US Colored Troops - Battles
A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal
States 1861-65—Records of the Regiments
in the Union Army—
Cyclopedia of Battles —
Memoirs of Commanders and
Battles and Engagements
United States Colored Troops
Union Generals Commanding USCT
MADISON, WISCONSIN Federal Publishing Company 1908
Copyright, l908 by Federal Publishing Company
Cyclopedia of Battles—A to Helena
MADISON, WISCONSIN Federal Publishing Company 1908
Copyright, l908 by Federal Publishing Company
Cyclopedia of Battles—Helena Road to Z.
Ashepoo River, S. C, May 16, 1864. 34th U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 49.
Ashwood Landing. Louisiana, May 1-4, 1864. 64th U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 49.
Athens, Alabama, September 23-24, 1864. 106th, 110th, and mth U. S. Colored Infantry; 2nd and 3d Tennessee Cavalry. About 4 p. m. on the 23d Colonel Wallace Campbell of the 110th U. S. infantry commanding the post at Athens learned that the enemy were destroying the railway track 5 miles south of the town. Major Pickens, of the 3d Tennessee cavalry, with 100 men, went by the Decatur road, and Campbell, with 150 men, went by train to the scene of action. The combined forces drove off the Confederates and saved a trestle that they had set on fire. Returning to Athens toward nightfall the Federals became involved in a sharp skirmish. Their pickets on the Brown's ferry and on the Buck Island road were driven in and just before dark their artillery at the fort fired a few rounds. The quartermaster's building was set on fire. Forrest's command, which had invested the town on all sides, consisted of Bell's and Lyon's brigades of Buford's division; Rucker's brigade, some of Roddey's troops, Biffle's brigade, the 4th Tennessee, and Colonel Nixon's regiment. The Confederates made several attempts to get possession of the town and were repulsed with considerable loss. About 11 p. m. they captured the railroad depot. The 2nd Tennessee cavalry, just returned from a scouting expedition, drove them away, wounding and capturing several. At midnight the commissary building was burned and during the latter part of the night all Federal troops were removed to the fort, which was an earth work, 180 by 450 feet, 1,350 feet in circumference, surrounded by an abatis of felled trees, a palisade 4 feet high and a ditch 12 feet wide with its bottom 17 feet below the parapet. The garrison consisted of about 450 men. About 7 a. m., on the 24th the enemy opened on the fort with 12-pounder batteries on the north and west. During the ensuing 2 hours about 60 well directed shells were thrown and exploded in and about the fort, doing no damage to the works and killing only one man, a non-combatant. The fort, which inspecting officers considered the best between Nashville and Decatur, was strong enough to resist any field battery. The Federals answered with two 12-pound howitzers. About 9 o'clock an unsigned demand for surrender was sent in under a flag of truce and was returned unanswered. A second demand signed "Major General Forrest" was refused. Forrest asked for a personal interview with Campbell, showed him that the Confederate force numbered 8,000 to 10,000 men, and again demanded a surrender "in the interests of humanity." Campbell surrendered the fort and its garrison at noon. In the morning, General Granger, commanding at Decatur, sent by railroad, detachments of the 18th Michigan and 102nd Ohio, 350 men in all, under command of Lieut-Colonel Elliot of the 102nd, to reinforce the garrison at Athens. When they arrived at the break in the railroad, they were attacked by the whole of Buford's division, but pressed on toward Athens, bestrewing the woods with the enemy's dead. They charged two or three heavy lines of battle, drove them back in disorder and advanced to within 300 yards of the fort, which had surrendered not more than half an hour before. The surrender allowed Forrest to interpose a portion of his force between the fort and the rescuing party, thus compelling them to surrender after a hard fight of 3 hours' duration in which they had lost one-third of their number in killed and wounded. Had Campbell held out they might have saved the day. The officers whom Campbell surrendered joined in a statement over their signatures that on the night of the 23d and 24th, Campbell most of the commissary stores of the post to be moved into the fortifications and that they were ample for a ten days' siege; that a well in the fort afforded plenty of water; that there were 70,000 rounds elongated ball cartridges, an ample supply of cavalry carbines, 120 rounds for each of the howitzers; and that the surrender was uncalled for by the circumstances, was against their wishes and ought not to have been made. The Federal loss was 106 killed and wounded; Confederate loss, equal to the Federal force engaged. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 53-54.
