328.
MILLER, Joseph Nelson, naval officer, born in Ohio, 22 November, 1836. He entered the U.S. Navy in 1851, became passed midshipman in 1856, master in 1858, lieutenant in 1860, lieutenant-commander in 1862, commander in 1870, and captain in 1881. He served as executive officer on the iron-clad "Passaic" in the attack upon Fort Sumter and Fort McAllister during the spring of 1863, and in the same capacity on board the "Monadnock" in both the Fort Fisher fights, and. was highly recommended for ability and bravery in these actions. He is now (1888) in command of the receiving-ship " Wabash." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 328.
MILLER, Madison, soldier, born in Mercer, Pennsylvania, 6 February, 1811. He was educated in the common schools, was captain of the 2d Regiment of Illinois Volunteers in the Mexican War, and wounded at the battle of Buena Vista. He was judge of El Dorado County, California, in 1851-'2, was subsequently for several years a resident of Carondelet, Missouri, and president of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the U. S. Army as captain of the 1st Missouri Infantry, was promoted colonel of volunteers in 1862, commanded the 2d Brigade of the 6th Division at Shiloh, where he was captured, and while a prisoner was one of a commission sent by the Confederates to Washington to arrange for an exchange of prisoners. In March, 1865, he received the brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious service at Wilson's Creek and Shiloh. He was in the Missouri Senate in 1865, and since 1867 has been fund commissioner of the Missouri Railroad. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 328.
MILLER, Morris Smith, soldier, born in Utica, New York., 2 April, 1814; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 11 March, 1870. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1834, became 1st lieutenant in 1837, captain in 1846, quartermaster with the rank of major in 1861, and lieutenant-colonel on the staff and deputy quartermaster-general in 1866. In March, 1865, he was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general for faithful service in the quartermaster's department during the Civil War. He had served during the Canada border disturbances, was in the Florida and Mexican Wars, and in 1861, as quartermaster at Washington. D. C. was responsible for all the arrangements for the arrival of troops to defend the capital. Upon the attack on the Massachusetts volunteers in Baltimore, 19 April, 1861, he was ordered by General Winfield Scott to Annapolis to attend to forwarding the New York and Massachusetts troops that were expected by that route. Finding that no troops had arrived, he returned, but a second attempt was successful, and he reached Annapolis in time to forward the first troops that arrived in Washington. Throughout the entire war he remained in the quartermaster's department at Washington. After four years, during which $20,000,000 passed through his hands, an examination of his accounts showed that less than $20 was to be disallowed. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 326.
MILLER, Samuel Freeman, 1816-1890, lawyer, jurist, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. Supported emancipation. Leader of the Republican Party. Appointed by Abraham Lincoln as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 328-329; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 2, p. 637; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 516; Congressional Globe)
MILLER, Samuel Freeman, jurist, born in Richmond, Kentucky, 5 April, 1816. He was graduated at the medical department of Transylvania University, Kentucky, in 1838, practised for a short time, and afterward became a lawyer. He was strongly in favor of emancipation, and did much to further that cause, and, although he took no part in politics, the course of public affairs induced him to remove in 1850 from Kentucky to Iowa, where he became a leader of the Republican Party. He was offered and declined numerous offices, and devoted himself to his profession, in which he took high rank. In 1862 he was appointed by President Lincoln Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, which office he still (1888) occupies. He was the orator at the Constitutional Centennial Celebration at Philadelphia. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 328-329.
MILLER, Stephen, soldier, born in Perry County, Pennsylvania. 7 January, 1816; died in Worthington, Minnesota, 18 August, 1881. His grandfather, Melchior Miller, came from Germany about 1785. Stephen received a common-school education, became a forwarding and commission merchant in Harrisburg in 1837, was elected prothonotary of Dauphin County in 1849 and 1852, and in 1853-'5 edited the "Telegraph," a Whig journal at Harrisburg. In 1855-'8 he was flour-inspector of Philadelphia, and in the latter year he moved to Minnesota for his health, and engaged in business in St. Cloud. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1860, and a presidential elector on the Lincoln ticket in that year. He enlisted as a private soldier in 1861, was made lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Minnesota Infantry, and served with the Army of the Potomac till September, 1862, when he became colonel of the 7th Minnesota, and assisted, with his regiment, in quelling the Indian outbreak of that year in his adopted state. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 26 October, 1863, and shortly afterward elected governor of Minnesota, so that he resigned from the army on 18 January, 1864. He served as governor in 1864-'5, and from 1871 till his death was field-agent of the St. Paul and Sioux City Railroad. He was also in the legislature in 1873, and a presidential elector on the Hayes ticket in 1876. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 329.
MILLER, Warner, senator, born in Oswego County, New York., 12 August, 1838. His parents were of German extraction, and his grandfather served as a colonel in the Revolutionary army. Warner was graduated at Union in 1860. He enlisted a few months later as a private in a New York cavalry regiment, served under General Philip H. Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and was promoted lieutenant. At the battle of Winchester, he was taken prisoner, and paroled on the field. Soon afterward he was honorably discharged and went, abroad, where he became interested in paper-manufacturing, and on his return, he established himself in this business in Herkimer, New York., where he still (1888) resides. His first active participation in politics was in 1872, when he was a delegate to the National Republican Convention at Philadelphia. He was in the legislature in 1874-'8, was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1878, and re-elected in 1880, but in 1881 was chosen U. S. Senator from New York to fill the unexpired term of Thomas C. Piatt, who had resigned. His term expired in 1887, when he was succeeded by Frank Hiscock. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 329.
MILLS, Clark, sculptor, born in Onondaga County, New York., 1 December 1815; died in Washington, D. C, 12 January, 1883. He was left an orphan at the age of five years, and then lived with a maternal uncle, but, becoming dissatisfied with his home, ran away in 1828. After a hard experience working on a farm, cutting cedar posts in a swamp, and learning the millwright's trade, he reached New Orleans, Louisiana, where he stayed a year and then went to Charleston, South Carolina. Here he learned the stucco business, which he followed until 1835, when he discovered a new method of taking a cast from the living face, which enabled him to make busts so cheaply that he soon had as much work as he could do. He then resolved to try cutting in marble, and began a bust of John C. Calhoun, for which he was awarded a gold medal by the City Council of Charleston, and it was placed by them in the city hall. Subsequently he executed, busts of John Preston, Wade Hampton, and other eminent South Carolinians. He was invited in 1848 to furnish a design for an equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, to be erected in Washington. He completed his model in eight months, and it was accepted. His treatment was entirely original. The statue was unveiled on the anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans, in 1853. It stands on Lafayette Square, and was cast from cannon taken from the British during the War of 1812. Later he obtained a second commission for a colossal equestrian statue of George Washington, and purchased ground in the vicinity of Washington, where he built a complete foundry. His statue of Washington represents a scene in the battle of Princeton. It was dedicated in Washington on 22 February, 1860. Meanwhile Mr. Mills also executed a replica of his Jackson statue for the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1860 he began his statue of "Freedom," after Thomas Crawford's designs, which was completed in 1863, and now stands above the dome of the Capitol. The latter part of his life was spent in making busts, and he invented a method of putting plaster on the face of his subjects, thereby adding greatly to the truthfulness of his casts. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 331-332.
MILLS, Darius Ogden, banker, born in North Salem, Westchester County, New York, 5 September, 1825. His father died when he was sixteen, and, later investments having proved unfortunate, the lad was left without resources. He soon found a clerkship in New York, and at twenty-two became cashier and one-third owner of a small bank in Buffalo. Two years later he was one of the earliest victims of the gold fever, sailing for California in December, 1848. He soon began business in Sacramento, and the Gold Bank of D. O. Mills and Company, then established, is still flourishing and still under his control—the oldest bank of unbroken credit in the state. He was immediately and conspicuously successful. The "luck of D. O. Mills" became a proverb, but it was attended with a reputation for judgment, rapid decision, boldness, and absolute integrity. He became largely interested in mines on the great Comstock Lode, secured control of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad leading to it, and of the immense forests about Lake Tahoe which supplied it, acquired a large share in the chief quicksilver-mines, and bought extensive ranches and other property, but dealt in everything on his principles as a banker, boldly, but rarely in a speculative way. In 1864 he founded the Bank of California, in San Francisco, heading the subscription for the capital and assuming the presidency. It became one of the best-known banks of the country, with the highest credit in the financial centres both of Europe and Asia. Desiring finally to retire from business, Mr. Mills resigned the presidency in 1873, leaving the bank with a capital of $5,000,000, large surplus, profitable business, first-rate organization, and unlimited credit. Two years later he was called back to find it with liabilities of $ 13,500,000 above its capital and surplus, with only $100,000 in its vaults, and with many doubtful assets. His old cashier, William C. Ralston, had been president meantime. He had lent Ralston the capital on which the latter began business in San Francisco, and had trusted him. Mr. Mills had resigned his directorship in the bank when retiring from its management, and finally had sold his stock; but Ralston, against his wishes, had continued to have him elected a director, buying enough of Mr. Mills's stock to qualify for a directorship, and keeping it in Mr. Mills's name, without his knowledge. Mr. Mills returned from Europe shortly before the crash, and was first appealed to by William Sharon to save Ralston's personal credit He at once responded, loaning Mr. Ralston $400,000 that day, and $350,000 more within the week. It subsequently appeared that this money was used , to take up fraudulent over-issues of the bank's stock. A few days later the bank failed, creating an excitement that convulsed the Pacific Coast. Mr. Ralston committed suicide, and Mr. Mills was recalled to the presidency. He headed the new subscription with $1,000,000, raised nearly $7,000,000 more, and opened the doors of the bank one month and five days after they had been closed. He insisted on holding the presidency now without pay, and resigned peremptorily within three years, as soon as he felt that the bank was firmly reestablished. Afterward he uniformly refused the care of any business but his own. He gradually transferred heavy investments to the east, erected the largest office-building in New York, and finally returned to reside near his birthplace. He had been regent of the University of California, and when he resigned this place he gave an endowment of $75,000 to found the Mills professorship of moral and intellectual philosophy. About the same time, he presented to the state the marble group "Columbus before Queen Isabella," by Larkin G. Meade, which now stands in the centre of the state-house rotunda at Sacramento. In New York, he presented to the city a building on the Bellevue Hospital grounds, costing $100,000, for the training of male nurses. He has been an active trustee of the Lick estate and Lick Observatory in California, of the Metropolitan Museum, of the Museum of Natural History, and also of the American Geographical Society. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 332.
MILLS, Robert, architect, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 12 August, 1781; died in Washington. D. C, 3 March, 1855. He studied architecture under Benjamin H. Latrobe, and designed several buildings in Pennsylvania, among which were the fire-proof wings of "Independence Hall, Philadelphia, the capitol in Harrisburg, and the single-arch bridge across the Schuylkill. Subsequently he erected several U. S. custom-houses and marine hospitals. In 1820 he returned to South Carolina, and there became state architect and engineer. He was recalled to Washington in 1830, appointed U. S. Architect, and supervised the building of the U. S. Post-Office, Patent-Office, and Treasury Buildings. The original design of the Washington Monument, the loftiest structure ever erected by man. was made by him. It included a granite shaft faced with white marble, 600 feet high, 55 feet square at the base, 30 feet square at the top, surrounded at its base by a circular colonnade or pantheon, in which to place statues of the nation’s illustrious dead, with vaults beneath for the reception of their remains. The plan for the circular colonnade was never carried out, but, under the auspices of the Washington National Monument Society, the construction of the monument was begun in 1848 on the very spot selected by Washington himself for a memorial of the American Revolution. Funds amounting to nearly $250,000 were contributed by the people of the linked States of all ages and from all quarters of the Union, and the construction continued until 1850, when it reached a height of over 156 feet. The financial embarrassments of the time led to the discontinuance of the work, and it was not until 1877 when, by act of Congress, its completion was authorized, and Colonel Thomas L. Casey, of the U. S. Engineers, placed in charge. Various modifications of the original plan were made by him, including the building of an entire new base, which was found to be necessary, until finally it was dedicated, in the presence of President Arthur and his cabinet, on 22 February, 1885. The address of the occasion was written by Robert C. Winthrop, who in 1848 had delivered an oration on the laying of the corner-stone. As shown in the accompanying illustration, the monument is 555 feet 5 inches, the shaft being 500 feet 5 inches high, and the pyramidion 55 feet. The topmost point is 597 feet 3 inches above mean low water in the Potomac, and 596 feet 9-36 inches above the mean level of the Atlantic at Sandy Hook, New York, as determined, 1 December, 1884, by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Mr. Mills published " Statistics of South Carolina " with "Atlas of South Carolina" (Charleston, 1826); "The American Pharos or Light-house Guide (Washington, 1832); and "Guide to the National Executive Offices" (1842). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 332-333.
MILMORE, Martin, sculptor, born in Sligo, Ireland, 14 September, 1844; died in Boston Highlands, Mass., 21 July, 1883, emigrated with his family to Boston in 1851, and took lessons in wood-carving in early life from his elder brother, Joseph. After his graduation at the Latin-school in 1860, he entered the studio of Thomas Ball, and several years later established himself in a studio of his own in Boston. In 1863 he cut for the Sanitary Fair a statuette entitled "Devotion." He received the contract from the city for the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument on the Common. He then went to Rome and studied for some time, completing designs for some parts of the monument while there. It was unveiled in 1877. (See illustration.) While in Rome, Mr. Milmore modelled busts of Pope Pius IX, Charles Sumner, Wendell Phillips, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and other eminent men. He designed the Soldiers' Monument at Forest Hill Cemetery, and also the one at Charlestown. Among his works are busts
of Longfellow, Theodore Parker, and George Ticknor, in the public library, and the largo ideal figures Ceres," " Flora," and " Pomona, in granite on Horticultural Hall. His bust of Charles Sumner, which was presented to George William Curtis by the state of Massachusetts after the delivery of the sitter's eulogy before the legislature in 1878, has been placed by Mr. Curtis in the Metropolitan Museum. Among Milmore's other public works are his statue of "America" at Fitchburg, soldiers' and sailors' monuments in many cities, statue of General Sylvanus Thayer at West Point, and the "Weeping Lion" at Waterville, Maine. He designed, with his brother, the granite "Sphinx" at Mt. Auburn Cemetery. Mr. Milmore's last work was a bust of Daniel Webster, which had been ordered by New Hampshire for the state-house at Concord. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 333-334.
MILROY, Robert Huston, soldier, born in Washington County, Indiana, 11 June, 1816. He was graduated at Norwich University, Vermont, in 1843, taking degrees both in the classical and military departments. In the war with Mexico he served as captain in the 1st Indiana Volunteers. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1849, and in 1850 was graduated at the law department of Indiana University. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of Indiana in 1849-'50, and in 1851 was appointed judge of the 8th Judicial Circuit Court of Indiana. At the beginning of the Civil War he issued a call for volunteers and was made a captain, becoming colonel of the 9th Indiana Volunteers on 26 April, 1861. He served in western Virginia under Generals George B. McClellan and William S. Rosecrans, receiving a commission as brigadier-general on 6 February, 1862. Thereafter Milroy continued in various commands in Virginia under Generals John C. Fremont and Franz Sigel, until 10 March, 1863, when he was made major-general of volunteers. In this capacity, he had charge of the 2d Division of the 8th Army Corps, and was stationed at Winchester, Virginia. Here, on 15 June, 1863, he was attacked by nearly the whole of Lee's army, which was marching toward Pennsylvania. General Milroy resisted this superior force for three days, until his ammunition and provisions were exhausted, and then cut his way out by night, losing a large portion of his forces. He claims that this detention of Lee's army at Winchester enabled General Meade to fight advantageously at Gettysburg; when otherwise the great battle would have taken place farther north. His conduct was made the subject of investigation, and in 1865 he resigned from the army. In 1868 he became a trustee of the Wabash and Erie Canal, which place he held for some time. He was appointed superintendent of Indian Affairs in Washington Territory, and continued in that office until 1874. He was appointed Indian Agent in 1875, and reappointed until 1885, when, consequent upon a change in the administration, he lost the office. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 334.
MINER, Myrtilla, 1815-1864, New York, educator, philanthropist, abolitionist. Opened Normal School for Colored Girls in Washington, DC, in 1851. Minor was opposed to slavery. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 336; Encyclopedia Britannica; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 23)
MINER, Myrtilla, philanthropist, born in Brookfield, Madison County, New York., 4 March, 1815; died in Washington, D. C., 17 December, 1864. She began teaching when fifteen years of age, and was afterward employed in a school for the education of planters' daughters in Whitesville, Wilkinson County, Mississippi. She remained there two years, became familiar with the evils of slavery, and determined to devote her life to the elevation of the Negro race. She decided to found a normal school for free colored girls in Washington, although she had but $100 with which to meet expenses. On 3 December, 1851, the school was opened in a small apartment with six pupils. During the second month the number of pupils increased to forty, and in 1853 a permanent location for the school with increased accommodation was purchased for $4,300, Harriet Beecher Stowe contributing $1,000 from the proceeds of the sale of “Uncle Tom's Cabin.” Thenceforth the school was a great success. In 1860 indications of approaching Civil War led to the temporary abandonment of the school, and in 1861 Miss Miner went to California for the benefit of her health, but met with an accident there and returned to die in Washington. While she was absent in California in 1863, Congress passed an act for the incorporation of her normal school. She had suffered severe persecution in consequence of her efforts to elevate the colored people. Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 336.
MINES, John Flavel, author, born in Paris, France, 27 January, 1835, was graduated at Trinity in 1854, and at Berkeley Divinity-School in 1857. He entered the army as chaplain in May, 1861, but later retired from the ministry, was given a commission, and was mustered out in May, 1865, as a lieutenant-colonel. He has been a contributor to various New York newspapers, and has published "The Heroes of the Last Lustre." a poem (New York, 1858), and "A Tour around New York by Mr. Felix Oldboy" (1888). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 336.
MINOR, Virginia Louisa, reformer, born in Goochland County, Virginia, 27 March, 1824. She was educated in part at an academy for young ladies in Charlottesville, Virginia, married Francis Minor, a relative of the same name in 1843, and moved in 1846 to St. Louis, Missouri, where she has since resided. During the Civil War she devoted herself to aid the sick and wounded soldiers in the camps and hospitals around St. Louis. She originated the woman suffrage movement in Missouri in 1866, organized the Woman Suffrage Association in 1867, and presided over the convention of woman suffragists in St. Louis in 1869. She was the first woman in the United States to claim suffrage as a right, and not as a favor. With this end in view, in 1872 she brought the matter before the courts, taking it finally to the U. S. Supreme Court. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 337.
MINOT, Charles, railroad official, born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, 30 August, 1810; died in Somerville, Massachusetts, 10 December, 1866. He was graduated at Harvard in 1828, studied law, and after his admission to the bar practised in Suffolk County for many years. In 1841 he was appointed superintendent of the Boston and Maine Railroad, and after a year accepted a similar appointment with the Erie Railway Company. This office he held until 1854, when he became attached to the Michigan Southern Railroad. In 1859 he returned to the Erie as superintendent, which place he then filled until about 1864, after which his services were retained in a consulting capacity by that road. Mr. Minot was one of the best known railroad officers in the United States, and attained a high reputation as a manager. Many of the present officers of railways in the United States began their careers under his instructions. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 337.
MINTURN, Robert Bowne, merchant, born in New York City, 10 November, 1805; died there, 9 January, 1866. He received an English education, and, though compelled by the death of his father to leave school at the age of fourteen and enter a counting-house, spent his leisure in study, so that he gained an extensive acquaintance with general literature. He was received into partnership in 1835 with Charles Green, whose clerk he had been, and in 1830 entered the firm of Fish and Grinnell, which was afterward known as Grinnell, Minturn and County He declined all public office except the post of commissioner of emigration, which he accepted from a wish to secure the rights of emigrants. He was an active manager of many charitable associations in New York City, aided in establishing the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, and was a founder of St. Luke's Hospital. He was the first president of the Union League Club.—His son, Robert Bowne, born in New York City, 21 February, 21, 1830, was graduated at Columbia in 1850. He is the author of "New York to Delhi" (New York, 1858). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 338.
MINTY, Robert Horatio George, soldier, born in County Mayo, Ireland, 4 December, 1831. He entered the British Army as ensign in 1849, and served in the West Indies and Honduras and on the African Coast, but retired from the service in 1853, and, coming to the United States, settled in Michigan. He became major of the 2d Michigan Cavalry and then lieutenant-colonel of the 3d at the beginning of the Civil War. He was made colonel of the 4th in 1862, and in 1863-'5 commanded a cavalry brigade that was known as the " Sabre Brigade," capturing Shelbyville, Tennessee, on 27 June, 1863. He commanded the cavalry on the left at Chickamauga, and afterward covered General Thomas's retreat to Chattanooga. He also did good service at New Madrid, Farmington, the pursuit of Bragg, Stone River, and the Atlanta Campaign, and led a division in Kilpatrick's raid around that city. At the close of the war he received the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers, and declined a major's commission in the regular army. Five horses were killed under him during the war. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 338.
MISSROON, John Stoney, naval officer, born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1810; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 23 October, 1865. He was educated in Liverpool, England, entered the U. S. Navy as midshipman, 27 June, 1824, and became passed midshipman, 20 February, 1830, lieutenant, 31 December, 1833, commander, 14 September, 1855, and commodore, 16 July, 1862. At the time of his death he was ordnance-officer at the Boston U.S. Navy-yard, and be had received special commendation in the last report of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 340.
MITCHEL, Charles Burton, senator, born in Gallatin, Tennessee, 19 September, 1815; died in Washington, Arkansas, 20 September, 1864. He was graduated at the University of Nashville in 1833, and at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1836. Moving to Washington, Arkansas, in 1885, he practised his profession for more than twenty years. In 1848 he was elected to the legislature, and in 1852 appointed receiver of public money in Washington, which office he held for four years. He was elected to the U. S. Senate from Arkansas for six years, beginning on 4 March, 1861, and held his seat until May, when he went south, and was expelled on 11 July, 1861. Dr. Mitchel then represented his state in the Confederate Senate from its first organization until the time of his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 340-341.
MITCHEL, John, Irish patriot, born in Dungiven, County Derry, Ireland, 3 November, 1815; died in Cork, 20 March, 1875. He was graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1886, studied law, and practised for several years at Banbridge. In 1845 his "Life of Hugh O'Neil, Prince of Ulster," was published in Dublin, and gave him great reputation as a writer and nationalist. He became a contributor to the "Irish Nation," and after the death of Thomas Davis was its chief writer. In 1846 he opposed the peace resolutions of the O'Connells, and strongly advocated the absolute independence of Ireland. He was a Protestant, and warned the Irish Catholics from driving the Irish Protestants from the patriot cause by needless tests. Early in 1848 he withdrew from the "Nation" and founded the "United Irishman," as the organ of the advanced Young Ireland Party. His fervid appeals in this paper aroused the insurrectionary spirit of the Irish people, and, to put him down, the treason-felony bill was passed by the British parliament. On 18 May, 1848, he was arrested under the provisions of the new act, and on 26 May he was convicted and sentenced to fourteen years' banishment. He was first taken to Bermuda, where he passed a year of "suspense, agony, and meditation." Thence he was transported to Van Diemen's Landied Assisted by friends in America, he escaped in the summer of 1858, and on 12 October landed in San Francisco, receiving there an enthusiastic welcome. In a short time he went to New York, where he published his "Jail Journal, or Five Years in British Prisons" (1854). In 1855 he established “The Citizen," in which he published his celebrated letter to Henry Ward Beecher in defence of slavery. He also had a controversy with Archbishop Hughes on the subject of the independence of Roman Catholics in political matters. These discussions lost Mitchel many friends in the northern states, and he was obliged to stop "The Citizen." He then went to Knoxville, Tennessee, and in 1857 established the "Southern Citizen," which failed. During the Civil War he edited the Richmond "Enquirer," in which he advocated the cause of the south with enthusiasm. After the war he returned to New York and began to publish the "Irish Citizen," which, like all his newspaper enterprises in this country, failed on account of his sturdy independence. In 1874 he returned to Ireland, but was not molested. The same year he was elected to parliament from Tipperary, but was declared ineligible, and not allowed to take his seat. He was again elected, but died before any action was taken in his case. Besides the books mentioned above, he published "The Last Conquest of Ireland (Perhaps)" (Dublin, 1861), " History of Ireland from the Treaty of Limerick" (New York, 1868); and "Life and 'Times of Aodh O'Neill, Prince of Ulster" (1868); and he edited the poems of Thomas Davis (New York, 1856) and James C. Mangan (1859), with biographies. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 341.
MITCHEL, Ormsby MacKnight, astronomer, born in Morganfield, Kentucky, 28 July, 1809; died in Beaufort, South Carolina, 30 October, 1862. He received his early education in Lebanon, Ohio, and when thirteen years old became a clerk in a country store. In 1825 he received an appointment to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated four years later, standing fifteenth in the class that included Robert E. Lee and Joseph E. Johnston. He was made 2d lieutenant in the artillery, and assigned to duty as assistant professor of mathematics at the Military Academy until 1832, after which he was stationed at Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Florida, but resigned in September of that year. Subsequently he studied law in Cincinnati and was admitted to the bar, meanwhile also holding the appointment of chief engineer of the Little Miami Railroad. He was professor of mathematics, philosophy, and astronomy in Cincinnati College from 1836 until 1844, when he proposed the establishment of an observatory at Cincinnati, and, after raising nearly all of the funds through his own exertions, was made its director. The corner-stone of the pier which was to sustain the great refracting telescope was laid by John Quincy Adams, with an oration, on 9 November, 1843, and the apparatus for the proper equipment of the observatory was obtained by Professor Mitchel during a visit to Europe in 1842 for that purpose. This was the first of the larger observatories to be built in the United States. He invented in 1848 a chronograph for automatically measuring and recording right ascensions by an electro-magnetic mechanism, similar to that constructed by John Locke (q. v.). In 1849 he devised an apparatus for the accurate measurement of large differences of declination, which, after successful improvement, was in 1854 attached to the equatorial. During 1854-'9 he made nearly 50,000 observations of faint stars. His other work included the discovery of the duplicity of certain stars, notably Antares, observations of nebulae, solar spots, double stars, and comets, the determination of the longitude of Cincinnati with reference to Washington and St. Louis, and the invention of an apparatus for finding the personal equation. He was also adjutant-general of Ohio in 1847-'8, and chief engineer of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad in 1848-'9 and 1852-'3. In 1859 he was called to the charge of the Dudley Observatory in Albany, where he remained until 1861, retaining during the interval his connection with the observatory in Cincinnati. At the beginning of the Civil War he was made brigadier-general of volunteers from Ohio, and at first reported to General George B. McClellan, who assigned him to the command of General William B. Franklin's brigade in the Army of the Potomac, but at the request of the citizens of Cincinnati he was transferred to that city, where his duties largely consisted in fortifying the city and in preparation of recruits for the field. He served with the Army of the Ohio during the campaigns of Tennessee and northern Alabama in the winter of 1861-'2, and occupied Bowling Green, Kentucky, and Nashville, Tennessee, in February, 1862, after which he participated in the action near Bridgeport, Alabama, taking possession of the railroad from Decatur to Stephenson, in one of the most famous raids of the early history of the Civil War, and is best known as the "locomotive chase." See "Daring and Suffering: a History of the Andrews Railroad Raid into Georgia in 1862," by William Pittenger (New York, 1887). These services gained for him the rank of major-general of volunteers on 11 April, 1862: and anxious to advance into the heart of the south, he was restrained by his superior officer until finally he asked to be relieved. Returning to Washington, he was selected by the president for the command of an expedition to the Mississippi; but the necessary order was refused by General Henry M. Halleck, and he remained inactive until September, when he was placed in command of the Department of the South, in South Carolina, at Hilton Head, where he was stricken with yellow fever and died. He was popularly known in the army as "Old Stars." Professor Michel lectured extensively during the years 1842-'8 in the principal cities of the United States. He received the degree of A. M. from Harvard in 1851, and that of LL. D. from Washington in 1853 and from Hamilton in 1856, and was also a member of various scientific societies, both in the United States and Europe. He published a popular astronomical journal, entitled "The Sidereal Messenger," in 1846-'8, and also a revised edition of Elijah H. Burritt's "Geography of the Heavens." His own works include "The Planetary and Stellar Worlds" (New York. 1848); "The Orbs of Heaven" (1851): "A Concise Elementary Treatise of the Sun, Planets, Satellites, and Comets" (I860); and "The Astronomy of the Bible" (1863). See "Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel," by his son, Frederick A. Mitchel (Boston, 1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 341-342.
MITCHELL, Alexander, financier, born near Ellon, Scotland, 18 October, 1817; died in New York City, 19 April, 1887. He was educated at the parish-schools of Aberdeenshire, and subsequently studied law, but after two years entered a banking-house in Peterhead. In 1839 he came to the United States and settled in Milwaukee, under an engagement to act as secretary of the Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company, which had just been organized under the presidency of George Smith, and which, though nominally an insurance company, did a large banking business. In 1853 the company was reorganized under the state law as a bank. During the financial difficulties of 1861 which were caused by the repudiation of the southern bonds, Mr. Mitchell's judicious recommendations resulted in saving many of the western banks from ruin. In 1861 he became the first commissioner of the board of the Milwaukee Debt Commission, which office he held until his death. That city's credit was restored largely through his influence, and its present high financial standing has resulted therefrom. He became largely interested in the development of the railroad systems that centre around Milwaukee, and after the consolidation of the various lines that form the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway he was made its president. Later, by further consolidations and enlargements, this corporation became the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company, and it now owns more miles of track than any other railroad Company in the world. Mr. Mitchell was elected to Congress as a Democrat, and served from 4 March, 1871, to 3 March, 1875. He was president of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company in 1869, of the Western Union Railroad Company, and of the Northwestern National Insurance Company, and president, director, or trustee of many local institutions. He was the richest man in the northwest, and his residence in Milwaukee was among the finest in the state. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 342.
MITCHELL, John Inscho, senator, born in Tioga, Pennsylvania, 28 July, 1838. He received a common school education, and spent the years 1857-'9 in the University of Lewisburg. Subsequently he taught, but. soon after the beginning of the Civil War, he joined the 136th Pennsylvania Regiment and became captain of his company. He then studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1864. He was district attorney of Tioga County in 1868-71, and in 1870 edited "The Tioga County Agitator." During 1872-'6 he was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, and served as chairman of the Judiciary and Ways and Means Committees. He was then elected to Congress as a Republican, and served, with re-elections, from 4 March, 1877, till 4 March, 1881, when he was chosen U. S. Senator, and served until 4 March. 1887. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 344.
MITCHELL, Silas Weir, physician, born m Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 15 February, 1829, was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, but left during his senior year on account of illness, and was graduated at Jefferson Medical College in 1850. Dr. Mitchell has attained a high reputation by his physiological researches, and early began the publication of papers on this subject. His first investigations were largely devoted to the chemical nature of the venom of serpents, and he issued through the Smithsonian Institution "Researches on the Venom of the Rattlesnake." with an investigation of the anatomy and physiology of the organs concerned (1860), and, with George R. Moorhouse, "Researches on the Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration in the Chelonia" (1863). During the Civil War he had-charge of the U. S. Army Hospital wards for diseases and injuries of the nervous system at Turner's Lane Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was associated at that time in the preparation of valuable papers on "Reflex Paralysis," "Gunshot Wounds and other Injuries of Nerves." and "On Malingering, especially in regard to Simulation of Diseases of the Nervous System." Subsequently he became president of the Philadelphia College of Physicians. His papers treat chiefly of physiology, toxicology, and nervous diseases, on which subjects he is an acknowledged authority. He received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1886, and in 1865 was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He also holds similar relations to many other societies, including the British Medical Association. He has delivered various orations and addresses before medical faculties, and the titles of his papers exceed one hundred in number. Dr. Mitchell first turned his attention to fiction during the Civil War, when he wrote "The Children's Hour," the sales of which were in aid of the U.S. Sanitary Commission Fair in Philadelphia. Subsequently he wrote short stories for the Children's Hospital, and in 1880 published his first novel. Since then he has also produced a volume of verse. His works include "The Wonderful Stories of Fuz-buz the Fly, and Mother Grabem the Snider" (Philadelphia, 1867); "Wear and Tear, or Hints for the Overworked" (1871); I "On Injuries of the Nerves and their Consequences" (1872); "Fat and Blood, and How to make Them" (1877); "Nurse and Patient, and Croup Cure" (1877); "Diseases of the Nervous System, especially of Women " (1881); " Hephzibah Guinness.' "Thee and You." and " A Draft on the Bank of Spain " (1 vol., 1880): "The Hill of Stones, and other Poems" (1882): "In War-Time" (Boston, 1884); "Roland Blake" (1886): "A Masque and other Poems" (1887); "Proud Little Boy and other Tales out of Fairyland " (Philadelphia, 1888), and "Doctor and Patient, a Series of Essays" (Boston, 1888). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp.
MITCHELL, Robert Byington, 1823-1882, lawyer, political leader, Union soldier. Member of the Kansas Territorial Legislature, 1857-1858. Active in Free State anti-slavery movement in Kansas in 1856. Colonel, 2nd Kansas Volunteers. Commander, 13th U.S. Army Division. Fought in Battle of Perryville. In 1865-1867 was Governor of New Mexico. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 346; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 60; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 625)
MITCHELL, Robert Byington, lawyer, born in Richland County, Ohio, 4 April, 1823; died in Washington, D. C., 26 January, 1882. He was educated at Washington College, Pennsylvania, and then studied law. During the Mexican War he served in the Ohio Volunteers as 1st lieutenant, and on its conclusion he resumed the practice of his profession. In 1856 he moved to Kansas, and took an active part with the free-state men in their struggle with the pro-slavery party. He was a member of the territorial legislature in 1857-'8, and treasurer in 1858-'61. At the beginning of the Civil War he was made colonel of the 2d Kansas Volunteers, and was severely wounded at the battle of Wilson's Creek. On his recovery, he raised a regiment of cavalry, and was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 8 April, 1862. He was given command of the 13th Division of General Don Carlos Buell's army, and participated in the battle of Perryville. During 1865-'7 he was governor of New Mexico, and, after completing his term of office, settled in Washington, D. C., where he remained until his death. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 346.
MITCHELL, Warren G., New York, American Abolition Society (Radical Abolitionist, Vol. 1, No. 1, New York, August 1855)
MITER, John, abolitionist. Agent and Manager, 1833-1837, of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS). Worked in Newark, New Jersey, area. (Dumond, 1961, p. 185; Abolitionist, Vol. II)
MOFFAT, Edward Stewart, mining engineer, born in Oxford, Ohio, 5 January, 1844, was graduated at Princeton in 1863, and at Columbia School of Mines in 1868, as a mining engineer, serving also during the Civil War as a lieutenant in the U. S. Signal Corps, in which he was brevetted captain. In 1868 he became adjunct professor of mining and metallurgy in Lafayette, where he remained until 1870, and he afterward held the superintendency of various iron-works till 1882, when he became superintendent of the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company, of which corporation he was made general manager in 1886. Professor Moffat has attained a high reputation in his profession, and has held office in the American Institute of Mining Engineers, to whose transactions he has contributed papers. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 351.
MOFFITT, Lemuel, Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1838-39
MOMBERGER, William, artist, born in Frankfort-on-Main, Germany, 7 June, 1829. He was the son of a merchant and received a liberal education, being graduated at the Frankfort Gymnasium in 1845. He was subsequently apprenticed to learn chromo-lithography, and in 1847 received the first prize from the of Frankfort for an original composition on stone. He also studied drawing and painting under Professor Jacob Becker, of the Dusseldorf school, and was taught modelling and anatomy by Van Der Launitz and Professor Zwerger of Frankfort. In 1848 Momberger was compelled to leave Germany on account of his participation in the revolutionary movements of that year, and came to the United States. Here he again turned his attention to chromo-lithography. Later he devoted much time to the illustration of newspapers and books, and also to making sketches and drawing vignettes for bank-notes. He assisted in illustrating works on the Civil War, made all the drawings for Duyckinck's "Cyclopaedia of American Literature," and the majority of those contained in the "Gallery of American Landscape Artists." He built a studio at Morrisania, New York, where he has painted several landscapes, among them "Sugar-Loaf Mountain, near Winona, Wisconsin, "A Recitation on Indian Rock, in the Catskills," "Through the Woods." " Harvest Moon," and " Island on the Susquehanna River." He was a founder of the Gotham Art Students' Club. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 354.
MONTAGUE, Robert L., statesman, born in Middlesex County, Virginia, 23 May, 1819; died 4 March. 1880. He received his education at William and Mary, where in 1842 he took the degree of LL. B. He began the practice of law in Middlesex County in 1844, was repeatedly a member of the Virginia Legislature, thrice a presidential elector, lieutenant-governor of the state for four years, and a member of the Virginia Secession Convention, and president at its last session. He served in the Confederate Congress from 1863 until it ceased to exist. In 1873 he was elected judge of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, and for several years he was president of the General Baptist Association of Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 363.
MONTEITH, John M., Elyria, Ohio, abolitionist. Manager and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, December 1833. (Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833)
MONTGOMERY, J. H., Augusta, Georgia, jurist, Supreme Courts of Georgia. Member, Augusta auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. (Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, p. 71)
MONTGOMERY, James, 1814-1871, Ashtabula County, Ohio, radical/militant abolitionist, Union Army Colonel in the Civil War. In 1854, became leader of a local Free State organization. In 1857, organized a “Self -Protective Company” to oppose pro-slavery settlers. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 369; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 97)
MONTGOMERY, James, pioneer, born in Ashtabula County, Ohio, 22 December, 1814; died in Linn County, Kansas, 6 December, 1871. He came with his family early in life to Kentucky, and taught, ultimately becoming a Campbellite preacher. Later he devoted himself to farming, but in 1854 went to southern Kansas, where he was one of the earliest settlers. His residence in Linn County was burned by the Missourians in 1856, and this resulted in his taking an active part in the disturbances that followed. The retaliatory visits into Missouri were frequently led by him, and his discretion, courage, and acknowledged ability gained for him the confidence and support of the southern counties. His enrolled company included nearly 500 men, all of whom were old residents of the territory, and consequently familiar with the peculiar mode of fighting that was followed on the border. Captain Montgomery was one of the acknowledged leaders of the free-state cause during 1857-'61. Next to John Brown he was more feared than any other, and a contemporary sketch of the “Kansas Hero,” as he was then called, says: “Notwithstanding every incentive to retaliate actuates them to demand blood for blood, yet Montgomery is able to control and direct them. He truly tempers justice with mercy, and he has always protected women and children from harm, and has never shed blood except in conflict or in self-defence.” In 1857 he represented his county in the Kansas Senate, and at other times he was a member of the legislature. At the beginning of the Civil War he was made colonel of the 10th Kansas Volunteers, but soon afterward was given command of the 1st North Carolina Colored Volunteers. These troops he led on a raid from Hilton Head into Georgia in July, 1863, and at the battle of Olustee, Florida, on 20 February, 1864, was one of the few officers that escaped with his life. Horace Greeley says of his regiment and the 54th Massachusetts: “It was admitted that these two regiments had saved our little army from being routed.” At the close of the war he returned to Kansas and passed the last years of his life at his home in Linn County. Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 369.
MONTGOMERY, John Berrien, naval officer, born in Allentown, New Jersey, 17 November, 1794; died in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 25 March, 1878. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman in June, 1812, and participated in the attack on Kingston, Canada, and the capture of Little York, Fort George, and Newark. In August, 1813, he volunteered for service on Lake Erie, where he took part in Commodore Oliver H. Perry’s capture of the British fleet on 10 September, 1813. Montgomery received a sword and the thanks of Congress for his services in that action, and later was present during the blockade and attack on Mackinaw in August, 1814. He then was transferred to the " Ontario," under Commodore Stephen Decatur, with whom he took part in the Algerine War of 1815. In February, 1818, he was promoted lieutenant. In 1833-'5 he was on recruiting service in Philadelphia and New York, after which he was executive officer of the " Constitution," when that vessel was sent to convey Edward Livingston from France to the United States. He was promoted commander in 1839, and during the war with Mexico he permanently established the authority of the United States at various places along the coast of California, and also participated in the blockade of Mazatlan, Mexico, and the bombardment and capture of Guaymas on the Gulf of California. In April, 1849, he was made executive officer of the Washington U.S. Navy-yard, where he remained until 1851. He was commissioned captain in January, 1853, and in April, 1857, placed in command of the " Roanoke," in which he sailed to Aspinwall. and returned to New York in August with 250 of William Walker's filibusters. During the following two years he served on shore duty, and in 1856-"62 had command of the Pacific Squadron, with the "Lancaster" as his flag-ship. On his return to New York he was placed on waiting orders until May, 1862, when he was given the command of various navy-yards. He was made commodore on the retired list in July, 1862, and rear-admiral. 25 July, 1865. See " A Genealogical History of the Family of Montgomery," compiled by Thomas Harrison Montgomery (printed privately, Philadelphia, 1863). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 370.
MONTGOMERY, Martin Van Buren, lawyer, born in Eaton Rapids, Michigan, 20 October, 1840. He received a common-school education, became a teacher at the age of seventeen, and about 1861 began the study of law. After serving for some time during the Civil War in the 2d Michigan Cavalry, he was admitted to the bar in 1865, and practised at Eaton Rapids, Jackson, and Lansing. During 1871-'2 he was a member of the Michigan Legislature, and was candidate for the office of attorney-general of Michigan in 1874. He was appointed commissioner of patents on 17 March, 1885, and on 1 April, 1887, was made associate justice of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 370.
MONTGOMERY, William Reading, soldier, born in Monmouth County, New Jersey, 10 July, 1801; died in Bristol, Pennsylvania, 31 May, 1871. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1825 and became 2d lieutenant in the 3d U.S. Infantry, with which regiment he served until 1838 on garrison and frontier duty, also performing the duties of disbursing officer during the removal of the Choctaw Indians from Mississippi to their reservation. After attaining a captaincy on 7 July, 1838, he served on the Canadian border during the disturbances of 1838-'46, in the Florida War of 1840-'2, and in the occupation of Texas in 1845. He took part in the war with Mexico. He was wounded at Resaca de la Palma and brevetted major, and at Molino del Rey he was again wounded, although not until after he had succeeded to the command of his regiment, which he led at Chapultepec and the capture of Mexico. His services again gained for him the further brevet of lieutenant-colonel, and he was promoted major in December. 1852. Meanwhile he served in garrisons, on the frontier, and on recruiting duty, until 1855, when he was removed from the army. He was stationed at Fort Riley, in Kansas, during the trouble in that territory, and there pursued a course of strict impartiality, although his personal feelings were in favor of the free-state men; but his actions failed to meet with the approval of his superiors, and he was dismissed from the service. At the beginning of the Civil War he organized the 1st New Jersey Volunteers, joined the Army of the Potomac, and aided in covering its retreat from Bull Run. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 17 May, 1861, and appointed military governor of Alexandria, Virginia Subsequently he held a similar office in Annapolis, Maryland, and then in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, until 1863, after which he served on a military commission in Memphis, Tennessee. Failing health caused his resignation on 4 April, 1864, and, after a brief interval of mercantile occupation in Philadelphia, he retired to his home in Bristol. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 370.
MOODY, Dwight Lyman, evangelist, born in Northfield, Franklin County, Massachusetts, 5 February, 1837. He received a limited education, and worked on a farm till he was seventeen years old, when he became a clerk in a shoe-store in Boston. He united with a Congregational Church soon afterward, and in 1856 went to Chicago, where he engaged with enthusiasm in missionary work among the poor, and in less than a year established a Sunday-school with more than 1,000 pupils. During the Civil War he was employed by the Christian Commission, and subsequently by the Young Men's Christian Association of Chicago, as a lay missionary. A church was built for his converts and he became its unordained pastor. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 376.