Baldwin, Florida, August 10-12, 1864. 75th Ohio, 102nd United States Colored Infantry. The 102nd regiment U. S. colored troops, engaged in destroying the railroad near Baldwin on the 10th, was involved in skirmishes with the enemy's cavalry. On the 12th two Confederate cavalry companies, with a piece of artillery, advanced to a point within 3 miles of Baldwin, where, under the protection of a small detachment of the 75th Ohio, the 102nd regiment was again tearing up the railroad track. The Ohio troops charged the Confederates and 2 men who passed through the latter's line were cut off. Colonel Beecher, the Federal commander, fell back fighting. General Hatch, commanding the District of Florida, sent 100 cavalry and 2 pieces of artillery to Beecher's aid and the Confederates were driven back to St. Mary's Union. Loss. 1 killed, 4 captured. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 71.
Baltimore Store, Virginia, February 7, 1864. General Wistar's Expedition. Brigadier-General Wistar, having been checkmated in an attempt on Richmond, was falling back. His command consisted of three white regiments, brigaded under Colonel West of the 1st Pennsylvania, some light artillery, three colored regiments under Colonel Duncan of the 4th U. S. colored troops, and a cavalry detachment of five regiments under Colonel Spear. At Baltimore Store the enemy overtook and attacked his rear guard, but was repulsed with the help of Belger's battery of 2 pieces, the guns being fired alternately and retired to new positions. Banks' Ford, Virginia, May 4, 1863. (See Chancellorsville.) Banks' Ford, Virginia, February 29, 1864. (See Albemarle County, Custer's Expedition.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 77.
Baxter Springs, Kansas, October 6, 1863. General Blunt and escort, and a Detachment of the 3d Wisconsin Cavalry. On the 4th, General Blunt left Fort Scott for Fort Smith, accompanied by a part of his staff and his clerks, orderlies and the brigade band, taking records and other property belonging to the headquarters of the District of the Frontier. His escort consisted of about 100 men of the 3d Wisconsin and 14th Kansas cavalry under command of Lieut. Cavert. The train consisted of 8 wagons, carrying the band, the district headquarters property and company effects. At noon on the 3d day, Blunt and the advance guard halted near Baxter Springs. The garrison there consisted of parts of two companies of the 3d Wisconsin cavalry and one company of the 2nd Kansas colored regiment under command of Lieut. Pond. The position was fortified and was provided with one howitzer, but was on low ground behind a slight intervening elevation which hid the fort from Blunt's view. In fact, he was not aware of his nearness to Pond's command, nor was the latter aware of Blunt's proximity. Colonel Quantrill, with a Confederate force variously estimated at from 600 to 1,000, was passing south on the Kansas-Missouri border, and had made a detour to attack Pond's camp. At the hour of the attack all the cavalry was absent with a forage train. The attack of the Confederates was so sudden and impetuous that they were inside the rude breast-works firing pistol shots into the tents before the garrison realized its situation. Pond's men were at dinner and were obliged to break through the enemy's lines to secure arms. Pond fought his way in, rallied his men as best he could, and finally succeeded in dragging the howitzer outside the breastworks and getting it in action. With 3 murderous shots he repulsed the enemy's main force, which retreated over the hill north of the camp, where they first saw Blunt's little column. From the fact that they wore Federal uniforms. Blunt at first supposed the Confederates to be Pond's cavalrymen on drill, but formed 65 of his men in line of battle to be ready for any emergency and sent the wagons, with the band, clerks, orderlies, cooks and other non-combatants to the rear. Then accompanied by his staff, he made forward about 50 paces to learn definitely what the approaching force was. Not 200 yards separated the lines. The Confederates came slowly forward firing irregularly. Part of Blunt's force broke and fled and Quantrill's men charged along the whole line. A second line of about 200, which had been formed in the edge of the timber, dashed forward after the first. The Kansas troops broke and would not be rallied. The Wisconsin company fired a staggering volley into the enemy's right, but the left advanced and the right soon rallied and came forward unsteadily. The second line of Confederates, better mounted than the escort, soon closed in and when Blunt would have led his men in stubborn resistance he saw most of them in flight, after having emptied their revolvers at the advancing enemy until the latter had come within 20 feet. Pond, who had heard the firing when Blunt's men had been attacked, thought that his own cavalry had returned and engaged the Confederates. Shortly afterward he learned that Blunt's escort and brigade band had been massacred, that many of the bodies had been stripped, those of some of the musicians and others shamefully mutilated and some burned with the wagons. The Union loss was 80 killed and 18 wounded. Quantrill reported his casualties as "3 men wounded," though they were doubtless much greater. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 89-90.
Bayou Black, Louisiana, May 4, 1865. Captain Barker, with a detachment of the 75th U. S. colored infantry and 1st Louisiana cavalry under orders from headquarters, District of La Fourche, left Bayou Boeuf station to proceed to Bayou Chene to reconnoiter at the mouth of Bayou Black. In a little cut-off above the entrance of the bayou they fired on a skiff-load of negroes employed near by, mistaking them for a party of the enemy, and wounded 2 of them. (See also Black Bayou.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 91.