MOODY, Granville, soldier, born in Portland, Maine. 2 January, 1812; died near Jefferson, Iowa, 4 June, 1887. His ancestor, William Moody, a native of Scotland, settled in the Plymouth Colony in 1632, and his father, William, was graduated at Dartmouth in 1798, and became principal in 1816 of the first female seminary established in Baltimore, Maryland. When four years of age Granville moved with his parents to Baltimore, and was educated there. In 1831 he became a clerk in his brother's store at Norwich, Ohio, and on 15 June. 1833, he was licensed as a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was received into the Ohio Conference, and, after holding various pastorates in that state, was appointed in 1860 to Morris Chapel (now St. Paul's Church), Cincinnati. In 1861 he was invited to take command of the 74th Ohio Regiment, and asked the advice of his colleagues in the church as to the propriety of resigning his pastorate to enter the military service. They approved of his acceptance, and he served till 16 May, 1863, when illness forced him to resign. By his bravery at the battle of Stone River he won the title of " the fighting parson." He was struck four times with bullets, and his horse was shot, but he refused to leave the field. On the recommendation of the Secretary of War, on 13 March, 1865, Colonel Moody was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers "for distinguished services at the battle of Stone River." After his return from the army he resumed his place in the itinerant ministry, and served with acceptance in various localities till 1882, when, on account of failing health, he took a supernumerary relation. Removing to his farm near Jefferson, Ohio, he resided there till his death, which was caused by an accident while he was on his way to preach a memorial sermon before a part of the Grand Army of the Republic at Jefferson. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 376.
MOORE, Samuel, Congressman, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 9 February, 1796; died in Lexington, Virginia, 17 September, 1875, was educated at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), Virginia In 1823 he was elected to the Virginia Legislature, serving until 1833. He was a member of the Convention of 1829 to amend the constitution of Virginia, and was elected to Congress as a Whig, serving from 2 December, 1833, till 3 March, 1835. Subsequently he was again a member of the legislature. In 1861 he was elected to the Convention of Virginia, and actively opposed secession, for which he was threatened with violence in Richmond. Notwithstanding this, he signed the ordinance, and served in the Confederate Army. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 378.
MOORE, Andrew Barry, governor of Alabama, born in Spartanburg District, South Carolina, 7 March, 1800; died in Marion, Alabama, 5 April, 1873. He moved to Perry County, Alabama, in 1826, and after teaching for two years studied law in Marion, and was enrolled as an attorney in 1833. He was many times in the legislature after 1839, and served three terms as speaker. He was a Whig presidential elector in 1848, and a state circuit judge from 1852 till 1857, when he resigned to accept the Democratic nomination for governor. He was elected and chosen again in 1859. In 1861 he directed the seizure of U. S. forts and arsenals before the secession of the state, and aided greatly in the equipment of state troops. At the close of his term he was appointed special aide-de-camp to the new governor, John G. Shorter. He was confined in Fort Pulaski in 1865, and after his release practised law in Marion till his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 378.
MOORE, Bartholomew Figures, Lawver, born in Halifax County, North Carolina, 29 January, 1801 ; died in Raleigh, North Carolina, 27 November, 1878. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1820, licensed to practice law in 1823, and, after residing first in Nashville, Tennessee, and subsequently in Halifax, North Carolina, settled in Raleigh, where he afterward resided. He was in the legislature in 1836-'44, and, declining a renomination in 1840, devoted himself to his profession. He was Attorney-General of North Carolina in 1848, and was appointed to revise the laws of that state in 1846-'54. During the Civil War he was a strong Unionist, was a member of two constitutional conventions, and was one of the commissioners from North Carolina to confer with President Lincoln in 1865 as to the best mode of restoring the state to the Union. He was called the father of the North Carolina Bar. Mr. Moore was a friend of public instruction, and left bequests to be applied to that purpose. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 378.
MOORE, Clara Jessup, author, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 10 February, 1824. Her father, Augustus E. Jessup, was the scientist of Major Stephen H. Long's Yellowstone Expedition of 1816. Her parents were residents of Massachusetts. She was educated in New Haven. Connecticut, and on 27 October, 1842, married Bloomfield H. Moore, of Philadelphia. She has occupied herself with literary and philanthropic labors. During the war she established the woman's Pennsylvania branch of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, and the special relief committee for Hospital work, and she projected and aided in founding the Union Temporary Home for Children in Philadelphia. Several of her early stories were successful in competition for prizes, and she wrote at first under the pen-name of " Mrs. Clara Moreton." Mrs. Moore's husband died in 1878. and she is now (1888) a resident of London, England. She has obtained the legal right to write her surname, Bloomfield-Moore. Her works include "The Diamond Cross" (Philadelphia, 1857); "Mabel's Mission"; "Master Jaeky's Holiday"; "Poems and Stories " (1875); "On Dangerous Ground," a novel, which was translated into French and Swedish (1876); "Sensible Etiquette"(1878); "Gondaline's Lesson" (1881); "Slander and Gossip" (printed privately, 1882); and "The Wardens Tale and Other Poems. New and Old " (London, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 379.
MOORE, E.D., Kingston, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Vice-President, 1839-40.
MOORE, Edward Mott, surgeon, born in Rahway, New Jersey, 15 July, 1814. He is the son of Lindley Murray Moore, a prominent member of the Society of Friends and an early leader in the anti-slavery movement, and Abigail Mott, a descendant of a Huguenot family that came to this country after the siege of Rochelle. His early years were spent in New York and its neighborhood, but the family moved to Rochester, New York, in 1830, and that place has since been his home. He pursued his professional studies in New York and Philadelphia, being graduated as a physician from the University of Pennsylvania. He served as resident physician at Blockley Hospital and the Frankford Lunatic Asylum for one year in each, and then began the practice of his profession at Rochester. In 1842 he was chosen professor of surgery in the medical school at Woodstock, Vermont, and continued to give lectures during the sessions of the college for eleven years. He occupied afterward the same chair in Berkshire, Massachusetts, Medical College and in Starling Medical College of Columbus, Ohio. He filled the chair of surgery in the Buffalo Medical College for twenty-five years till 1883, when he resigned, after having been a lecturer for about forty years. He has been president of the Medical Society of the State of New York, and was one of the founders of the Surgical Association of the United States, and was the first successor of Dr. Gross in its presidency. He was president of the State Board of Health from its organization till 1886, and took a deep interest and exerted a strong influence in the constitution of the new body. He was a delegate to the International Congress of Physicians at Copenhagen in 1884, has been for many years a trustee of the University of Rochester, and is prominent in many movements of local interest. He has confined his professional writing to papers on certain subjects in regard to which he considered standard authorities incomplete or in the wrong, in each case aiming to contribute some new fact or thought to the existing store of knowledge, or advocating some new departure in medical practice, basing his action on original experiment and observation. These papers have been published in various medical journals and in the transactions of medical societies, but have never been collected in book-form. Among his discussions of original views and methods of treatment may be mentioned papers on fractures and dislocations of the clavicle; on fractures of the radius, accompanied with dislocation of the ulna; on fractures, during adolescence, at the upper end of the humerus; and a treatise on transfusion of blood based on original investigations. Shortly after graduation. Dr. Moore made at Philadelphia a series of important experiments on the heart's action, in connection with Dr. Pellock, of that city. Two years earlier the subject had been investigated in Dublin, but these were the first experiments of the kind on this continent, and in the following year the work done in Dublin and Philadelphia was carefully tested by a committee of the London Medical Society appointed for that purpose and making investigation under the most favorable circumstances. Before this time an accurate knowledge of the diseases of the heart was impossible, but the observations then made at Dublin, Philadelphia, and London were so thorough as to render knowledge of diseases of the heart more accurate perhaps than that on which the treatment of diseases of any other internal organ is based. As a lecturer. Dr. Moore is fluent, but clear, natural, and entertaining; in the practice of his profession he has been eminently successful, having, in addition to wide knowledge and readiness of resource, a sustaining coolness and confidence in the most critical cases. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 379-380.
MOORE, Ester, Maryland native, abolitionist, original member of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (Yellin, 1994, pp. 69, 161)
MOORE, George W., New York, abolitionist, American Abolition Society (Radical Abolitionist, Vol. 1, No. 1, New York, August 1855)
MOORE. Jesse Hale, soldier, born in St. Clair County, Illinois. 22 April, 1817; died in Callao, Peru, 11 July, 1883. He was graduated at McKendree College in 1842, taught two years in Nashville, Illinois, and then became principal of Georgetown Seminary. He was licensed to preach in 1846, was pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Shelbyville, subsequently principal of Paris (Kentucky) Seminary, and president of Quincy College, Illinois, in 1854-'6. He resigned his pastorate at Decatur, Illinois. In 1862, he raised the 115th Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, which he commanded at Chickamauga and the subsequent battles of that campaign. He also participated in the pursuit of General John B. Hood, and a part of the time led the 2d Brigade of the Army of the Cumberland. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers in 1865 for services during the war, returned to the pulpit, and was presiding elder of Decatur, Illinois, District in 1868. At that date he was elected to Congress as a Republican, serving in 1869-'73, and was chairman of the Committee on Invalid Pensions in the 42d Congress. He was appointed U. S. consul in Callao in 1881, and held that office until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 382.
MOORE, John, New York, abolitionist, American Abolition Society (Radical Abolitionist, Vol. 1, No. 1, New York, August 1855)
MOORE, John, surgeon, born in Indiana, 16 August, 1826. He entered the U. S. Army as assistant surgeon in June, 1853, and, after serving in Florida and on the Utah Expedition of 1857, was in the Cincinnati Marine Hospital in 1861-'2. He was promoted surgeon in June of the latter year, and assigned to the Army of the Potomac as medical director of the central grand division. He became medical director of the Department and Army of the Tennessee in May, 1863. accompanied General William T. Sherman on his march to the sea and through the Carolina, and received the brevets of lieutenant-colonel for the Atlanta Campaign, and colonel for services during the whole war. He was made assistant medical purveyor, with rank of lieutenant-colonel, 8 October, 1883, and on 18 November, 1886, was appointed Surgeon-General of the army, with the rank of brigadier-general. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 383-384.
MOORE, John, R. C. bishop, born in Castletown Delvin, County Westmeath, Ireland, 27 June, 1835. He came to Charleston, South Carolina, in 1848, and in 1849 entered the Collegiate Institute of this city. He afterward studied theology in France and Rome, and was ordained priest, 9 April, 1860. Before leaving Rome he underwent a public examination for the degree of doctor of divinity, and received the cap of doctor of theology, which is conferred only upon distinguished theologians. He returned to Charleston in October, and was appointed first assistant at the cathedral, and shortly afterward pastor. During the Civil War Dr. Moore was active in attendance at the hospitals, nursing the sick and wounded of both armies in many parts of the state, and especially at Florence. During the absence of Bishop Lynch in Europe he was appointed administrator of the diocese of Charleston. In 1865 he became pastor of St. Patrick's Church, and he was made vicar-general in 1872. His administration of the parish of St. Patrick's, which had become utterly disorganized during the war, was remarkably successful. He rebuilt the parish church and residence, revived the Sunday-school, which soon had more members than that of any other denomination in this city, and established a temperance society. He was consecrated second bishop of St. Augustine. Florida, by Bishop Lynch in the pro-cathedral," Charleston, on 13 May, 1877. The Roman Catholic Church in Florida has made rapid progress under the administration of Bishop Moore. He has taken great interest in colonization, and has also paid much attention to the spiritual advancement of the colored population, establishing several associations for t heir benefit. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 384.
MOORE, Joseph, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1857-1864.
MOORE, Lindley Murray, 1788-1871, New York, educator, abolitionist leader, temperance activist, Society of Friends, Quaker. Married to abolitionist, reformer, Abigail Lydia Mott. Co-founded and was first president and recording secretary of the Rochester Anti-Slavery Society. Wrote abolitionist book, Autographs of Freedom, 1853. (Sorin, 1971)
MOORE, Risdon, Speaker of the Illinois State Legislature. Abolitionist, manumitted his slaves. Highly criticized for anti-slavery advocacy. (Dumond, 1961, p. 93)
MOORE, Walter Burritt, editor, born in Bristol, Vermont, 25 September, 1836. He was graduated at the University of Rochester, New York, in 1861, In that year, became a captain in the 100th New York Volunteers. He was wounded at Fair Oaks, 31 May, 1862, taken prisoner, and confined in Libby Prison, Richmond, Virginia After his exchange, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Chicago in 1864. Subsequently he moved to New York. With Paul A. Chadbourne he edited "The Public Service of the State of New York " (3 vols., Boston, 1881). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 384.
MOORHEAD, James Kennedy, 1806-1884. Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Congress from December 1859-March, 1869. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 385; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 147; Congressional Globe)
MOORHEAD, James Kennedy, Congressman, born in Halifax, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, 7 September, 1806; died in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 6 March, 1884. He received a limited education, spending his youth on a farm, and was apprenticed to a tanner. He was a contractor for building the Susquehanna Branch of the Pennsylvania Canal, became superintendent of the Juniata Division, and was the first to place a passenger packet on this line. In 1836 he moved to Pittsburg and established there the Union Cotton-Factory. In 1838 he was appointed adjutant-general of the state, and in 1840 he became postmaster of Pittsburg. He was elected to Congress as a Republican, holding his seat from 5 December, 1859, till 3 March, 1869, and serving on the Committees on Commerce, National Armories, Manufactures, Naval Affairs, and Ways and Means. In 1868 he was a delegate to the National Republican Convention at Chicago. He was identified with the principal educational and charitable institutions of Pittsburg, was president of its chamber of commerce, of the Monongahela Navigation Company, and several telegraph companies, and was a delegate to the Pan-Presbyterian Council in Belfast, Ireland, in 1884. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 385.
MORDECAI, Alfred, soldier, born in Warrenton, North Carolina, 3 January, 1804; died in Philadelphia, 23 October, 1887. He was graduated first in his class at the U. S. Military Academy in 1823, assigned to the Corps of Engineers, and was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy in 1823-'4 and principal assistant professor of engineering in 1824-'5. From 1825 till 1828 he was assistant engineer in the construction of Fort Monroe and Fort Calhoun, Virginia. and he was assistant to the chief engineer in Washington, D. C, from 1828 till 1832. He became captain of ordnance on 30 May, 1832, and in 1833-'4 was on leave of absence in Europe. In 1842 he became assistant to the chief of ordnance in Washington, D. C, and from 1839 till 1860 he was a member of the Ordnance Board. In 1840 he was a member of a commission to visit the arsenals and cannon-foundries of the principal powers of Europe, and in 1842 was assistant inspector of arsenals and engaged in constructing ballistic pendulums. He was a member of a military commission to the Crimea in 1855-'7, and his observations, particularly on military organization and ordnance, were published by order of Congress (Washington, 1860). He was a member of the board to revise the course of instruction at the military academy in 1860. He was brevetted major on 30 May, 1848, for services during the war with Mexico, and became major of ordnance, 31 December, 1854. He resigned on 5 May, 1861, and from 1863 till 1866 was a railway engineer in Mexico. From 1867 till his death he was treasurer and secretary of the Pennsylvania Canal Company. He was the author of a "Digest of Military Laws" (Washington, 1833); "Ordnance Manual for the Use of Officers in the U. S. Army" (1841; 2d ed., 1850); "Reports of Experiments on Gunpowder" (1845 and 1849); and "Artillery for the U. S. Land Service, as devised and arranged by the Ordnance Board," with plates (1849). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 389.
MOREHEAD, Charles Slaughter, governor of Kentucky, born in Nelson County, Kentucky, 7 July, 1802; died near Greenville, Washington County, Mississippi, 23 December 1868. He was educated at Transylvania, studied law, which he practised in Frankfort, and was elected to the legislature in 1828. From 1830 till 1835 he was Attorney-General of Kentucky, and he served again in the legislature in 1838-'45, officiating as speaker in the last three years. He was then elected to Congress as a Whig, serving from 6 December, 1847, till 3 March. 1851, He was again a member of the legislature in 1853, was governor of Kentucky from 1855 till 1859, and was one of the most devoted friends and supporters of Henry Clay. He then moved to Louisville, where he practised law, and was a delegate to the Peace Convention in Washington in 1861, and also a member of the border state convention which met in Frankfort in that year. His endeavors to bring about the secession of Kentucky occasioned his arrest in 1861, but after imprisonment, in Fort Lafayette his friends secured his release and he went to England, where he resided during the remainder of the Civil War. He then returned to the United States and moved from Kentucky to a plantation near Greenville, Mississippi, where his health failed. In connection with Judge Mason Brown he published a "Digest of the Statute Laws of Kentucky, etc., to 24 February, 1834," which was in use until the adoption of the new constitution (4 vols., Frankfort, 1834). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 390-391.
MOREL, Junius C., c. 1806, African American, former slave, educator, reformer, civil rights activist, editor. Wrote numerous articles for African American papers. Served as an agent for Frederick Douglass’s Northern Star. Member of Young Men’s Anti-Slavery Society. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 8, p. 271)
MORELL, George Webb, soldier, born in Cooperstown, New York, 8 January, 1815; died ill Scarborough, New York., 12 February, 1883. He was graduated first in his class at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, assigned to the Corps of Engineers, and served in the improvement of Lake Erie Harbors. He was made 2d lieutenant of engineers, 31 October, 1836, and was engaged in the Ohio and Michigan Boundary Surveys and in the construction of Fort Adams, Newport Harbor, Rhode Island, in 1836-'7. On 30 June, 1837, he resigned his commission and engaged in railroad construction in North and South Carolina and Michigan until 1840, when he moved to New York, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. From 1854 till 1861 he was commissioner of the U. S. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York. In 1861 he was colonel and chief of staff to General Edward S. Sanford in organizing regiments and forwarding them to the seat of war, and engaged in the defences of Washington and in operations around Harper's Ferry, Virginia. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers on 9 August, 1861, and assigned to a brigade in General Fitz-John Porter's division in the Army of the Potomac. He participated in the siege of Yorktown, and he took General Porter's Division when that officer was promoted to the command of the Fifth Army Corps, 18 May, 1862. He was engaged in the battles of Hanover Court-House, Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mills, and Malvern Hill, and was promoted major-general of volunteers; but his name was not sent to the Senate, and his commission expired on 4 March, 1863. He commanded the forces that guarded the upper Potomac from 30 October till 16 December, 1862, and the draft rendezvous at Indianapolis. Indiana, from 15 December, 1863, till 29 August, 1864. He was mustered out of service on 15 December, 1864, and subsequently resided on a farm near Tarrytown, New York. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 391.
MORGAN, Charles, merchant, born in Killingworth (now Clinton), Connecticut, 21 April, 1795; died in New York City, 8 May, 1878. His uncle, John Morgan, of Hartford, was the owner of the first ship that carried the American flag to China. Charles was entirely self-educated, and in 1809 went to New York, where he was a clerk, and afterward opened a shop in Peck slip for the sale of ship-stores and chandlery. Subsequently he imported goods from the West Indies and southern ports, and became sole owner of a line of sailing vessels in the West India trade. He ran the first steamer between New York and Charleston, South Carolina, and built, with other merchants, the "William Gibbons," the "Columbia," and the " New York." In 1836 he sent the first steamer from New Orleans to Texas, and in that year he became the proprietor of a large foundry and machine-shop in New York, known as the Morgan Iron-Works, which manufactured steam-engines, boilers, and machinery for many of the heaviest marine engines in the American merchant and naval service. During the Civil War the greater part of his fleet was chartered by the U. S. government. Subsequently he established the Morgan Line of Steamers in the Gulf of Mexico, and soon had almost a monopoly of the trade of the Gulf ports. He was also sole owner and director of the old Opelousas, afterward known as Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad, which he supplemented by building a road from Indianola to Cuero, Texas, and, in order to perfect his line of communication, he dredged a steamboat channel through Atchafalaya Bay. He constructed at Indianola the finest wharf in the southern states, which was 2,500 feet in length. He also purchased and built steamers for the California trade, which were used on the Panama and Nicaragua routes. His enterprises were managed entirely by himself. Morgan City, Louisiana, was named in his honor. Mr. Morgan gave $50,000 for the endowment of the Morgan School in Clinton, Connecticut, which was erected at a cost of $60,000, and dedicated on 7 December 1871. His second wife gathered a large and costly collection of paintings and other art objects, which, after her death, was sold in New York City in 1886. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 395.
MORGAN, Charles Hale, soldier, born in Manlius, New York, 6 November, 1834; died on Alcatraz Island, California, 20 December, 1875. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1857, assigned to the 4th U.S. Artillery, and took part in the Utah Expedition of 1859. He became 1st lieutenant on 1 April, 1861, and was engaged in the western Virginia operations and in the defences of Washington from December of that year till March, 1862. He served in the Army of the Potomac during the Peninsular Campaign, was promoted captain on 5 August, 1862, and in October appointed chief of artillery of the 2d Corps. He held a volunteer commission as lieutenant-colonel on the staff from 1 January, 1863, till 21 May, 1865. He engaged in the Rappahannock Campaign, and was brevetted major for services at Gettysburg, lieutenant-colonel for the action at Bristoe Station, Virginia, colonel for Spottsylvania, colonel of volunteers, 1 August, 1864, for the Wilderness Campaign, and brigadier-general of volunteers, 2 December 1864, for services as chief-of-staff of the 2d Army Corps during the campaign before Richmond, Virginia. He assisted in organizing an army corps of veterans in Washington, D. C. in 1864-'5, and was assistant inspector-general and chief-of-staff to General Hancock, commanding the Middle Military Division from 22 February till 22 June, 1865. From that date till 7 August. 1865, he was a member of the board to examine candidates for commissions in colored regiments. He was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, for services in the field during the war, and made full brigadier-general of volunteers on 21 May, 1865. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, 15 January, 1866, and from 10 March to 26 June, 1866, served on a board of officers to make recommendations for brevet promotions in the army. He was on recruiting service from 9 August, 1865, till 15 April, 1867, and became major of the 4th U.S. Artillery on 5 February, 1867. He then served in the Artillery-School at Fortress Monroe and other stations on the Atlantic Coast, and at the time of his death commanded Alcatraz Island, California. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 395-396.
MORGAN, Edward Barber, philanthropist, born in Aurora, Cayuga County, New York, 2 May, 1806; died there, 13 October, 1881. He received a public-school education and early engaged in mercantile pursuits, from which he ultimately retired with a large fortune. He was an original share-holder in the “New York Times," and a founder of the Wells and Fargo and United States Express Companies, of which corporations he was for many years an officer. He was elected and twice re-elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 8 December, 1853, till 8 March, 1859. With William E. Dodge he erected, at a cost of 140,000, the Dodge-Morgan Library building of the Auburn, New York, Theological Seminary, of which institution he was long a trustee. Subsequently Mr. Morgan gave to the seminary a dormitory building that is now called "Morgan Hall." He was a charter trustee of Wells College, Aurora, to which he not only devoted his personal supervision for a long period, but gave over a quarter of a million dollars. His wife built for the college the new " Morgan Hall." He was also a trustee of Cornell University, and sent Professor Charles P. Hartt, of that institution, on a scientific journey to Brazil. His donations to individuals and to other institutions besides those named above were very large. He helped many young men to acquire an education and establish themselves in business. On one occasion, when a gentleman of wealth complained that he found it difficult to employ his capital profitably, he replied: "Why not invest in some worthy charities if I have found them the best investments."—His brother, Christopher, lawyer, born in Aurora, Cayuga County, New York, 4 June, 1808; died in Auburn, New York, 3 April, 1877, was graduated at Yale in 1838, studied law with William H. Seward, and, after being admitted to the bar, became his partner at Auburn, New York. He was elected and re-elected to Congress as a Whig, serving from 2 December, 1839, till 3 March, 1843. He was Secretary of State of New York from 1848 till 1852, and many years a trustee of the State Lunatic Asylum at Utica. He was at one time engaged in mercantile pursuits in Aurora, New York. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 397-398.
MORGAN, Edwin Dennison, 1811-1883, merchant, soldier, statesman. Member of the Whig Party, Anti-Slavery Faction. Republican U.S. Senator from New York. Chairman of the Republican National Committee, 1856-1864. Governor of New York, 1858-1862. Commissioned Major General of Volunteers, he raised 223,000 troops for the Union Army. U.S. Senator, 1863-1869. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 398; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 168; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 825; Congressional Globe)
MORGAN, Edwin Dennison, governor of New York, born in Washington, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, 8 February, 1811; died in New York City, 14 February, 1883. At the age of seventeen he moved to Hartford, Connecticut, where he entered the store of his uncle, Nathan Morgan, and became a partner in 1831. He was a member of the city council there in 1832. Removing to New York in 1836, he established himself in business and became a successful merchant. During the cholera epidemic he remained in the city to assist the poor. From 1850 till 1863 he was a member of the state senate, serving at one time as president pro tempore. He was vice-president of the National Republican Convention that met in Pittsburg, 22 February, 1856, and from 1856 till 1864 was chairman of the Republican National Committee. In 1858 he was elected governor of New York, which office he held until 1862. During his term the state debt was reduced, an increase in canal revenue was made, 223,000 troops were sent from New York to the army, and New York Harbor was put in a state of defence. On 28 September, 1861, he was made a major-general of volunteers, the state of New York being created a military department under his command, and for his services under this commission he declined compensation. On the expiration of his term he was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican, serving from 4 M arch, 1863, till 3 March, 1869. He opened the proceedings of the Baltimore Convention of 1864, and was a delegate to the Philadelphia Loyalists' Convention of 1866, but took no part in its action. In 1865 he declined the office of Secretary of the U. S. Treasury, which was offered him by President Lincoln. In 1872 he was chairman of the National Republican Committee, and conducted the successful campaign that resulted in the second election of General Grant. He was a Republican candidate for U. S. Senator in 1875, and in 1876 for governor of New York. In 1881 President Arthur offered him the portfolio of Secretary of the Treasury, which he declined, owing to his advanced age. Governor Morgan gave more than $200,000 to the New York Union Theological Seminary and to Williams College Library buildings, and $100,000 for a dormitory. His bequests for charitable and religious purposes amounted to $795,000. In 1867 he received the degree of LL. D. from Williams. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 398.
MORGAN, George Nelson, born on Messina Island, St. Lawrence River, N. F., 7 September, 1825; died in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 24 July, 1866. He moved from Canada to Minnesota in 1856, and, settling at St. Anthony, assisted in erecting the first foundry and machine-shop at the falls. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted in the 1st Minnesota Regiment, was elected captain of a company in 1861, was promoted major, and became lieutenant-colonel in 1862. Immediately after the battle of Antietam he succeeded to the colonelcy of the same regiment, and held that command until May, 1863, when, his health failing entirely, he was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, and became colonel of the 2d Regiment of that corps, which post he held until within a few days of his death, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. General Morgan participated with the 1st Regiment in all its battles, from Bull Run to Fredericksburg, inclusive. He was brave and cool in action and a strict disciplinarian. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 398-399.
MORGAN, George Washington, soldier, born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 20 September, 1820. His grandfather, Colonel George N. Morgan, was the first to give Jefferson information regarding Aaron Burr's conspiracy. In 1836 he left college, and, enlisting in a company that was commanded by his brother, went to assist Texas in gaining her independence. Upon his arrival there he was commissioned a lieutenant in the regular Texan Army, but, after attaining the rank of captain, he retired from the service. In 1841 he entered the U. S. Military Academy, but left in 1843, and, removing to Mount Vernon, Ohio, began to practice law there in 1845. At the beginning of the war with Mexico he was made colonel of the 2d Ohio Volunteers, and he was subsequently appointed colonel of the 15th U. S. Infantry, which he led with ability under General Scott, receiving for his gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, where he was severely wounded, the thanks of the Ohio legislature and the brevet of brigadier-general. He afterward practised law until 1856, and was then appointed U. S. consul to Marseilles, where he remained until he was made minister to Portugal, which post he held from 1858 till 1861. He returned to this country, and on 21 November, 1861, was made brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to duty under General Don Carlos Buell. In March, 1862, he assumed the command of the 7th Division of the Army of the Ohio, with which he was ordered to occupy Cumberland Gap, in southeast Kentucky, then held by the Confederates. He forced the enemy to retire on 18 June, 1862, but in September of that year he retreated toward the Ohio, being harassed by constant attacks from Colonel John H. Morgan's guerillas, and in November he was with Major-General Jacob D. Cox in the valley of the Kanawha. He was with General William T. Sherman at Vicksburg, was afterward assigned to the 13th Army Corps, and commanded at the capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas. Owing to failing health, he resigned in June, 1863. While in favor of maintaining the Union at any cost. General Morgan was opposed to interference with the state institution of the south. In 1865 he was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor of Ohio, and in 1866 was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving on the Committee on Foreign Affairs. His seat was contested by Columbus Delano, who supplanted him on 3 June, 1868; but he was again elected, and held his seat from 4 March, 1869, till 3 March, 1873, serving on the Committees on Foreign Affairs, Military Affairs, and Reconstruction. He was a delegate-at-large to the National Democratic Convention at St. Louis in 1876. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 399.
MORGAN, James Dady, soldier, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 1 August, 1810. At the age of sixteen he went to sea in the ship "Beverley" for a three years' trading voyage. When the vessel was thirty days out a mutiny occurred, and shortly afterward the ship was burned. Morgan escaped to South America, and, after enduring many hardships, returned to Boston. In 1834 he moved to Quincy, Illinois, and engaged in mercantile pursuits. He aided in raising the "Quincy Grays," and at the time of the difficulties with the Mormons in 1844-'5 he was captain of the " Quincy Riflemen," and was ordered with his company to Hancock County to preserve order. During the Mexican War he served as captain in the 1st Illinois Volunteers. In 1861 he became lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Illinois Regiment, and for meritorious services at New Madrid and Corinth was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 17 July, 1862. In November, 1862, he commanded a brigade at Nashville, Tennessee, and for gallantry at Bentonville, North Carolina, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 19 March, 1865. He was mustered out of the army on 24 August, 1865. He is now (1888) vice-president of a bank in Quincy. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 401.
MORGAN, John Hunt, soldier, born in Huntsville, Alabama, 1 June, 1826; died near Greenville, Tennessee, 4 September, 1864. In 1830 he settled near Lexington, Kentucky. He served in the war with Mexico as 1st lieutenant in a cavalry regiment. At the opening of the Civil War he was engaged in the manufacture of bagging. He entered the Confederate Army as captain of the Kentucky volunteers, and joined General Simon B. Buckner at the head of the Lexington Rifles. During the winter of 1862-'3 he commanded a cavalry force in General Braxton Bragg's army, and greatly annoyed General William S. Rosencrans's outposts and communications. He soon began a series of raids in Kentucky, in which he destroyed many millions of dollars' worth of military stores, captured and burned railroad-trains filled with supplies, tore up railroad-tracks, burned bridges, and destroyed culverts in the rear of the National Army, and made it necessary to garrison every important town in the state. Moving with the utmost celerity, and taking a telegraph-operator with him, he misled his foes and at the same time acquainted himself with their movements. In 1862 he was appointed major-general. In 1863 he headed a bold and extensive raid into Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, but with nearly all of his company he was captured and imprisoned in the Ohio Penitentiary. He escaped by digging in November, 1863, and then undertook a raid in Tennessee. While at a farm-house near Greenville, Tennessee, he was surrounded in the night by National troops under General Alvan C. Gillem, and in attempting to escape was killed. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 402
MORGAN, John Tyler, senator, born in Athens, Tennessee, 20 June, 1824. In 1833 his parents moved to Calhoun County, Alabama, and, after receiving a good education, he studied law in Talladega, and was licensed to practice in 1845. In 1860 he was a presidential elector on the Breckinridge ticket, and obtained in the canvass of that year a reputation for eloquence. In 1861 he was a member of the state convention that passed the Ordinance of Secession. He joined the Confederate Army in 1861 as a private, and subsequently became major and lieutenant-colonel, serving in Virginia, he was afterward commissioned as colonel, and, returning to Alabama, raised the 51st Regiment, which he liberally aided in equipping, he went to the front in Tennessee, but was soon assigned to the head of the Conscript Bureau in Alabama, at the request of the state delegation in the Confederate Congress. In 1863 he was appointed brigadier-general by General Robert E. Lee, but declined promotion. He was again commissioned brigadier-general in November, 1863, and commanded a division in the winter of 1863-'4, operating with General James Longstreet in eastern Tennessee, and with General Joseph E. Johnston and General John B. Hood. After the war he resumed his law practice in Selma. In 1876 he was again a presidential elector, and was also elected to the United States Senate as a Democrat, being re-elected in 1883. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 402.
MORGAN, Junius Spencer, banker, born in West Springfield (now Holyoke), Massachusetts, 14 April, 1813. He began his business career in 1829 by entering the employ of Alfred Welles, of Boston, with whom he continued until he became of age. In July, 1834, he joined the banking-house of Morgan, Ketchum and Company of New York, but he returned to Hartford about eighteen months later. He then became junior partner in the dry-goods house of Howe, Mather and Company, which in 1850 became Mather, Morgan and Company. A year later he was invited by James M. Beebe to form a co-partnership in Boston, which, under the style of J. M. Beebe, Morgan and Company, became one of the largest dry-goods establishments in the United States. Mr. Morgan visited England in 1853, and was offered a partnership in the firm of George Peabody and Company, which he accepted on 1 October, 1854, and ten years later, on the retirement of Mr. Peabody, the firm became J. S. Morgan and Company. Under this name the house has grown in strength and influence until at present it ranks among the great banking-houses of the world. During his residence in Hartford, Mr. Morgan was active in the affairs of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and also in various charitable enterprises. He has been a liberal donor to Trinity College, and in 1886 presented to the Hartford Orphan Asylum a generous contribution, known as the Sarah Morgan fund, in memory of his mother, Mrs. Sarah Spencer Morgan. In 1887 he gave a large and valuable painting, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which he had purchased for that purpose, to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. He married in 1836 Juliet, daughter of John Pierpont, the poet (q. v.).—His son, John Pierpont, banker, born in Hartford, Connecticut, 17 April, 1837, was educated at the English High-School in Boston, and then studied at the University of Gottingen, Germany. He returned to the United States in 1857, and entered the banking-firm of Duncan, Sherman and Company, of New York. In 1860 he became agent and attorney in the United States for George Peabody and Company of London, which relation he has since held with that firm and its successor. He became the junior partner of the banking-firm of Dabney, Morgan and Company in 1864, and that of Drexel, Morgan and Company in 1871. This house is among the chief negotiators of railroad bonds, and was active in the reorganization of the West Shore Railroad and its absorption by the New York Central Railroad. In 1887 it was conspicuous in the reorganization of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, which a syndicate of capitalists formed by Mr. Morgan placed on a sound basis. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 402.
MORGAN, Michael Ryan, soldier, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 18 January, 1833. He was appointed from Louisiana to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1854, assigned to the artillery, and served in garrison, and against Indians till the Civil War, during which he was in the Subsistence Department. He was chief of commissariat of the 10th Army Corps in May and June, 1864, and of the armies operating against Richmond in 1864-'5, receiving all the brevets to brigadier-general in the regular army for his services in the campaigns of those two years. On 17 November, 1865, he became commissary of subsistence with the rank of major, and since the war he has been the Commissary-General of various departments. He is now (1888) serving in that capacity in San Francisco, California. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 403.
MORGAN, William, artist, born in London, England, in 1826. After studying in the government art-school at Havre, Prance, he came to this country in early life, and received his education in the schools of the National Academy, to which he sent his first work in 1851, and of which he became an associate in 1865. He is a member of the American Art Union and the Artists' Fund Society. His works include "Emancipation" (1868); "'the Legend" (1875); "Song without Words" (1876); "Motherhood"; "Reverie"; "In the Hay-Loft" (1882): "Summer" (1883); "The Sortie (1884); "Andante" (1885); "Blowing Bubbles" (1886); and "La Maudolinata" (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 404.
MORRILL, Anson Peaslee, statesman, born in Belgrade, Kennebec County, Maine, 10 June, 1803; died in Augusta, Maine, 4 July, 1887. He received a common-school education and devoted himself to mercantile pursuits in his native town. He soon bought an interest in a woollen-mill, and subsequently became connected with several extensive manufactories. In 1833 he was elected as a Democrat to the legislature, in 1839 he was made sheriff of Somerset County, and in 1850 he became land-agent. In 1853, when the Democratic Convention decided to oppose prohibition, he cut loose from that party, and was a candidate for governor on the Free-Soil and Prohibition tickets, but was defeated. The following year he was again a candidate, and, although there was no choice by the people, he was elected by the legislature, being the first Republican governor of Maine. He was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election, being defeated in the legislature through a coalition between the Whigs and Democrats. The party that Governor Morrill had formed served as the nucleus for the movement in 1856 when the National Republican Party first took the field, and he was a delegate to the convention that nominated John C. Fremont for president. He was elected to Congress in 1860, and served from 4 July, 1861, till 3 March, 1863. Declining a re-election, he became largely interested in railroads in his native state, and remained out of politics until 1881, when he was sent to the legislature. He moved to Augusta in 1876. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 408.
MORRILL, Justin Smith, 1810-1898, abolitionist. Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Vermont. Served as Congressman December 1855-March 1867. U.S. Senator 1873-1891. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 409; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 198; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 882; Congressional Globe)
MORRILL, Justin Smith, senator, born in Strafford, Orange County, Vermont, 14 April, 1810. He received a common-school education, and engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1848, when he turned his attention to agriculture. He was elected to Congress as a Republican, and five times re-elected, serving from 3 December, 1855, until 3 March, 1867. He was the author of the “Morrill” Tariff of 1861, and acted as chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means in 1864-'5. He was elected U.S. Senator from Vermont in 1867, and re-elected in 1873, 1879, and 1886. His present term will expire in 1891. He is the author of a Self-Consciousness of Noted Persons” (Boston, 1886). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 409.
MORRILL, Lot Myrick, 1813-1883, lawyer, statesman, temperance advocate, opposed slavery, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1876, two-term Republican Governor of Maine, U.S. Senator, 1861-1869. Joined the Republican Party due to his position against slavery and its expansion into the new territories. Supported the bill in Congress that emancipated slaves in Washington, DC. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. After the war, he supported higher education for African Americans. In 1866, he supported voting rights for African Americans in Washington, DC. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 408-409; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 149; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 884; Congressional Globe; Biographical Directory of the United States Congress)
MORRILL, Lot Myrick, Secretary of the Treasury, born in Belgrade, Kennebec County, Maine, 3 May, 1813; died in Augusta, Maine, 10 January, 1883, entered Waterville College (now Colby University) in 1835, but did not remain through the year. He then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1839. He moved to Augusta, established himself in practice, and was an active member of the Democratic Party in Maine. In 1854 he was elected to the legislature, and on his re-election in 1856 he was chosen President of the Senate. Subsequently Mr. Morrill denounced the course of his party on the question of slavery in Kansas, severed his connection with his former associates, was nominated in 1857 by the Republicans for governor, and elected by over 15,000 majority. He was twice re-elected. In 1860 Governor Morrill was chosen to the U. S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by Hannibal Hamlin's election to the Vice-Presidency. He entered the Senate, 17 January, 1861, was placed on important committees, and attended the Peace Conference of that year. During the two that followed he took an active part in public affairs, and in 1863 was elected senator for the term that ended in 1869. In the Republican caucus for a successor, Mr. Morrill was defeated by a single vote: but, as William P. Fessenden died in 1869, Morrill was appointed to serve out the remainder of Fessenden's term. In 1871 he was again elected senator, and in the discharge of his duties devoted much attention to financial questions. He opposed the bill for inflating the currency, which was vetoed by President Grant, and was in favor of the Resumption Act of 1875. He was noted as being a hard worker in committee-rooms, and was especially familiar with Naval and Indian Affairs. On Secretary William W. Belknap's resignation, President Grant asked Senator Morrill to take a seat in the cabinet, but he declined. In June, 1876, he was made Secretary of the Treasury. In November, 1876, he made an address to the moneyed men of New York from the steps of the Sub-Treasury Department, and in his annual report in December he urged immediate and yet gradual contraction of the currency, and declared that specie payments could be resumed in 1879. When Mr. Hayes became President in 1877 he offered Mr. Morrill a foreign mission, but it was declined. He was appointed in March collector of customs for Portland District, Maine, which post he held at the time of his death. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 408-409.
MORRIS, Charles, naval officer, born in Woodstock, Connecticut, 26 July, 1784; died in Washington, D. C, 27 January, 1856. He entered the U.S. Navy, being made midshipman, 1 July, 1799, and, during the war with Tripoli in 1801-5, served in the squadron under Commodore Edward Preble, he took part in the expedition under Decatur that destroyed the frigate "Philadelphia" in the harbor of Tripoli on the night of 15 February, 1804, and subsequently captured a French privateer. In January, 1807, he was promoted to a lieutenancy, and he was executive officer of the "Constitution" in July, 1812, when she was chased for sixty hours by a British fleet. In the following month, in the engagement between that vessel and the "Guerriere," he was severely wounded. On 5 March, 1813, he was promoted captain, Missing the intermediate grade, and in 1814 was appointed to the command of the "John Adams," twenty-eight guns, in which vessel he cruised off the coasts of the United States and Ireland, greatly injuring British commerce. In August of the same year, when Captain Morris had run up the Penobscot River, Maine, for repairs, a strong British force followed him with the design of effecting his capture. A detachment of militia that was sent to his relief having abandoned him, he was compelled to scuttle the vessel, while the crew made the best of its way in small parties over 200 miles of thinly settled country to Portland. In 1816-'17 he commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Mexico, and in 1819-'20 a squadron on the coast of Buenos Ayres. From 1823 till 1827, and again from 1832 till 1841, he was navy commissioner, as such having a vote upon every important question of naval administration. In September and October, 1825, he was in command of the "Brandywine," in which Lafayette returned to France. He was afterward employed in inspecting the dock-yards of England and France, he had for many years supervision of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, and from 1851 until his death he was chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. Entering the navy at the most trying period of its history, when it had little support or encouragement from the government, when it was almost unknown to the country at large, and when its internal organization was loose and imperfect, Captain Morris lived to see it in the height of its prosperity. For more than fifty years all his time, his thoughts, and his energies were devoted to promoting the growth and well-being of the service. As remarkable for judgment and self-control as he was for courage and zeal, he is regarded by many as the foremost man of the navy as it existed prior to the Civil War. See his "Autobiography," published by the U. S. naval Institute (Annapolis, 1880). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 411.
MORRIS, Daniel, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
MORRIS, William Hopkins, soldier, born in New York, 22 April, 1826, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1851, but resigned from the army in 1854, and engaged in literary pursuits in 1855-'61. He was commissioned as staff captain and assistant adjutant-general of the U. S. volunteers in 1861, served in the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, on 1 September of that year resigned, and became colonel of the 135th New York Regiment of Infantry, which was changed into the 6th New York Artillery. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, served in the Pennsylvania and Rapidan and Richmond Campaigns, and was wounded near Spottsylvania. In March, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of the Wilderness, May, 1864. He invented a repeating carbine in 1869, and is the author of "A System of Infantry Tactics" (New York, 1865) and "Tactics for Infantry, armed with Breech-loading or Magazine Rifles'" (1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 413.
MORRIS, George Upham, naval officer, born in Massachusetts, 3 June, 1830; died in Jordan Alum Springs, Virginia, 15 August, 1875. He entered the U.S. Navy and was commissioned midshipman, 14 August, 1846, lieutenant, 16 September, 1855, and commander, 25 July, 1866. He distinguished himself by his defence of the "Cumberland," of which he was in temporary command, when attacked by the iron-clad ram “Merrimack" in Hampton Roads, Virginia, 8 March, 1862. "As her guns approached the water's edge," said the Secretary of the Navy in his report for that year, "her young commander, Lieutenant Morris, and the gallant crew stood firm at their posts and delivered a parting fire, and the good ship went down heroically with her colors flying." Many of the officers and men, Lieutenant Morris among them, were able to reach the shore, but a large number perished with the vessel. In the following May, while in command of the steam gun-boat "Port Royal," he took part in an engagement with a nine-gun battery on James River, and he was subsequently wounded at Fort Darling. He also participated in the attack on Fort Powell, at Grant's Pass, in February, 1864. He was retired from active service, 21 October, 1874. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 413.
MORRIS, Lewis Owen, soldier, born in Albany, New York, 14 August, 1824; died in Cold Harbor. Virginia. 3 June, 1804, received a commission as 2d lieutenant in the U. S. Army, 8 March, 1847, and took part in the siege of Vera Cruz, and the subsequent advance on the city of Mexico. At the beginning of the Civil War he had attained the rank of captain in the 1st U.S. Artillery. During the winter of 1860-'l he was stationed in Texas, and his battery was the only one that did not surrender to the Confederates. In the winter of 1861-'2 he was designated to direct the operations against Fort Macon, North Carolina, which he captured and afterward commanded. The following summer he was appointed colonel of the 113th New York Volunteers, which, reaching Washington when the city was menaced by General Robert E. Lee, was converted into a heavy artillery regiment. It was stationed at Fort Reno, one of the works defending the National Capital, but the inactive life did not suit Colonel Morris, and he pleaded repeatedly to be sent to the field. At the beginning of the campaign of 1864 his wish was gratified, and during all the engagements from Spottsylvania till his death he commanded a brigade. He fell in the battle of Cold Harbor when, like his father, he was cheering his men in an assault. He was greatly Moved and admired as an officer. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 416.
MORRIS, Henry W., naval officer, born in New York City in 1800: died there, 14 August, 1863, was the son of Thomas, a member of the New York bar, and at one time U. S. Marshal for the Southern District of the state of New York. He entered the U.S. Navy, 21 August, 1819, and from 1828 till 1838, under the commission of lieutenant, served in various posts. From 1839 till 1845 he was on special duty in New York City, passing through six degrees of official promotion during the term of six years. He was then appointed to the command of the store-ship "Southampton," at that time belonging to the African Squadron. In 1846 he was again ordered to the Brooklyn U.S. Navy-yard, where for the next five years he was awaiting orders. In the meantime he was promoted commander, and in 1851 was appointed to the charge of the rendezvous in New York until 1858, when he was ordered to the sloop-of-war "Germantown," of the Brazilian Squadron. In 1855 he was transferred to the Mediterranean Station, where he served as fleet-captain under Commodore Stringham. Upon his return to the United States, in 1856, he received his commission as captain. Toward the close of 1861 he superintended the construction of the steam sloop-of-war " Pensacola" at Washington U.S. Navy-yard. In January, 1862, that vessel, under his command, successfully passed the line of Confederate batteries on the Potomac, and, after anchoring a short time in Hampton roads, set sail to join the blockading squadron in the Gulf of Mexico. The "Pensacola” played a brilliant part in all the attacks upon Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, and upon the Chalmette batteries. After the capture of New Orleans, Commodore Morris was intrusted with the duty of holding the city and guarding the adjacent coasts. But his health became seriously affected, and he was persuaded to come to the north to recruit his strength, and died soon after his arrival. He was made commodore, 16 July, 1862. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 417.
MORRIS, Thomas, 1776-1844, Cincinnati, Ohio, Virginia, first abolitionist senator, 1833, vice president of the Liberty Party, abolitionist, Ohio lawmaker 1806-1830, Chief Justice of the State of Ohio 1830-1833, U.S. Senator 1833-183?. Executive Committee, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (A&FASS), 1840-1844. Vice President of the American Colonization Society (ACS), 1839-1841. Fought for right to petition Congress against slavery. (Dumond, 1961, pp. 92, 135, 243, 244, 286, 300; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 11, 18, 23-24, 27; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 48; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 916; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 418; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 226)
MORRIS, Thomas, senator, born in Augusta County, Virginia, 3 January, 1776; died in Bethel, Ohio, 7 December, 1844. His father was a Baptist clergyman of Welsh descent. The son moved to Columbia, Ohio, in 1795, entered the service, as a farm-hand, of Reverend John Smith, first U. S. Senator from Ohio, and in 1800 settled in Clermont County. While engaged in farming be studied law, and in 1804 was admitted to the bar. He was elected to the legislature in 1806, was continuously a member for twenty-four years, became eminent in his profession, was a judge of the Supreme Court, and was chosen U. S. Senator in 1832. He was an ardent opponent of slavery, engaged in important debates with John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay in defence of the right of petition and the duty of the government to favor abolition, and was active in support of the freedom of the press. His anti-slavery sentiments being distasteful to the Democratic Party, by whom he was elected, he was not returned for a second term, and in March, 1839, he retired. He was nominated for vice-president by the Liberal Party at the Buffalo Convention in August, 1844. His death occurred a month after the election. Mr. Morris was an energetic politician, and a fearless champion of liberty and the right of individual opinion. See his “Life and Letters,” edited by his son, Benjamin F. Morris (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1855). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 418.
MORRIS, Thomas Armstrong, soldier, born in Nicholas County, Kentucky, 26 December, 1811. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1834, resigned in 1836 to follow the profession of civil engineering, and was appointed in that year resident engineer of canals and railroads in the state of Indiana. He was chief engineer of two railroads in 1847-52, engineer in 1852-'4. and president in 1854-'7 of the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad, and president of the Indianapolis, Pittsburg and Cleveland Railroad in 1859-'61. In April, 1861, he was appointed brigadier-general by the governor of Indiana, and served in the West Virginia Campaign of that year, but, declining the commissions of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers, he was mustered out of service in July, 1861. He then resumed the office of chief engineer of the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad, was president of the Indianapolis and St. Louis Railroad in 1867-'70, and in 1870-'3 was receiver of the Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Lafayette Railroad. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 419.
MORRIS, William Walton, soldier, born in Ballston Springs, New York, 31 August, 1801; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 11 December 1865. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1820, became 1st lieutenant in 1823, participated in the attack on the Indian towns in the Arickaree Expedition in that year, and in 1824 was transferred to the artillery. During the Seminole War he commanded a battalion of Creek volunteers, with the rank of major, formed the advance of General Thomas S. Jessup's command, and, marching into Florida to the assistance of the state troops and those under Colonel Zachary Taylor, participated in the battle of Wahoo Swamp, 26 November, 1836. For his conduct on that occasion he was promoted captain. His services in the subsequent engagements of this campaign won him the brevet of major in 1837. He served on the Canadian frontier in the border disturbances of 1839, during the Mexican War was major of the artillery battalion of the army of occupation, and was engaged at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. He had devoted much study to military law between 1839 and 1846, and in the latter year was appointed military governor and alcalde of the city of Tampico, subsequently assuming the same duties in Puebla, where he remained until the close of the war. He was promoted major in 1853, engaged in the Seminole War of 1856-'7, was on frontier duty the next year, and also served in quelling the Kansas disturbances. He became colonel in 1861, and during the Civil War he was stationed at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Maryland. By training his guns on the insurgents, he quelled the riots that occurred in that city, 19 April, 1861. Shortly after assuming command at Fort McHenry, he refused to obey a writ of habeas corpus that was granted by a Maryland judge, to obtain possession of a soldier of the Fort McHenry garrison, resisting the execution of the writ on the ground that the habeas corpus act had been suspended by the beginning of hostilities. From 1 February, 1865, till his death he commanded the Middle Department and the 8th Army Corps. He received the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general in the regular army on 9 June, 1862, and 10 December 1865, respectively. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 420.
MORRISON. George Washington, Congressman, born in Fairlee, Vermont. 16 October, 1809. He was educated at Thetford. Vermont, admitted to the bar in 1835, settled in Manchester, New Hampshire, soon afterward, and quickly won a high place at the bar, which he maintained for many years, till impaired health, in 1872, obliged him to retire. He was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives several times between 1840 and 1850, and solicitor of his county in 1845-'7. He was chosen to Congress as a Democrat to fill a vacancy, and re-elected, serving in 1850-'l and in 1853-'5. During his last term he opposed, by speech and note, the Kansas-Nebraska bill, notwithstanding his personal friendship for President Pierce.—His cousin. Charles Robert, jurist, born in Bath, New Hampshire, 22 January, 1819, was educated at Newbury, Vermont, admitted to the bar in July, 1842, and was circuit justice, court of common pleas, from 1851. He was adjutant of the 11th New Hampshire Regiment in 1862-'4. and was wounded thrice in the service. After the war he continued the practice of law at Manchester till 1887, when he moved to Concord, New Hampshire. He is the author of "Digest of New Hampshire Reports" (Concord, 1868); "Probate Directory" (1870); "Justice and Sheriff and Attorney's Assistant" (1872); "Town Officer" (1876); -'Digest of Laws relating to Common Schools" (1881); and "Proofs of Christ's Resurrection, from a Lawyer's Standpoint" (Andover, Massachusetts, 1880; revised ed., 1885). In 1880 he prepared a history of his branch of the Morrison family, which was embodied in the general history of the family by Leonard A. Morrison (Boston, 1880). He has now (1888) in preparation a " Digest of all New Hampshire Reports." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 420.
MORRISON, Pitcairn, soldier, born in New York City, 18 September, 1795; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 5 October, 1887. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant of artillery in the U. S. Army in October, 1820, promoted 1st lieutenant in 1826, and captain in 1836, and received the brevet of major for gallant conduct at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma in the war with Mexico. He was made major of infantry in 1847. commanded his regiment in 1848-'9, and the post of Fort Lincoln, Texas, in 1850-'l, and became lieutenant-colonel in 1853 and colonel in 1861. He was retired in October, 1863, "for disability incurred in the line of duty," and brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army "for long and faithful services." After this he resided in Baltimore, Maryland, and at the time of his death he was the oldest officer by commission in the army, with the exception of General William S. Harney. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 421.
MORRISON, William Ralls, Congressman, born in Monroe County, Illinois, 14 September, 1825. He was educated at McKendree College, served as a private in the Mexican War, and subsequently studied law and was admitted to the bar. He was clerk of Monroe County in 1852-'6, served in the legislature for the next three years, and was Speaker of the House in 1859. He organized the 49th Illinois Regiment at the beginning of the Civil War, and was wounded at Fort Donelson. While in command of that regiment in the field, he was elected to Congress as a Democrat, and served in 1863-'5, but was defeated for the 39th and 40th Congresses. He was again chosen in 1872, serving from 1873 till 1887, and in 1873-'5 was chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means. In 1886 he was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election. He was a delegate to the National Union Convention in 1866, and to the New York Democratic Convention in 1868. In March, 1887, he was appointed by President Cleveland a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission for a term of five years. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 422.
MORROW, James, Jefferson County, Indiana, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1839-1840.
MORSE, David Appleton, physician, born in Ellsworth, Ohio, 12 December, 1840. He was graduated at Cleveland Medical College in 1862, and began practice in Edinburgh, Ohio. In 1862-'5 he served in the U. S. Army as surgeon, at first under General William S. Rosecrans in Tennessee, and then under General William T. Sherman in Georgia. After his resignation he returned to Edinburgh and subsequently moved to Alliance, Ohio, but in 1867 settled in Madison County, where he remained for ten years. In 1877 he was called to Columbus, Ohio, where he has since held the professorship of nervous disorders and insanity in Starling Medical College and the post of physician to Columbus Hospital for the Insane. More recently he accepted the superintendency of the Oxford Retreat for Nervous and Mental Diseases. Dr. Morse is a member of the American, the Ohio, and other medical societies. He is editor of the department of nervous disorders and insanity in the ' Lancet and Observer," to whose columns, as well as to the transactions of societies to which he belongs, he has contributed papers on medical topics. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 422.
MORSE, Henry Bagg, soldier, born in Eaton, New York, 2 July, 1830; died there, 20 June, 1874. He received an academic education, and then assisted his father in various farming and manufacturing enterprises. In 1862 he was authorized by Governor Edwin D. Morgan to raise a company for the Chenango and Madison Regiment, and successively attained the ranks of captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel. His regiment was sent to the Department of the Gulf, took part in the combat at Fort Bisland, Louisiana, and led in the charge on Port Hudson, where he was severely wounded. Subsequently he had charge of a brigade at Sabine Crossroads, and received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. He was one of the Board of Prison-Inspectors for the Department of the Gulf in New Orleans, and acting chief quartermaster of the 19th Army Corps during the latter part of his service. After the war he studied law in Syracuse, New York, and then settled in Arkansas, where he held the office of U. S. Revenue-Collector. On the reorganization of the state government he was appointed probate judge, and he was afterward circuit judge for six years. Failing health led to his returning to the north, but in March, 1874, he went again to Arkansas in the heat of the Brooks-Baxter excitement (see Baxter, Elisha), and took an active part in state matters as chairman of the Jefferson County Republican Committee. This again prostrated him, and he returned to the north to die. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 423
MORSE, Samuel Finley Breese, founder of the American system of electro-magnetic telegraph, born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 27 April, 1791; died in New York City, 2 April, 1872. was graduated at Yale in 1810, and in that institution received his first instruction in electricity from Professor Jeremiah Day, also attending the elder Silliman's lectures on chemistry and galvanism. In 1809 he wrote: "Mr. Day’s lectures are very interesting; they are upon electricity; he has given us some very line experiments, the whole class, taking hold of hands, form the circuit of communication, and we all received the shock apparently at the same moment. I never took an electric shock before; it felt as if some person had struck me a slight blow across the arms." His college career was perhaps more strongly marked by his fondness for art than for science, and he employed his leisure time in painting. He wrote to his parents during the senior year: "My price is five dollars for a miniature on ivory, and I have engaged three or four at that price. My price for profiles is one dollar, and everybody is willing to engage me at that price." When he was released from his college duties, he had no profession in view, but to be a painter was his ambition, and so he began art studies under Washington Allston, and in 1811 accompanied him to London, where soon afterward he was admitted to the Royal Academy. He remained in London for four years, meeting many celebrities and forming an intimate friendship with Charles R. Leslie, who became his room-mate. Under the tuition of Allston and Benjamin West he made rapid progress in his art. and in 1813 exhibited a colossal "Dying Hercules" in the Royal Academy, which was classed by critics as among the first twelve paintings there. The plaster model that he made to assist him in his picture gained the gold medal of the Adelphi Society of Arts. This was given when Great Britain and the United States were at war, and was cited as an illustration of the impartiality with which American artists were treated by England. The first portrait that he painted abroad was of Leslie, who paid him a similar compliment, and later he executed one of Zerah Colburn. He then set to work on an historical composition to be offered in competition for the highest premium of the Royal Academy, but, as he was obliged to return to the United States in August, 1815, this project was abandoned. Settling in Boston, he opened a studio in that city, but, while visitors were glad to admire his "Judgment of Jupiter," his patrons were few. Finding no opportunities for historic painting, he turned his attention to portraits during 1816-'17, visiting the larger towns of Vermont and New Hampshire.
Meanwhile he was associated with his brother, Sidney E. Morse, in the invention of an improved pump. In January, 1818, he went to Charleston, South Carolina, and there painted many portraits, his orders at one time exceeding 150 in number. On 18 October, 1818, he married Lucretia Walker in Concord, New Hampshire. but in the following winter he returned to Charleston, where he wrote to his old preceptor, Washington Allston: " I am painting from morning till night, and have continual applications." Among his orders was a commission from the city authorities for a portrait of James Monroe, then President of the United States, which he painted in Washington, and which, on its completion, was placed in the city hall of Charleston. In 1823 he settled in New York City, and after hiring as his studio "a tiny room on Broadway, opposite Trinity churchyard, he continued his painting of portraits, one of the first being that of Chancellor Kent, which was followed soon afterward by a picture of Fitz-Greene Halleck, now in the Astor library, and a full-length portrait of Lafayette for the city of New York. During his residence there he became associated with other artists in founding the New York Drawing Association, of which he was made president. This led in 1820 to the establishment of the National Academy of the Arts of Design, to include representations from the arts of painting, sculpture, architecture, and engraving. Morse was chosen its president, and so remained until 1842. He was likewise president of the Sketch Club, an assemblage of artists that met weekly to sketch for an hour, after which the time was devoted to social entertainment, including a supper of "milk and honey, raisins, apples, and crackers." About this time he delivered a series of lectures on "The Fine Arts " before the New York Athenaeum, which are said to have been the first on that subject in the United States. Thus he continued until 1829, when he again visited Europe for study, and for three years resided abroad, principally in Paris and the art centres of Italy.
During 1826-'7 Professor James F. Dana lectured on electro-magnetism and electricity before the New York Athenaeum. Mr. Morse was a regular attendant, and, being a friend of Professor Dana, had frequent discussions with him on the subject of his lectures. But the first ideas of a practical application of electricity seem to have come to him while he was in Paris, James Fenimore Cooper refers to the event thus: "Our worthy friend first communicated to us his ideas on the subject of using the electric spark by way of a telegraph. It was in Paris, and during the winter of 1831-'2." On 1 October, 1832, he sailed from Havre on the packet-ship "Sully " for New York, and among his fellow-passengers was Charles T. Jackson (q. v.), then lately from the laboratories of the great French physicists, where he had made special studies in electricity and magnetism. A conversation in the early part of the voyage turned on the recent experiments of Ampere with the electro-magnet. When the question whether the velocity of electricity is retarded by the length of the wire was asked, Dr. Jackson replied, referring to Benjamin Franklin's experiments, that " electricity passes instantaneously over any known length of wire." Morse then said : " If the presence of electricity can be made visible in any part of the circuit, I see no reason why intelligence may not be transmitted instantaneously by electricity." The idea took fast hold of him, and thenceforth all his energy was devoted to the development of the electric telegraph. He said: "If it will go ten miles without stopping, I can make it go around the globe." At once, while on board the vessel, he set to work and devised the dot-and-dash alphabet. The electro-magnetic and chemical recording telegraph essentially as it now exists was planned and drawn on shipboard, but he did not produce his working model till 1835 nor his relay till later. His brothers placed at his disposal a room on the fifth floor of the building on the corner of Nassau and Beekman streets, which he used as his studio, workshop, bedchamber, and kitchen. In this room, with his own hands, he first cut his models; then from these he made the moulds and castings, and in the lathe, with the graver's tools, he gave them polish and finish. In 1835 he was appointed professor of the literature of the arts of design in the University of the City of New York, and he occupied front rooms on the third floor in the north wing of the university building, looking out on Washington Square, where he made his apparatus, "made as it was," he says, "and completed before the first of the year 1830. I was enabled to and did mark down telegraphic intelligible signs, and to make and did make distinguishable signs for telegraphing; and, having arrived at that point, I exhibited it to some of my friends early in that year, and among others to Professor Leonard D. Gale. His discovery of the relay in 1835 made it possible for him to re-enforce the current after it had become feeble owing to its distance from the source, thus making possible transmission from one point on a main line, through great distances, by a single act of a single operator. In 1836-'7 he directed his experiments mainly to modifying the marking apparatus, and later in varying the modes of uniting, experimenting with plumbago and various kinds of inks or coloring matter, substituting a pen for a pencil, and devising a mode of writing on a whole sheet of paper instead of on a strip of ribbon. In September, 1837, the instrument was shown in the cabinet of the university to numerous visitors, operating through a circuit of 1,700 feet of wire that ran back and forth in that room. At this time the apparatus, which is shown in the accompanying illustration, was described by Professor Leonard D. Gale as consisting of a train of clock-wheels to regulate the motion of a strip of paper about one and a half inches wide; three cylinders of wood. A, H, and C, over which the paper passed, and which were controlled by the clock-work that was moved by the weight E. A wooden pendulum, F, was suspended over the centre of the cylinder B. In the lower part of the pendulum was fixed a case in which a pencil moved easily and was kept in contact with the paper by a light weight. At h was an electromagnet, whose armature was fixed on the pendulum. The wire from the helices of the magnet passed to one pole of the battery I, and the other to the cup of mercury at K. The other pole of the battery was connected by a wire to the other cup of mercury, J. The portrule represented below the table contained two cylinders connected by a band. M shows the composing-stick in which the type were set. At one end of the lever 0 0 was a fork of copper wire, which was plunged when the lever was depressed into the two cups of mercury J and K, while the other end was kept down by means of a weight. A series of thin plates of type metal, eleven in number, having one to five cogs each, except one which was used as a space, completed the apparatus. His application for a patent, dated 28 September, 1837, was filed as a caveat at. the U. S. Patent-Office, and in December of the same year he made a formal request of Congress for aid to build a telegraph line. The Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives, to which the petition had been referred, reported favorably, but the session closed without any action being taken. Francis O. J. Smith, of Maine, chairman of the committee, became impressed with the value of this new application of electricity, and formed a partnership with Mr. Morse. In May, 1838. Morse went to Europe in the hope of interesting foreign governments in the establishment of telegraph-lines, but he was unsuccessful in London. He obtained a patent in France, but it was practically useless, as it required the inventor to put his discovery into operation within two years, and telegraphs being a government monopoly no private lines were permissible. Mr. Morse was received with distinction by scientists in each country, and his apparatus was exhibited under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, and the Royal Society in London.
After an absence of eleven months he returned to New York in May. 1839, as he writes to Mr. Smith, "without a farthing in my pocket, and have to borrow even for my meals, and, even worse than this. I have incurred a debt of rent by my absence."' Four years of trouble and almost abject poverty followed, and at times he was reduced to such want that for twenty-four hours he was without food. His only support was derived from a few students that he taught art, and occasional portraits that he was commissioned to paint. In the meantime, his foreign competitors—Wheatstone in England, and Steinheil in Bavaria—were receiving substantial aid. and making efforts to induce Congress to adopt their systems in the United States, while Morse, struggling to persuade his own countrymen of the merits of his system, although it was conceded by scientists to be the best, was unable to accomplish anything. He persisted in bringing the matter before Congress after Congress, until at last a bill granting him $30,000 was passed by the house on 23 February, 1842, by a majority of eight, the vote standing 90 to 82. On the last day of the session he left the capitol thoroughly disheartened, but found next morning that his bill had been rushed through the Senate without division on the night of 3 March, 1843. There were yet many difficulties to be overcome, and with renewed energy he began to work. His intention was to place the wires in leaden pipes, buried in the earth. This proved impracticable, and other methods were devised. Ezra Cornell (q. v.) then became associated with him, and was charged with the laying of the wires, and after various accidents it was ultimately decided to suspend the wires, insulated, on poles in the air. These difficulties had not been considered, as it was supposed that the method of burying the wires, which had been adopted abroad, would prove successful. Nearly a year had been exhausted in making experiments, and the congressional appropriation was nearly consumed before the system of poles was resorted to. The construction of the line between Baltimore and Washington, a distance of about forty miles, was quickly accomplished, and on 11 May, 1844, Mr. Morse wrote to his assistant. Alfred Vail, in Baltimore, "Everything worked well.'" Among the earliest messages, while the line was still in an experimental condition, was one from Baltimore announcing the nomination of Henry Clay to the presidency by the Whig Convention in that city. The news was conveyed on the railroad to the nearest point that had been reached by the telegraph, and thence instantly transmitted over the wires to Washington. An hour later passengers arriving at Washington were surprised to find that the news had preceded them. By the end of the month communication between the two cities was complete, and practically perfect. The day that was chosen for the public exhibition was 24 May, 1844, when Mr. Morse invited his friends to assemble in the chamber of the U. S. Supreme Court, in the Capitol, at Washington, while his assistant, Mr. Vail, was in Baltimore, at the Mount Claire Depot. Miss Annie G. Ellsworth, daughter of Henry L. Ellsworth, then commissioner of patents, chose the words of the message. As she had been the first to announce to Mr. Morse the passage of the bill granting the appropriation to build the line, he had promised her this distinction. She selected the words "What hath God wrought,"' taken from Numbers xxiii., 23. They were received at once by Mr. Vail, and sent back again in an instant. The strip of paper on which the telegraphic characters were printed was claimed by Governor Thomas H. Seymour, of Connecticut, on the ground that Miss Ellsworth was a native of Hartford, and is now preserved in the archives by the Hartford Athenaeum. Two days later the national Democratic Convention met in Baltimore and nominated James K. Polk for the presidency. Silas Wright, of New York, was then chosen for the vice-presidency, and the information was immediately conveyed by telegraph to Morse, and by him communicated to Mr. Wright, then in the Senate Chamber. A few minutes later the convention was astonished by receiving a telegram from Mr. Wright declining the nomination. The despatch was at once read before the convention, but the members were so incredulous that there was an adjournment to await the report of a committee that was sent to Washington to get reliable information on the subject.
Morse offered his telegraph to the U. S. government for $100,000, but, while $8,000 was voted for maintenance of the initial line, any further expenditure in that direction was declined. The patent then passed into private hands, and the Morse System became the property of a joint-stock company called the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Step by step, sometimes with rapid strides, but persistently, the telegraph spread over the United States, although not without accompanying difficulties. Morse's patents were violated, his honor disputed, and even his integrity was assailed, and rival companies devoured for a time all the profits of the business, but after a series of vexatious lawsuits his rights were affirmed by the U. S. Supreme Court. In 1846 he was granted an extension of his patent, and ultimately the Morse System was adopted in France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, and Australia. The following statement, made in 1869 by the Western Union Telegraph Company, the largest corporation of its kind in the world, is still true: "Nearly all the machinery employed by the company belongs to the Morse System. This telegraph is now used almost exclusively everywhere, and the time will probably never come when it will cease to be the leaning system of the world. Of more than a hundred devices that have been made to supersede it, not one has succeeded in accomplishing its purpose, and it is used at the present time upon more than ninety-five per cent of all the telegraph-lines in existence." The establishment of the submarine telegraph is likewise due to Morse. In October, 1842, he made experiments with a cable between Castle Garden and Governor's Island. The results were sufficient to show the practicability of such an undertaking. Later he held the office of electrician to the New York, Newfoundland, and London Telegraph Company, organized for the purpose of laying a cable across the Atlantic ocean. While in Paris during March, 1839, Morse met Daguerre, and became acquainted with his process of reproducing pictures by the action of sunlight on silver salts. he had previously experimented in the same lines while residing in New Haven, but without success. In June of the same year, after the French government had purchased the method from Daguerre, he communicated the details to Morse, who succeeded in acquiring the process, and was associated with John W. Draper (q. v.) in similar experiments. For some time afterward, until the telegraph absorbed his attention, he was engaged in experimenting toward the perfecting of the daguerreotype, and he shares with Professor Draper the honor of being the first to make photographs of living persons. Morse also patented a machine for cutting marble in 1823, by which he hoped to be able to produce perfect copies of any model. In 1847 he purchased property on the east bank of the Hudson, near Poughkeepsie, which he called "Locust Grove," where, after his marriage in 1848 to Sarah E. Griswold, he dispensed a generous hospitality, entertaining eminent artists and other notable persons. Soon afterward he bought a city residence on Twenty-Second Street, where he spent the winters, and on whose front since his death a marble tablet has been inserted, bearing the inscription, " In this house S. F. B. Morse lived for many years and died."
He had many honors. Yale gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1846, and in 1842 the American Institute gave him its gold medal for his experiments. In 1830 he was elected a corresponding member of the Historical Institute of France, in 1837 a member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Belgium, in 1841 corresponding member of the National Institution for the Promotion of Science in Washington, in 1845 corresponding member of the Archaeological Society of Belgium, in 1848 a member of the American Philosophical Society, and in 1849 a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The sultan of Turkey presented him in 1848 with the decoration of Nishan Iftichar, or order of glory, set in diamonds. A golden snuff-box, containing the Prussian golden medal for scientific merit, was sent him in 1851; the great gold medal of arts and sciences was awarded him by Würtemberg in 1852, and in 1855 the emperor of Austria sent him the great gold medal of science and art. France made him a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1856, Denmark conferred on him the Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog in 1856, Spain gave him the honor of knighthood and made him commander of the Royal Order of Isabella the Catholic in 1859, Portugal made him a Knight of the Tower and Sword in 1860, and Italy conferred on him the insignia of Chevalier of the Royal Order of Saints Lazaro Mauritio in 1864. In 1856 the telegraph companies of Great Britain gave him a banquet in London. At the instance of Napoleon III., Emperor of the French, representatives of France, Austria. Sweden, Russia, Sardinia, the Netherlands, Turkey, Holland, the Papal States, and Tuscany, met in Paris during August. 1858, to decide upon a collective testimonial to Morse, and the result of their deliberations was a vote of 400,000 francs. During the same year the American colony of France entertained him at a dinner given in Paris, over which John S. Preston presided. On the occasion of his later visits to Europe he was received with great distinction. As he was returning from abroad in 1868 he received an invitation from his fellow-citizens, who united in saying: "Many of your fellow countrymen and numerous personal friends desire to give a definite expression of the fact that this country is in full accord with European nations in acknowledging your title to the position of the father of the modern telegraph, and at the same time in a fitting manner to welcome you to your home." The day selected was 30 December, 1868, and Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, presided at the banquet in New York. On 10 June. 1871, he was further honored by the erection of a bronze statue of himself in Central Park. Voluntary contributions had been gathered for two years from those who in various ways were connected with the electric telegraph. The statue is of heroic size, modelled by Byron M. Pickett, and represents Morse as holding the first message that was sent over the wires. In the evening of the same day a reception was held in the Academy of Music, at which many eminent men of the nation were present. At the hour of nine the chairman announced that the telegraphic instrument before him, the original register employed in actual service, was connected with all the wires of the United States, and that the touch of the finger on the key would soon vibrate throughout the continent. The following message was then sent: "Greeting and thanks to the telegraph fraternity throughout the land. Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, good will to men." At the last click of the instrument, Morse struck the sounder with his own name, amid the most extravagant applause. When the excitement had subsided, the chairman said: "Thus the father of the telegraph bids farewell to his children." The last public service that he performed was the unveiling of the statue of Benjamin Franklin in Printing House Square, on 17 January, 1872, in the presence of a vast number of citizens. He had cheerfully acceded to the request that he would perform this act, remarking that it would be his last. It was eminently appropriate that he should do this, for, as was said: "The one conducted the lightning safely from the sky; the other conducts it beneath the ocean, from continent to continent. The one tamed the lightning, the other makes it minister to human wants and human progress." Shortly after his return to his home he was seized with neuralgia in his head, and after a few months of suffering he died. Memorial sessions of Congress and of various state legislatures were held in his honor. "In person." says his biographer, "Professor Morse was tall, slender, graceful, and at tractive. Six feet in stature, he stood erect and firm even in his old age. His blue eyes were expressive of genius and affection. His nature was a rare combination of solid intellect and delicate sensibility. Thoughtful, sober, and quiet, he readily entered into the enjoyments of domestic and social life, indulging in sallies of humor, and readily appreciating and enjoying the wit of others. Dignified in his intercourse with men. courteous and affable with the gentler sex, he was a good husband, a judicious father, a generous and faithful friend." He was a ready writer, and, in addition to several controversial pamphlets concerning the telegraph, he published poems and articles in the "North American Review." He edited the " Remains of Lucretia Maria Davidson" (New York, 1829), to which he added a personal memoir, and also published " Foreign Conspiracy against the Liberties of the United States" (1835); "Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the United States through Foreign Immigration, and the Present State of the Naturalization Laws, by an American," originally contributed to the "Journal of Commerce" in 1835, and published anonymously in 1854; "Confessions of a French Catholic Priest, to which are added Warnings to the People of the United States, by the same Author" (edited and published with an introduction, 1837); and "Our Liberties defended, the Question discussed, Is the Protestant or Papal System most Favorable to Civil and Religious Liberty!" (1841). See "Life of Samuel F. B. Morse, by Samuel Irenaeus Prime (New York, 1875). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 424-428.
MORTON, Elihu P., Massachusetts Abolition Society, Vice-President, 1841-44
MORTON, Levi Parsons, banker, born in Shoreham, Vermont, 16 May, 1824. He became a clerk in a country store, soon developed aptitude for business, and rose rapidly. In 1850 he was made a member of the firm of Beebe, Morgan and Company, merchants of Boston, and in 1854 he moved to New York, where he established the firm of Morton and Grinnell. In 1863 he founded the banking-house of Morton, Bliss and Company, in New York, and that of Morton, Rose and Company, in London. The latter were the fiscal agents of the U. S. government from 1873 till 1884. The firms of which Mr. Morton is the head were active in the syndicates that negotiated U. S. bonds and in the payment of the Geneva award of $15,500,000 and the Halifax fishery award of $5,500,000. Mr. Morton was appointed honorary commissioner to the Paris Exposition in 1878. In the same year he was elected to Congress as a Republican, and he was re-elected in 1880. In the latter year he declined the nomination for vice-president on the Republican ticket. President Garfield offered to nominate Mr. Morton for Secretary of the Navy or minister to France. He chose the latter post, and filled it from 1881 to 1885. Through his intercession the restrictions upon the importation of American pork were removed, and American corporations obtained a legal status in France. He was American Commissioner-General to the Paris Electrical Exposition, the representative of the United States at the Submarine Cable Convention, and publicly received, in the name of the people of the United States, the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty enlightening the world. Mr. Morton, in 1887, purchased "Ellerslie." the estate of William Kelly, at Rhinebeck on the Hudson. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Dartmouth in 1881 and by Middlebury in 1882. In 1887 he was a candidate for U. S. Senator. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 431.
MORTON, Marcus, jurist, born in Freetown, Massachusetts, 19 February, 1784; died in Taunton, Massachusetts, 6 February, 1864. He was graduated at Brown in 1804, studied at Litchfield, Connecticut, law-school, and was admitted to the bar in Taunton, Massachusetts He was clerk of the state senate in 1811—'13, elected to Congress as a Democrat in 1816, serving in 1817—'21, was a member of the executive council in 1823, and became lieutenant-governor the next year. He was on the state supreme bench in 1825-'39, was elected governor of Massachusetts by one vote over Edward Everett in 1840, and from 1845 until his resignation in 1848 was collector of the port in Boston, he left the Democratic Party about 1848 to become a Free-Soiler, and was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1853, and of the legislature in 1858. Harvard gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1840. He advocated the restriction of slavery, and throughout the Civil War was an ardent supporter of the National cause.—His son, Marcus, jurist, born in Taunton, 8 April, 1819, was graduated at Brown in 1838, studied two years at Harvard law-school, and was admitted to the bar in 1841. He practised in Boston, but since 1850 has resided in Andover. He was a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 1853, and in 1858 was in the legislature, and was appointed a justice of the Superior Court of Suffolk County. He was elevated to the superior bench in 1859, and became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts in 1869, and chief justice in 1872. He received the degree of LL. D. from Princeton in 1870. and from Harvard in 1882. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 431.
MORTON, Oliver Perry, 1823-1877, statesman, lawyer, jurist, anti-slavery activist. Member of the Republican Party. U.S. Senator and Governor of Indiana, 1861. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 431-432; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 262; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 15, p. 956)
MORTON, Oliver Perry, statesman, born in Saulsbury, Wayne County, Indiana, 4 August, 1823; died in Indianapolis, Indiana, 1 November, 1877. His father, a native of New Jersey, whose ancestors came from England with Roger Williams, dropped the first syllable in the family name of Throckmorton. At the age of fifteen the son was taken from school and indentured to a brother, who was a hatter. After working at this trade four years he determined to fit himself for the bar, spent two years at Miami University, studied law at Centreville, and began practice there in 1847. He soon attained professional eminence, and was elected a circuit judge in 1852, but at the end of a year, when his term expired by the adoption of a new state constitution, he willingly left the bench, and before resuming practice spent a year at a law-school in Cincinnati. Having been a Democrat with anti-slavery convictions, he entered into the people's movement in 1854, took an active part in the formation of the Republican Party, and was a delegate to the Pittsburg Convention the same year, and the candidate of the new party for governor. In a joint canvass with Ashbel P. Willard, the Democratic nominee, he established a reputation for political ability, but was beaten at the polls, and returned to his law practice. In 1860 he was nominated for lieutenant-governor on the ticket with Henry S. Lane, and during the canvass took strong ground in favor of exacting from the southern states obedience to the Constitution. Up on convening, the legislature elected Governor Lane U. S. Senator, and on 16 January, 1861, Mr. Morton took the oath as governor. He opposed every compromise with the Secessionist Party, nominated to the Peace Congressmen of equally pronounced views, began to prepare for the coming conflict before Fort Sumter was fired upon, and when President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers he offered to send 10,000 from Indiana. The state's quota was raised at once. He reconvened the legislature on 24 April, obtained authority to borrow $2,000,000, and displayed great energy and ability in placing troops in the field and providing for their care and sustenance. He gave permission to citizens of Indiana to raise troops in Kentucky, allowed Kentucky regiments to be recruited from the population of two of the southern counties, procured arms for the volunteer bodies enlisted for the defence of Kentucky, and by thus co-operating with the Unionists in that state did much toward establishing the ascendency of the National government within its borders. When the question of the abolition of slavery arose, the popular majority no longer upheld the governor in his support of the National administration. In 1862 a Democratic legislature was chosen, which refused to receive the governor's message, and was on the point of taking from him the command of the militia, when the Republican members withdrew, leaving both houses without a quorum. In order to carry on the state government and pay the state bonds, he obtained advances from banks and county boards, and appointed a bureau of finance, which, from April, 1863, till January, 1865, made all disbursements of the state, amounting to more than $1,000,000. During this period he refused to summon the legislature. The supreme court condemned this arbitrary course, but the people subsequently applauded his action, and the state assumed the obligations that he incurred. The draft laws provoked the Secessionists in Indiana to form secret organizations and commit outrages on Union men. They plotted against the life of Governor Morton and arranged a general insurrection, to take place in August, 1864. The governor discovered their plans and arrested the leaders of the Knights of the Golden Circle, or Sons of Liberty, as the association was called. In 1864 he was nominated for governor, and defeated Joseph E. McDonald by 20,883 votes, after an animated joint canvass. He resigned in January, 1867, to take his seat in the U. S. Senate, to which he was re-elected in 1873. In the Senate he was chairman of the Committee on Privileges and Elections and the leader of the Republicans, and for several years he exercised a determining influence over the political course of the party. On the question of reconstruction he supported the severest measures toward the southern states and their citizens. He labored zealously to secure the passage of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, was active in the impeachment proceedings against President Johnson, and was the trusted adviser of the Republicans of the south. After supporting the Santo Domingo Treaty he was offered the English mission by President Grant, but declined, lest his state should send a Democrat to succeed him in the Senate. At the Republican National Convention in 1876 Mr. Morton, in the earlier ballots, received next to the highest number of votes for the presidential nomination. He was a member of the Electoral Commission of 1877. After having a paralytic stroke in 1865 he was never again able to stand without support, yet there was no abatement in his power as a debater or in the effectiveness of his forcible popular oratory. Immediately after his return from Europe, whither he had gone to consult specialists in nervous diseases, he delivered, in 1866, a political speech of which more than 1,000,000 copies were circulated in pamphlet-form. After visiting Oregon in the spring of 1877 as chairman of a senatorial committee to investigate the election of Lafayette Grover, he had another attack of paralysis, and died soon after reaching his home. See “Life and Public Services of Oliver Perry Morton” (Indianapolis, 1876). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 431-432.
MORTON, James St Clair, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 24 September, 1829; died in Petersburg, Virginia, 17 June, 1864, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1851, entered the Engineer Corps, and was assistant professor of engineering at the U. S. Military Academy in 1855-'7. He explored the Chiriquin country, Central America, for a railroad route across the isthmus in 1860 by authority of Congress, and on his return took charge of the work on the Washington Aqueduct. He superintended the fortifying of Tortugas, in March, 1861, was promoted captain in that year, and in May, 1862, reported to General Don Carlos Buell as chief engineer of the Army of the Ohio. In October he became chief engineer of the Army of the Cumberland, and commanded the bridge brigade of that army, becoming brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862. He constructed the intrenchments about Murfreesborough, Tennessee, participated in the capture of Chattanooga, was wounded at Chickamauga, and superintended the engineering operations under General William S. Rosecrans. He was promoted major of engineers in July, 1863, was chief engineer of the 9th Army Corps in the Richmond Campaign of 1864, and was engaged in the battles of North Anna, Tolopotomy, Bethesda Church, and the assault on Petersburg, Virginia, where he was killed while leading the attack, he had received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at Stone River, and colonel for Chickamauga. and after his death was given that of brigadier-general, U. S. Army, for Petersburg. He published " An Essay on Instruction in Engineering'" (New York, 1856); "An Essay on a New System of Fortifications" (1857); "Memoir on Fortification" (1858); "Dangers and Defences of New York City" (1859); and "Life of Major John Saunders, of the Engineers " (1860). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 433.
MORTON, Thomas George, physician, born in Philadelphia, 8 August, 1835, was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, and graduated in the medical department there in 1856. He practised general surgery in Philadelphia for the next three years, actively engaged during the Civil War in the establishment of military hospitals, and was a surgeon at Satterlee Hospital, and consulting surgeon to the U. S. Army Hospital, Chesnut Hill, Pennsylvania. He has also held offices in numerous other hospitals, including the Orthopedic, of which he was the originator. In 1876 he was appointed a commissioner to erect the State Insane Asylum for the southern district of Pennsylvania, and was chairman of the committee on plans and buildings, he was chosen president of the Pennsylvania Society for the Restriction of Vivisection in 1880, and vice-president of the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children the same year, was appointed a commissioner of State Public Charities in 1883, and chairman of the Committee of Lunacy in 1886. He is a member of numerous foreign and domestic professional bodies, and has successfully performed numerous difficult surgical operations. He introduced the ward-carriage into the Pennsylvania Hospital in 1866, the bed-elevator and carriage in 1874, and in 1876 received the Centennial medal that was awarded for his hospital ward dressing-carriage. He has published numerous professional papers in the "American Journal of the Medical Sciences" and the " Pennsylvania Hospital Reports "; "Lecture on the Transfusion of Blood and its Practical Application" (New York, 1877); with Dr. William Hunt, "Surgery of Pennsylvania Hospital" (Philadelphia, 1880); and " Transfusion of Blood and its Practical Application " (New York, 1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 433.
MORTON, William Thomas Green, dentist, born in Charlton, Massachusetts, 19 August, 1819; died in New York City, 15 July, 1868. He early left home to enter business in Boston, but, being unsuccessful, went to Baltimore in 1840, and there studied dentistry. In 1841 he returned to Boston, where he introduced a new kind of solder by which false teeth could be fastened to gold plates. In his efforts to remove the roots of old teeth without pain he tried stimulants, opium, and magnetism, but without success. Meanwhile he attended medical lectures, and studied chemistry under Dr. Charles T. Jackson (o. v.), in whose laboratory he became acquainted with the anesthetic properties of sulphuric ether. After experimenting on himself with this agent, and becoming satisfied of its safety, he administered it to a patient on 30 September, 1846, producing unconsciousness, during which a firmly rooted bicuspid tooth was painlessly extracted. Other successful experiments followed, and he communicated the results to Dr. John C. Warren. This new anesthetic was first publicly administered on 16 October, 1846, to a patient in the Massachusetts General Hospital, from whose jaw a vascular tumor was removed by Dr. Warren. From this operation dates the introduction into general surgery of ethereal anesthesia. In November, 1846, Dr. Morton obtained a patent for its use, giving to it the name of "letheon," and a month later he secured a patent in England. He offered free rights to all charitable institutions throughout the country, but the government appropriated the discovery to its own use without compensation. Various claimants opposed his right of discovery, notably Dr. Jackson and Horace Wells, and the matter was investigated by the French Academy of Sciences, who decreed one of the Montyon prizes of 2,500 francs to Dr. Jackson, and a similar award of 2,500 francs to Mr. Morton, for the application of the discovery to surgical operations. His claims were so earnestly opposed in Boston that his business was entirely ruined. He applied to Congress for relief in 1846, and again in 1849, strengthened by the action of the trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital, who conceded to him in 1848 the discovery of the power and safety of ether in producing anesthesia. In 1852 a bill appropriating $100,000 as a national testimonial for his discovery was introduced in Congress, with the condition that he should surrender his patent to the U. S. government, but it failed, and he was equally unsuccessful in 1853 and in 1854. Testimonials crediting him with the application of ether as an anesthetic were signed by the medical profession in Boston in 1856, in New York in 1858, and in Philadelphia in 1860. The last years of his life were spent in agricultural pursuits in Wellesley, Massachusetts, where he also raised and imported fine cattle. Mr. Morton received, in addition to the Montyon Medal, decorations from Russia and Sweden, which are now deposited in the rooms of the Massachusetts Historical Society. See " Trials of a Public Benefactor," by Dr. Nathan P. Weyman (New York, 1859). The illustration shows the monument that was presented by Thomas Lee to the city of Boston in 1868. It is placed in the Public garden and bears the following inscription: "To commemorate the discovery that the inhaling of ether causes insensibility to pain. First proved to the world at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, October, A.D. MDCCCXLVI." On each of the sides is a marble medallion representing the physician and the surgeon operating upon the sick and injured, who have been placed under the influence of ether. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 434.
MOSBY, John Singleton, soldier, born in Powhatan County, Virginia, 6 December, 1833. He entered the University of Virginia, and before completing his course shot and seriously wounded a student who assaulted him. He was fined and sentenced to imprisonment, but was pardoned by the governor, and his fine was remitted by the legislature. He studied law during his confinement, and soon after his release was admitted to the bar, and practised in Bristol, Washington County, Virginia. At the beginning of hostilities in the spring of 1861 he enlisted in a company of cavalry, and served in the campaign of General Joseph E. Johnston in the Shenandoah Valley and the Manassas operations, and on picket duty on the Potomac during the winter. At the expiration of twelve months he and a friend were the only soldiers in his company that were willing to re-enlist without first receiving a furlough. On 14 February, 1862, he was made adjutant of his regiment, but two months later, when the colonel, William E. Jones, was displaced, he returned to the ranks. General James E. B. Stuart, the brigade commander, observed Mosby's abilities, and invited him to serve as a scout at his headquarters. He guided Stuart’s force in a bold raid in the rear of General George B. McClellan's position on the Chickahominy, 14 June, 1862. In January, 1863, he crossed the Rappahannock into northern Virginia, which had been abandoned the year before to the occupation of the National Army, and recruited a force of irregular cavalry, with which, aided by the friendly population of Loudoun and Fauquier Counties, he harassed the National lines, and did much damage by cutting communications and destroying supply-trains in the rear of the armies that invaded Virginia. His partisan rangers, when not on a raid, scattered for safety, and remained in concealment, with orders to assemble again at a given time and place. Several expeditions were sent to capture Mosby and his men; but he always had intelligence of the approach of the enemy, and evaded every encounter, though the district was repeatedly ravaged as a punishment to the people for harboring and abetting the guerillas. Many cavalry outposts were captured by them, and the National forces were compelled to strengthen their pickets, sometimes to contract their lines, and to use constant vigilance against stratagems, surprises, and nocturnal attacks. His force was made up of deserters from the Confederate ranks, of volunteers from civil life, and of furloughed cavalrymen who had lost their horses and joined him temporarily in order to obtain remounts captured from the enemy. One of his boldest lieutenants was a deserter from the National Army. At Chantilly, on 16 March, 1863, he made a counter-charge, and routed a cavalry force much larger than his own. At Dranesville, on 1 April, 1863, he defeated a detachment sent specially to capture him. While the armies were engaged at Chancellorsville he surprised a body of cavalry at Warrenton Junction, but was routed by a detachment that came to the rescue. He raised a new force, obtained a howitzer, passed to the rear of General Hooker's army, wrecked a railroad-train, inflicted severe damage on the troops that surrounded him, and finally cut his way through the lines. In May, 1864, Mosby captured a railroad transport near Aquia Creek, and compelled General Grant, while his army was engaged in the Wilderness, to detach a cavalry force to protect his communications. Mosby received a captain's commission in March, 1863, and two weeks later that of a major, and he reported to General Stuart till the time of that officer's death in May, 1864, and after that to General Robert E. Lee. Before the close of the war he was made a full colonel, he received several bullet wounds. His partisan rangers, under an act of the Confederate Congress, stood on the same footing as the cavalry of the line, and received the same pay, besides being allowed to retain captured spoils. On 21 April, 1865, he took leave of his partisans, saying: "Soldiers of the 43d Regiment: I have summoned you together for the last time. The vision we have cherished of a free and independent country has vanished, and that country is now the spoil of a conqueror. I disband your organization in preference to surrendering it to our enemies. I am now no longer your commander." Remaining in Fauquier County, where he was at the close of the war, he opened a law-office in Warrenton, and obtained a lucrative practice. In 1872 he incurred much obloquy in the south by publicly supporting the Republican presidential candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, who had extended his protection to Mosby's guerillas at the surrender in 1865. He defended his course on the ground that the south, which had already accepted the enfranchisement of the Negroes, might consistently support the Republican Party, and there by most quickly attain tranquillity and home rule. During President Grant's second term he exerted himself to appease the spirit of dissatisfaction in the south, but declined all favors from the administration. He supported the candidacy of Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, in a letter to the New York " Herald," in which first appeared the phrase "the solid south." He was appointed consul at Hong Kong, introduced reforms in the consular service, and remained there more than six years, but was removed on the accession of President Cleveland. On his return to the United States he settled in San Francisco and resumed the practice of law. In December, 1886, he delivered in Boston a lecture on Stuart’s cavalry, which was repeated in other places, and published in a volume entitled "War Reminiscences" (Boston, 1887). See also "Partisan Life with Mosby," by John Scott (New York, 1867): and "Mosby and his Men," by J. Marshall Crawford (1867). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 434-435.
MOSES, Theodore P., New Hampshire, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1844-1845, Vice-President, 1854-1859.
MOSES, Thomas Freeman, physician, born in Bath, Maine, 8 June, 1830. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 1857, and, after attending lectures in New York, London, Paris, and Philadelphia, took his degree at Jefferson Medical College in 1861. During the Civil War he was acting assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, in charge of government transports and hospitals, and after 1864 he settled in practice in Hamilton County, Ohio. He was elected professor of natural sciences in Urbana University, Ohio, in 1870, and in 1886 became acting president of that institution. Professor Moses is a member of several scientific societies, and has edited the " Proceedings of the Central Ohio Scientific Association " (Urbana, 1878), to which he contributed papers. He has also published an annotated edition of Emile Saigey's ' Unity of Natural Phenomena " (Boston, 1878). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 436.
MOSHER, Jacob Simmons, physician, born in Coeyman's, Albany County, New York, 19 March, 1834; died in Albany, New York, 13 August, 1883. He moved with his parents to New Brunswick, New Jersey, and in 1853 entered Rutgers College, but left it near the close of his junior year. Soon afterward he came to Albany and for a time was principal of a public school there. He was graduated at Albany Medical College in 1863, appointed instructor in chemistry and experimental philosophy in Albany Academy, and in 1865 made professor of chemistry in that institution, serving until 1870. In 1864 he was commissioned a volunteer surgeon, and subsequently he was appointed assistant medical director for the state of New York. In July, 1864, he had been appointed lecturer on chemistry in the Albany Medical College, and in December following he was appointed professor of chemistry and medical jurisprudence, serving also as registrar and librarian of the college from 1865. In 1870 he resigned his professorship, having been appointed deputy health and executive officer of the port of New York, but he resigned in 1876 and returned to Albany and again entered on the practice of his profession. In January of that year he had been appointed professor of medical jurisprudence and hygiene in Albany Medical College, and re-elected registrar, and in 1881 he was made professor of pathology, practice, clinical medicine, and hygiene, which post he held till his death. In 1878 he served as a member of the commission of experts, appointed by President Hayes, to study the origin and cause of the yellow fever epidemic of that year, and the effectual work of this board, though their report was not published by the government, resulted in the creation of the National board of health. He was one of the founders, trustees, and professors of Albany College of pharmacy, which was established in 1881, and the president of its faculty. He was a member of many medical societies, a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, and president of the Albany County Medical Society in 1882. Rutgers gave him the degree of Ph. D. in 1878. He was a member of the Albany Board of Health, and its chairman at the time of his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 436.
MOSLER, Henry, artist, born in New York City, 6 June, 1841. He went with his family to Cincinnati in 1851, and three years later to Nashville. Tennessee Here his talent for art was first shown by some engravings that he made on blocks of wood with crude tools. After this his father gave him what assistance he could toward perfecting his drawing, and he obtained later his first knowledge of painting in oils from George Kerr, an amateur. In 1855 he returned with his family to Cincinnati, where for a year he was a draughtsman for the ' Omnibus," a comic weekly, He then went to Richmond, whence he returned in 1857. In 1859 he became a pupil of James H. Beard, in whose studio he painted until 1861. In 1802-'3 he followed the western army as art correspondent for '"Harper's Weekly." He was appointed on General William Nelson's staff, and while the army was in camp painted portraits of that officer, General Richard W. Johnson, General Lovell H. Rousseau, and others. He went to Europe in 1863, studying for two and a half years under Mucke and Kindler in Dusseldorf, and for six months under Ernest Hebert in Paris. He returned to the United States in 1866, remaining eight years, during which time he produced numerous pictures, notably his "Lost Cause," which achieved for him a national reputation. On his return to Europe in 1874 he studied for three years under Piloty in Munich, where he won a medal at the Royal Academy. In 1877 he moved to Paris, where he has since resided, with the exception of a brief visit to this country in 1885, when he exhibited a collection of his works in New York and Cincinnati. His "Le retour," exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1879, was bought by the French government for the Musee du Luxembourg, and in 1885 he was the recipient at the exhibition of the American Art Association of one of the four cash prizes for his " Last Sacrament." He also won a medal at the International Exhibition at Nice in 1884. His best-known works include "Early Cares" and "Quadroon Girl " (1878); "The Return " and " Les femmes et les secrets" (1879); "Purchase of the Wedding Gown" and "Spinning Girl" (1880); "Night after the Battle" and " Return of the Fisherwomen" (1881): "Discussing the Marriage Contract" (1882); "Wedding Morning" and "Rainy Day" (1883); "Last Sacrament" and "Village Clockmaker " (1884); "Approaching Storm " (1885); and "Visit of the Marquise" (1886-'7). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 436.
MOSS, John Calvin, inventor, born near Bentleysville, Pennsylvania, 5 January, 1838. He received a common-school education in his native county, and became a printer, publishing during 1859-'60 "The Colleaguer" in Washington, Pennsylvania Meanwhile he became interested in photographic chemistry, and devoted considerable attention to the subject of photo engraving. He experimented for many years, and finally, while in Philadelphia, obtained a relief plate from which printed impressions could be made. In 1863 he came to New York and continued his experiments in perfecting the process. Having interested various persons in the enterprise, he founded the Actinic Engraving Company in 1870, and became its superintendent. In 1872 he became the superintendent of the Photoengraving Company, which office he held until 1880, when he established the Moss Engraving Company, of which he became president and superintendent. The present corporation owns the largest plant of its kind in the world, and its work is a substitute for wood-engraving, accomplished by chemical means. Mr. Moss was the first to make photo-engraving a practical business success, and while his methods have never been patented, he is known as the inventor of what is called the "Moss process," "Moss new process," and the "Moss-type process." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 437.
MOSS, Lemuel, educator, born near Burlington, Kentucky, 27 December, 1829. He was a printer for nine years in early life, but, deciding to enter the Baptist ministry, was graduated at Rochester, New York, University in 1858, and at the theological school there in 1860. He was secretary of the U. S. Christian Commission in 1863-'5, and after holding theological professorships in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, and at Crozer seminary, near Philadelphia, was in 1874-'5 president of the University of Chicago, and in 1875-'84 of Indiana University. He received from Rochester the degree of D.D. in 1868 and that of LL. D. in 1883. Dr. Moss edited the " National Baptist" in Philadelphia in 1868-'72, and has written " Annals of the United States Christian Commission" (Philadelphia, 1866) and various articles on educational and religious subjects. He edited "The Baptists and the National Centenary" (1876). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 437.
MOTLEY, John Lothrop, historian and diplomatist, born in Dorchester, Massachusetts (now part of Boston), 15 April, 1814; died near Dorchester, England, 29 May, 1877. His father was a merchant, a man of wit and literary tastes, who inherited through his mother the blood of two much-respected Boston clergymen, the Reverend John Lothrop and the Reverend Samuel Checkley. John Lothrop was a rather delicate boy, but fond of skating and swimming, a great reader, with much liking for plays and declamation. Among the companions of his boyhood were Wendell Phillips and Thomas G. Appleton. He was excited to the highest point at finding the animus of the leading classes in England so largely in sympathy with the south at the beginning of the Civil War, and he did his best to uphold the cause of freedom and of the north at a time when the dearest interests of both were imperilled. His two letters to the London "Times remain as an imperishable record of his patriotism and his ability as the champion of liberty and humanity. No other American voice could probably have been as effective at that particular moment, and the country can hardly know all it owes to its prompt and spirited defender. In 1861 Mr. Motley was appointed by President Lincoln as minister to Austria. His daughter. Lady Harcourt, says of him: "In the first dark years the painful interest of the great national drama was so all-absorbing that literary work was entirely put aside, and with his countrymen at home he lived only in the varying fortunes of the day, his profound faith and enthusiasm sustaining him and lifting him above the natural influence of a by no means sanguine temperament. Later, when the tide was turning and success was nearing, he was more able to work." His successor at Vienna, Mr. John Jay, some two years after he left that post of official duty, said: "I had occasion to read most of his despatches, which exhibited a mastery of the subjects they treated, with much of the clear perception, the scholarly and philosophic tone and decided judgment which, supplemented by his picturesque description, full of life and color, have given character to his histories." But notwithstanding the acceptable manner in which he had performed services of great importance to his country, Mr. Motley resigned his office as minister to Austria in 1867 in consequence of an attack from an obscure source, which should have been ignored by his government and was not deserving of the importance he attached to it. In 1868 the two concluding volumes of the "History of the Netherlands " were published and sustained the reputation he had gained by his previous labors. In June, 1868, Mr. Motley returned to Boston and established himself at No. 2 Park Street. This same year he delivered two important addresses: "Four Questions for the People at the Presidential Election," an electioneering speech, as its title implies, but noble in thought and language: and one before the New York Historical Society, entitled "Historic Progress and American Democracy." Soon after the election of General Grant as president, Mr. Motley received the appointment of minister to England. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 438-440.
MOTT, Abigale Lydia, Albany, New York, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Executive Committee, 1840-1841, Vice-President, 1858-1864. Co-founded Rochester Anti-Slavery Society. Sister of Lucretia Mott.
MOTT, Gershom, soldier, born near Trenton, New Jersey, 7 April, 1822; died in New York City, 29 May, 1884. He was the grandson of Captain John Mott, of the Continental line, who guided the army of General Washington down the Delaware River to the victory at Trenton. After leaving Trenton Academy at the age of fourteen he entered upon commercial life in New York City. At the beginning of the Mexican War he was commissioned as 2d lieutenant in the 10th U. S. Infantry. After the war he was collector of the port of Lamberton, New Jersey, and in 1855 became an officer of the Bordentown Bank. On 4 August, 1861, he was commissioned as lieutenant-colonel of the 5th New Jersey Volunteers, and afterward was made colonel of the 5th Regiment, and received a severe wound in the second battle of Bull Run. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 7 September, 1862, and again badly wounded at Chancellorsville. On 1 August, 1864, he was brevetted major-general for distinguished services during the war. On 6 April, 1865, he was severely wounded in the fight at Amelia Springs, Virginia After the army was disbanded he commanded for some time a provisional corps. He served on the Wirz Commission, was made a full major-general on 26 May, 1865, and resigned on 20 February, 1866. "When he returned to civil life he was made paymaster of the Camden and Amboy Railroad. On 27 February, 1873, he was appointed major-general commanding the National Guard of New Jersey. On 1 September, 1875, he became treasurer of the state, and in 1876-'81 was keeper of the state prison. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 440-441.
MOTT, James, 1778-1868, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, philanthropist, merchant, Society of Friends, Quaker, abolitionist, husband of Lucretia Mott. Manager and Vice President of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Co-founder, Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Free Produce Society of Pennsylvania. Association for Advocating the Cause of the Slave.
(Drake, 1950, pp. 118, 140, 154; Mabee, 1970, pp. 9, 131, 305, 345, 406n13; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 387-388, 464; Yellin, 1994, pp. 69, 82, 276-278, 287, 294-295, 306, 313, 318-319, 333; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 441; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 288; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 16, p. 19)
MOTT, James, philanthropist, born in North Hempstead, L. I., 20 June, 1788; died in Brooklyn, New York, 26 January, 1868. At nineteen he became a teacher in a Friends' boarding-school in Dutchess County, N.Y. He moved to New York City, and in 1810 to Philadelphia, and became a partner of his wife's father in mercantile business, in which he continued more than forty years, retiring with a competency. He was a participant in the movement against slavery and one of the earliest friends of William L. Garrison. In 1833 he aided in organizing in Philadelphia the National Anti-Slavery Society, and in 1840 was a delegate from the Pennsylvania Society to attend the World's Anti-Slavery Convention at London, where he was among those who ineffectually urged the admission of the female delegates from the Pennsylvania and other societies. In 1848 he presided over the first Woman's Rights National Convention, at Seneca Falls, N.Y. He was a member of the Society of Friends, and in later life aided in maturing the plans of government and instruction for the Friends' College at Swarthmore, near Philadelphia. He published “Three Months in Great Britain.” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 441.
MOTT, Lucretia Coffin (Mrs. James Mott), 1793-1880, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Society of Friends, Quaker, radical abolitionist, reformer, suffragist, co-founder and first president of the Philadelphia Female American Anti-Slavery Society, member of the Association of Friends for Advocating the Cause of the Slave, member of the Hicksite Anti-Slavery Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Wrote memoir, Life, 1884.
(Bacon, 1999; Drake, 1950, pp. 140, 149, 154, 156, 157, 172, 176; Mabee, 1970, pp. 3, 13, 31, 68, 77, 94, 186, 188, 189, 201, 204, 224, 225, 226, 241, 289, 314, 326, 350, 374, 378; Palmer, 2001; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 42, 47, 157, 387-388, 416, 464, 519; Yellin, 1994, pp. 18, 26, 43, 74, 159-162, 175-176, 286-287, 301-302, 327-328; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 441; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 7, Pt. 1, p. 288; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 595-597; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 16, p. 21; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, pp. 310-311; Cromwell, Otelia. Lucretia Mott. 1958; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)
MOTT, Lucretia, reformer, born on the island of Nantucket, Massachusetts, 3 January, 1793; died near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 11 November, 1880, was descended through her father, Captain Thomas Coffin, from one of the original purchasers of the island. When she was eleven years old her parents moved to Boston, Massachusetts She was educated in the school where Mr. Mott was teaching, and became a teacher there at the age of fifteen. In 1809 she joined her parents, who had moved to Philadelphia, where she married in 1811. In 1817 she took charge of a small school in Philadelphia, and in 1818 appeared in the ministry of the Friends, and soon became noted for the clearness, refinement, and eloquence of her discourses. In the division of the society, in 1827, she adhered to the Hicksite branch. She early became interested in the movement against slavery, and remained one of its most prominent and persistent advocates until the emancipation. In 1833 she assisted in the formation at Philadelphia of the American Anti-Slavery Society, though, owing to the ideas then accepted as to the activities of women, she did not sign the declaration that was adopted. Later, for a time, she was active in the formation of female anti-slavery organizations. In 1840 she went to London as a delegate from the American Anti-Slavery Society to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention, but it was there decided to admit no women. She was received, however, with cordiality, formed acquaintance with those most active in the movement in Great Britain, and made various addresses. The action of the convention in excluding women excited indignation, and led to the establishment of woman's rights journals in England and France, and to the movement in the United States, in which Mrs. Mott took an active part. She was one of the four women that called the convention at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, and subsequently devoted part of her efforts to the agitation for improving the legal and political status of women. She held frequent meetings with the colored people, in whose welfare and advancement she felt deep interest, and was for several years president of the Pennsylvania Peace Society. In the exercise of her “gift” as a minister, she made journeys through New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and into Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana, where she did not refrain from denouncing slavery. She was actively interested in the free religious associations formed in Boston about 1868, and in the Woman's Medical College in Philadelphia. See her “Life,” with that of her husband, edited by her granddaughter, Anna Davis Hallowell (Boston, 1884). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 441.
MOTT, Richard, 1804-1888, Mamaroneck, New York, abolitionist. Mayor of Toledo, Ohio. Anti-slavery Republican U.S. Congressman, 1855-1859. Brother of James Mott and brother-in-law of Lucretia Mott.
MOTT, Alexander Brown, surgeon, born in New York City, 31 March, 1826, went to Europe with the family in 1836, and received a classical education during their five years' residence abroad. Visiting Europe again in 1842, he travelled for five years and underwent many adventures. Returning to New York City, he studied medicine in his father's office and in the University Medical College, and afterward at the Vermont Academy of Medicine in Castleton, where he was graduated in 1850. He began practice in New York City, and at the same time attended lectures in the New York Medical College, from which he received a diploma in 1851. In 1850 he was appointed surgeon to the New York Dispensary. He also became in 1853 visiting surgeon to St. Vincent's Hospital, which he had assisted in founding in 1849, was attending surgeon in the Jewish Hospital in 1855-'63, and for fourteen years was surgeon to the Charity Hospital. In 1857 he obtained the degree of M. D. from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. In 1859 he was appointed attending surgeon at Bellevue Hospital, and subsequently consulting surgeon to the Bureau of Medical and Surgical Relief to the Outdoor Poor in New York City. In April, 1861, he undertook the organization of the medical corps of the militia regiments that were sent to the seat of war, subsequently acted as medical director in New York, and founded, with the co-operation of patriotic ladies, the U. S. Army General Hospital in New York, of which he was made surgeon in charge, receiving on 7 November, 1862, the commission of surgeon of U. S. volunteers, with the rank of major. Toward the close of 1864 he was made medical inspector of the Department of Virginia, and attached to General Edward O. C. Ord's staff. He was present at the conference between Generals Grant and Lee where the terms of surrender were arranged. He was mustered out of the service on 27 July, 1865, with the brevet rank of colonel. Dr. Mott was one of the founders of Bellevue Medical College, and was professor of surgical anatomy from its opening on 31 March, 1861, till 1872, and since that date has been professor of clinical and operative surgery. Among the important operations performed by Dr. Mott are the ligation of the common and internal carotid, the subclavian, the innominata. the common, internal, and external iliac, and the femoral arteries; resection of the femur; two amputations at the hip-joint: excision of the ulna: removal of the entire jaw for phosphor-necrosis twice; and numerous operations of lithotomy. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 443-444.
MOTT, Thaddeus Phelps, soldier, born in New York City, 7 December, 1831, was educated in the University of New York. In 1848-'9 he served as sub-lieutenant in Italy. In 1850, on account of ill health, he shipped before the mast on the clipper ship " Hornet for California, He was third mate of the clipper " Hurricane " in 1851, second mate of the ship "St. Denis" in 1852, mate of the "St. Nicholas" in 1854, and returned to California in 1855. He served in Mexico under Ignacio Comonfort in 1850-'7. In 1861 he became captain of Mott's battery in the 3d Independent New York Artillery. He was made captain in the 19th U. S. Infantry in 1862, lieutenant-colonel of cavalry in; 1863, and later colonel of the 14th New York Cavalry, and chief of outposts in the Department of the Gulf under General William B. Franklin. He resigned in 1864, and in 1867 was nominated as minister resident to Costa Rica, but declined. He went to Turkey in 1868, and was appointed in 1869 major-general and ferik-pacha in the Egyptian Army. In 1870 he was made first aide-de-camp to the khedive. In 1874, his contract with Egypt having expired, he refused to renew it, and in 1875 went to Turkey, where he remained during the Servian and Russo-Turkish Wars. In 1879 he settled in Toulon, France, on account of his health. In 1868 General Mott was named by the sultan grand officer of the imperial order of the Medjidieh. In 1872 he was made grand officer of the imperial order of the Osmanieh, and in 1878 he was given the war medal of the "Croissant Rouge" nominatif, of which but eighteen had been awarded, the sultan himself being one of the number. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 444.
MOUTON, Alexander (moo-ton), senator, born in Attakapas (now Lafayette) Parish, Louisiana, 19 November, 1804; died near Lafayette, Louisiana, 12 February, 1885. He was graduated at Georgetown College, D. G, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1825, and began to practice in his native parish. The following year he was elected to the lower branch of the state legislature, and he was re-elected for three consecutive terms. In 1831-'2 he was speaker of that body. He was chosen presidential elector in 1828, 1832, and 1836, and was again sent to the legislature in the latter year. In January, 1837, he was elected to the U. S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Alexander Porter, and he was subsequently chosen for the full term of six years. On 1 March, 1842, he resigned to accept the nomination of governor of Louisiana, to which office he was elected, discharging its duties till 1846. He was president of the Southwestern Railroad Convention in January, 1853, and delegate to the National Democratic Conventions of 1856 and 1860, and to the Louisiana Secession Convention of 1861, of which latter body he was chosen president. At an election held to choose two senators to the Confederate Senate, 29 November, 1861, he was defeated, and he then retired to his plantation, where he afterward resided. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 449.
MOUTON, Jean Jacques Alexandre Alfred, soldier, born in Opelousas, St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, 18 February, 1829; died in Mansfield. DeSoto Parish, Louisiana, 8 April, 1864, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy, 1 July, 1850, but resigned in the following September. Returning to Louisiana, he was assistant engineer of the New Orleans, Opelousas and Great Western Railroad, 1852-'3, and brigadier-general of Louisiana Militia, 1850-'61. At the beginning of the Civil War he recruited a company among the farmers of Lafayette Parish, where he was then residing, and soon afterward accepted the colonelcy of the 18th Louisiana Regiment. He commanded it at the battle of Shiloh, and was severely wounded. He also took part in the expedition that captured Berwick Bay, Louisiana, in 1863, was in the engagement at Bisland on the Teche, and was killed at the battle of Mansfield, Louisiana, where he was in command of a division, when leading his men in an attack. He had been successively promoted brigadier and major-general in the Confederate service. [Son of Alexander Mouton] Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 449.
MOWER, Joseph Anthony, soldier, born in Woodstock, Vermont, 22 August, 1827; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 6 January, 1870. He received a common-school education and became a carpenter. He enlisted as a private in a company of engineers during the Mexican War, was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 1st U. S. Infantry, 18 June, 1855, and became captain, 9 September, 1861. He was engaged at the siege and capture of New Madrid, Missouri, and at Corinth. Mississippi, where he was severely wounded, and was for a time a prisoner in the hands of the Confederates. He had been elected colonel of the 11th Missouri Volunteers in May, 1862, and for his gallant defence of Milliken's Bend was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers in November of the same year. He led a brigade in the attack on Vicksburg in May, 1863, was at the head of a division under General Nathaniel P. Banks in Louisiana in April, 1864, and the following August was made major-general of volunteers. He was with General Sherman in the Georgia and Carolina Campaigns, and rose to the command of the 20th Army Corps. He was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, colonel, brigadier-general, and major-general in the regular army for gallantry at the battles of Farmington, Iuka, and Jackson, Mississippi. Fort de Russy, Louisiana, and Salkehatchie, Georgia, respectively. He was transferred to the 25th Infantry in 1868, then to the 39th, and at his death commanded the Department of Louisiana, comprising that state and Arkansas. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 450.
MOWRY, Sylvester, explorer, born in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1830; died in London, England, 16 October, 1871. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1852, and after a year of frontier duty in California was assigned to exploring work for the Pacific Railroad in 1853-'4. He marched through Utah to California in 1854-'5, and served at Benicia and Fort Yuma till 1857. He was 1st lieutenant, 3 March, 1855, and resigned from the army, 31 July, 1858. He then became interested in mining in Arizona, and was elected as delegate to the 35th Congress in 1860, but the bill creating a territorial government did not become a law, and he did not take his seat. In 1860 he was appointed by President Buchanan a commissioner to establish the boundary-line between California and Nevada, but he was removed in 1861 on political grounds. He was arrested and imprisoned at Fort Yuma on a charge of disloyalty, but established his innocence. He went to England subsequently for his health, and died there. He wrote on subjects connected with the far west in magazines and other periodicals, and published "The Geography and Resources of Arizona and Sonora" (3d ed., enlarged, New York. 1864). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 450-451.
MULLANY, James Robert Madison, naval officer, born in New York City, 20 October, 1818; died in Bryn Mawr, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 17 September, 1887. He was a son of Colonel James K. Mullany, quartermaster-general, U. S. Army, and entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman from New Jersey, 7 January, 1832. He was promoted passed midshipman, 23 June, 1838, and lieutenant, 29 February, 1844. He was actively engaged in the Mexican War, and took part in the capture of the city of Tobasco in June, 1847. Prior to the Civil War he saw much service at sea in almost every quarter of the globe. From January till March, 1861, he served on the frigate "Sabine" in the protection of Fort Pickens, and in April and May of that year, in command of the gun-boat " Wyandotte," occupied a position in the harbor of Pensacola, in rear of Fort Pickens, which was then threatened by an attack from the enemy, and he assisted in re-enforcing that fort on 12 April, 1861. He was commissioned commander, 18 October, 1861, and assigned to the steamer "Bienville“ in the North Atlantic and West Gulf Squadrons, where he remained from April, 1862, till May, 1865, except for a short time, including the battle of Mobile Bay, being frequently under the enemy's fire. Having volunteered his services for the battle of Mobile Bay, and the "Bienville " not being considered by Admiral Farragut as fit to engage the forts, he was in the action of 5 August. 1864, in command of the "Oneida." This ship, lashed to the "Galena," was on the side toward Fort Morgan and in the rear of the line of battle, and exposed to a very destructive fire from that fort. Later the "Oneida" was attacked by the ram "Tennessee," which was enabled to rake her. One shot inflicted severe loss on his ship and wounded Commander Mullany in several places, one wound rendering amputation of the left arm necessary. Until this moment he had directed the movements of both ships, and. stationed in a conspicuous place, encouraged his men as well by his example as by his words. After this the engagement, so far as the " Oneida" was concerned, was at an end. From April till September, 1863, he commanded a division of the West Gulf Squadron, and during the course of the war he captured eleven blockade-runners of a great aggregate value, and in addition cut out, with boats, two schooners laden with cotton in the harbor of Galveston, Texas From May, 1865, till May, 1868, he was inspector in charge of ordnance in the Brooklyn U.S. Navy-yard. He was commissioned captain in 1866, was one of the board of visitors to the naval academy in 1868, and commanded the sloop "Richmond" in the European Squadron from December, 1868, till November, 1871. He was commissioned commodore, 15 August, 1870, and was in charge of the Mediterranean Squadron from October, 1870, till November, 1871, and of the Philadelphia U.S. Navy-yard in 1872-'4. After receiving his rear-admiral's commission, 5 June, 1874, he commanded the North Atlantic Squadron till February, 1876, during a part of which time he co-operated efficiently with General William H. Emory and General Philip H. Sheridan, who were successively in command at New Orleans. He was governor of the Naval Asylum, Philadelphia, from 1876 till 1879, when he was retired from active service, and he made, to the close of his life, his home in the last-named city, dying at one of its suburban summer resorts. "No government or people," says one who knew him intimately and well, " ever had a more gallant or faithful public servant; and he was as modest, as genial, as gentle, and as kind as he was faithful and brave." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 457.
MULLIGAN, James A., soldier, born in Utica, New York, 25 June, 1830; died in Winchester, Virginia, 26 July, 1864. His parents were Irish, and moved to Chicago in 1836. He was the first graduate, in 1850, of the University of St. Mary's of the Lake, and in that year began to study law. He accompanied John Lloyd Stephens on his expedition to Panama in 1851, and, returning to Chicago in the following year, resumed the study of law, and edited a weekly Roman Catholic paper entitled the “Western Tablet." He was soon admitted to the bar, and, after practicing in Chicago, became, in 1857, a clerk in the Department of the Interior in Washington. At the opening of the Civil War he raised the so-called Irish Brigade, which consisted of but one regiment, the 23d Illinois, of which he was made colonel. He conducted the defence of Lexington, Missouri, from July till September, 1861, holding the town for nine days against an overwhelming force under General Sterling Price, was captured on 20 September, exchanged on 25 November, 1861, and returned to Chicago as the hero of Lexington. He reorganized his regiment, and after a short lecturing tour in the eastern states took command of Camp Douglas and participated in several engagements in Virginia. Colonel Mulligan was offered the commission of brigadier-general, which he declined, preferring to remain with his regiment. He was fatally wounded during a charge on the Confederate lines at the battle of Winchester. His men attempted to carry him from the field, but, seeing that the colors of the brigade were endangered, he exclaimed. "Lay me down, and save the flag !" repeating the order when they hesitated. They obeyed, but before their return he was borne away by the enemy, and died in their hands. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 458.
MURPHY, Henry Cruse, lawyer, born in Brooklyn, New York, 5 July, 1810; died there, 1 December, 1882. He was graduated at Columbia in 1830, and while studying law began to contribute to the press. He was admitted to the bar in 1833, became assistant corporation counsel in 1834, and soon afterward city attorney and counsel to the corporation. He became in 1835 a partner of John A. Lott and soon obtained a large practice, at the same time contributing to the " Democratic " and the " North American" reviews, and taking an active part in state politics as a Democrat. In 1841 he became a proprietor and one of the editors of the Brooklyn "Daily Eagle," and in the following year he was elected mayor of the city. In that office he effected important retrenchments in the financial administration, and introduced useful public improvements, especially the warehouse system on the water-front. Before the end of his term he was elected to Congress, and, taking his seat in that body on 4 December, 1843, took part in the debates in favor of free-trade, and in opposition to changes in the naturalization laws and the annexation of Texas. In 1840 he attended the convention for revising the state constitution, and was made chairman of the Committee on Corporations. The same year he was again sent to Congress, he was mentioned as a candidate for the presidency in 1852, was very active in the canvass of Franklin Pierce, and in that of James Buchanan in 1856, and on 1 June, 1857, was appoint where he remained until he was recalled by the succeeding administration, leaving on 8 June, 1861. On his return he was elected to the state senate, where he served six successive terms, and was instrumental in securing the repeal of the law on ecclesiastical tenures and the establishment of isolated quarantine. During the Civil War he supported the government in public speeches and contributions to the press, and exerted himself to promote enlistments. In 1867 he was a delegate from the state at large to the convention for remodelling the state constitution. Mr. Murphy was one of the founders of the new Long Island Historical Society and of the Brooklyn City Library, and was president of the East River Bridge Company, he was interested during his entire life in literary and historical subjects, and especially in the period of Dutch domination in New York, which he had opportunities to study during his residence in Holland. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 465-466.
MURPHY, John McLeod, civil engineer, born in Northcastle, Westchester County, New York, 14 February, 1827: died in New York City, 1 June, 1871. He entered the U. S. Navy as midshipman, 18 February, 1841, was promoted passed midshipman, 10 August, 1847, and resigned, 10 May, 1852. He served in the war with Mexico, and in 1851 was detailed as hydrographic assistant on Major John G. Barnard's survey of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. In 1853 he visited Mexico, and in 1855 he was surveyor of the city of New York. He was constructing engineer of the Brooklyn Navy-yard in 1856-'7, and in 1860-'l was a member of the New York State Senate. In the latter year he was commissioned colonel of New York engineers, and took part in the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac until the close of 1862, when he returned to the navy as acting lieutenant and was in command of the "Carondelet" during the Vicksburg Campaign. On 30 July, 1864, he again resigned and resumed his profession as a civil engineer. Lieutenant Murphy was a frequent contributor to the newspaper and periodical press on subjects connected with his specialty. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 466-467.
MURRAY, Alexander, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816; died in Washington, D. C., 10 November, 1884, entered the U. S. Navy in 1835, became lieutenant in 1847, commander in 1862, captain in 1866, commodore in 1871, and rear-admiral on the retired list in 1876. He was in service on the east coast of Mexico in 1846-'7, participated in the capture of Alvarado, where he was wounded, and fought at Tampico, Tobasco, Tuspau, and Vera Cruz. He commanded the steamer "Louisiana," of the North Atlantic Squadron, in 1861-'2, defeated the Confederate steamer "Yorktown" off Newport News, fought the battle of Roanoke Island, destroyed the Confederate fleet under Captain William F. Lynch, was in charge of the naval forces at Kingston, North Carolina, and the expedition up York and Pamunkey Rivers, destroying twenty-seven vessels in May, 1862. He was on duty in the North Carolina sounds in 1863, and on special service in 1866-7, was light-house inspector in 1873-6, and after retirement served on the naval board. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 467.
MURRAY, Eli Houston, governor of Utah, born in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, 12 September, 1844. He entered the U. S. Army as a volunteer at seventeen years of age, commanded a brigade in Kentucky in 1862-'3, and in 1865 received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers for services during the Civil War. He was appointed U. S. Marshal for Kentucky in 1866, and held office till 1876, when he became manager of the Louisville, Kentucky, 'Commercial." He was appointed governor of Utah by President Hayes in 1880, reappointed by President Arthur in 1884 for a term of four years, but resigned before its completion. Throughout his administration he opposed the encroachments of the Mormon Church and the advance of polygamy. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 467-468.
MURRAY, Joseph T., 1834-1907, Massachusetts, abolitionist, inventor. Worked with James N. Buffam, John Greenleaf Whittier and William Lloyd Garrison.
MURRAY, Robert, surgeon, born in Howard County, Maryland, 6 August, 1822. He was graduated at Jefferson Medical College in 1845, was appointed assistant surgeon in the United States Army in 1846, became captain and assistant surgeon in 1851, major and surgeon in 1860, and received the brevets of lieutenant-colonel and colonel in 1865 for meritorious service during the Civil War. He was assistant medical purveyor and lieutenant-colonel in 1866, colonel and surgeon in 1876, surgeon-general with the rank of brigadier-general in 1883, and was retired in 1886. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 470.
MUSSEY, William Heberdon, surgeon, born in Hanover, New Hampshire, 30 September, 1818; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1 August, 1882, studied at Phillips Andover Academy and was graduated at Ohio Medical College in 1848, subsequently studying medicine in Paris. He returned to Cincinnati and made a specialty of general surgery. In 1855 he was surgeon to St. John's Hotel for Invalids, Cincinnati. He served in the Civil War as a surgeon, became medical inspector with the rank of lieutenant-colonel on 14 June, 1862, and resigned on 1 January, 1864. He was appointed surgeon of the Cincinnati Hospital on 15 April, 1864, and also in that year vice-president of the American Medical Association. In 1865 he was given the chair of operative and clinical surgery in Miami Medical College, which post he held until his death. In 1876 he became surgeon-general of Ohio and president of the Cincinnati Natural History Society. He was president of the Cincinnati Board of Education from 1879 till 1880. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp.471-472.
MYER, Albert James, chief signal officer, born in Newburg, New York, 20 September, 1827; died in Buffalo. New York, 24 August, 1880. He was graduated at Hobart College in 1847 and at Buffalo Medical College in 1851. In September, 1854, he entered the U. S. Army as assistant surgeon and was assigned to duty in Texas. While so engaged he devised a system of army signals with flags and torches for day and night, by means of which messages could be sent as fully and accurately as with the electric telegraph, though less rapidly. In 1858-'60 he held command of the Signal Corps and was engaged in perfecting his system. He was commissioned major in 1860 and made chief signal officer of the U. S. Army. His first field-work with the new signal code was in New Mexico, but at the beginning of the Civil War he was ordered to Washington and assigned to duty in the Army of the Potomac. Throughout the Peninsular Campaign he served as chief signal officer to General George B. McClellan, participating in all of the battles from Bull Run to Antietam. He then returned to Washington, where he took charge of the U. S. Signal Office on 8 March, 1863, with the rank of colonel. At this time he introduced the study of military signals at the U. S. Military Academy and was a member of the central board of examination for admission to the U. S. Signal Corps. In December, 1863, he was assigned to reconnaissance on Mississippi River, between Cairo, Illinois, and Memphis, Tennessee, and later he became chief signal officer of the Military Division of West Mississippi under General Edward R. S. Canby, by whom he was commissioned to arrange the terms of surrender of Fort Gaines. He was relieved of his command at this time by the Secretary of War on the ground that his appointment had not been confirmed, and his appointment of chief signal officer was revoked on 21 July, 1864; but he was brevetted brigadier-general on 13 March, 1865. After his removal from the army he settled in Buffalo, and there devoted his time to the preparation of a " Manual of Signals for the U. S. Army and Navy" (New York, 1868). He was reappointed colonel and chief signal officer on 28 July, 1866. An act of Congress, approved 9 February, 1870, authorized provision for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the states and territories of the United States, and for giving notice on the northern lakes and seaboard by telegraph and signals of the approach and force of storms; and the execution of this duty was confided to General Myer, as he had been interested previously in the subject of storm telegraphy. The preparatory work of organization was prosecuted with energy. Arrangements were made with the telegraph companies for transmitting the observations, and on 1 November, 1870, at 7.35 A. M., the first systematized simultaneous meteorological observations that were taken in the United States were read from the instruments at twenty-four stations and placed on the telegraphic wires for transmission. On the first day of the report weather bulletins were posted at each one of the twenty-four selected stations, and the practical working of the scheme was assured. The work of the weather bureau soon became popular and was rapidly extended. It had increased, at the date of General Myer's death, to more than 300 stations with a force of 500 men. In 1873 General Myer represented the United States at the International Congress of Meteorologists in Vienna. On 1 July, 1875, the Signal Service Bureau began the publication of a daily "International Bulletin," comprising the reports from all co-operating stations, and on 1 July, 1878, this was supplemented by a daily international chart. In 1879 he was a delegate to the Meteorological Congress at Rome. He was promoted brigadier-general on 16 June, 1880, as a special reward by Congress for his services in the line of his profession. General Myer established a system of cautionary day and night signals for the benefit of lake and ocean commerce and navigation, a system of reliable river reports for the benefit of interior commerce, and special series of reports for farmers and planters. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, pp. 473-474.
MYERS, Amos, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
MYERS, Harriet, died 1865, African American, abolitionist, member of the Underground Railroad in Albany, New York, wife of abolitionist and newspaper publisher Stephen Myers.
MYERS, Leonard, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
MYERS, Stephen, 1800-?, African American, newspaper editor and publisher, abolitionist, freed from slavery in his youth. Chairman of the Vigilance Committee of Albany, New York, which aided fugitive slaves. His home was a station on the Underground Railroad. Worked with leading African American abolitionist, Frederick Douglass. Community leader in Albany, New York. Publisher of the newspaper, The Elevator. Also published The Northern Star and Freeman’s Advocate.
MYERS, William, soldier, born in Reading, Pennsylvania, 4 December, 1830; died in New York City, 11 November, 1887. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1852, and served in various garrisons till the Civil War, when, on 17 May, 1861, he was made assistant quartermaster, with the staff rank of captain. He was chief quartermaster of the Department of the Missouri in 1863-'5, and at the close of the war was given for his services the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers, and the same in the regular army. After the war he served as chief quartermaster of various departments, becoming lieutenant-colonel in 1881, and on 15 March, 1883, he was retired from active service. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. IV, p. 474.
MYRICK, Luther, Cazenovia, New York, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1841-1842.