Bayou Bonfouca, Louisiana, January 31, 1865. 74th U. S. Colored Troops. A party of 9 guerrillas boarded the schooner Perseverance engaged in carrying wood to New Orleans, robbed her crew of money and clothing and threatened to burn her unless the owner, Raymond Terence, gave them $1,000, with which demand he was unable to comply. The timely arrival of the sloop Rosetta from Fort Pike, with a corporal and 13 privates of the 74th U. S. colored troops, under Lieut. Gallagher on board, brought about an engagement between the troops and the guerrillas, resulting in the routing of the latter and the saving of the Perseverance from destruction. Bayou Bontecar, Louisiana, November 21, 1862. 31st Massachusetts Volunteers. Bayou Bourbeau, Louisiana, November 3, 1863. Troops of the 13th Army Corps. The position of the Federal troops in the morning was as follows: Brigadier-General Burbridge with 1 brigade of the 4th division, about 1,200 strong, a 6-gun battery of 10-pounder Parrotts, and Colonel Fonda, with about 500 mounted infantry and a section of Nim's battery, on the south of Muddy bayou; the 3d division under General Cameron, and Colonel Slack, 3,000 strong with a battery, at Carrion Crow bayou, 3 miles in the rear of Burbridge. The two bayous run easterly, nearly parallel, and between the two is a smooth, level plain called Buzzard's prairie. Along Muddy Bayou was a belt of timber about 150 yards wide. To the right of Burbridge's position was a large, dense wood, while before and to the left of it was high open prairie. Early in the morning Burbridge's outposts were driven in and the Confederates appeared in heavy force on his front and left. He formed his lines and a few well directed shots from his artillery caused the enemy to retire. At 10 a. m. few Confederates were in sight and Burbridge's troops retired to camp, though holding themselves in readiness to fall in ranks at an instant's notice. Major-General Washburn, commanding the corps, when informed of the attack, had ordered out the 3d division, but by the time it was in line word came that the enemy had withdrawn. Leaving the division under arms Washburn rode to the front for a conference with General Burbridge. As he was returning to his headquarters he heard a rapid cannonade and soon learned that Burbridge was assailed with terrible energy by an overwhelming force in front and on both flanks. The troops were broken and scattered and utter destruction or capture of the whole force seemed imminent. The Confederate infantry had approached through a ravine from the direction of Opelousas, while upon the left across the prairie, a heavy column of cavalry had moved forward in line of battle. Burbridge had placed in position on his left the 67th Indiana about 260 strong, a section of Nim's battery, a section of the 17th Ohio battery and 150 cavalry, directing the whole to guard against an attack on the rear and left. The 60th Indiana, 96th Ohio, 23d Wisconsin and 4 pieces of the 17th Ohio battery were posted so as to meet the Confederate infantry advance in the ravine. The 118th Illinois mounted infantry was posted to protect his right and the trains were moved to the rear. The Confederates pressed Burbridge so hard that he soon despaired of holding his position until he could be reinforced. After engaging the enemy a short time in front he saw that they were moving on his right flank and their cavalry was bearing down on his left. The Confederate line was about 3 times as long as his own, and to guard against being surrounded he had to extend his line to the right. He gave Colonel Buchler of the 67th Indiana charge of a movement to guard his left while he himself advanced his right. Buehler was delayed in the execution of the required movement with the result that he and his command were surrounded by Confederate cavalry and surrendered without a man being killed. The artillery played on the enemy until it was almost surrounded, but succeeded in withdrawing save one 10-pounder Parrott gun and caisson of the 17th Ohio battery, which were taken only after the horses had been killed. The 23d Wisconsin, 96th Ohio, 60th Indiana, and 17th Ohio battery fought with remarkable determination, holding the enemy in check for some time and protecting the Federal train and artillery from capture. The bringing off of the section of Nim's battery, after the surrender of the regiment sent to its support, won the admiration of every beholder. When Burbridge's left was gone and the enemy's cavalry in great force was charging through the narrow belt of timber and coming down on his rear, he gradually fell back through the ravine in order to cover his train. The 3d division had come up on the double-quick, but by the time it was in the middle of the prairie a mile and a half from the scene of action, Burbridge's command had been driven out of the woods. Burbridge had noted its approach, which with the arrival of the 83d Ohio, ordered back from a foraging expedition, gave him renewed hope. He was now just abandoning the ravine. To secure his left he placed the 83d on the plain, where he soon rallied his shattered forces, his artillery on the right, the cavalry on the left. By this time the 3d division had come within range. It formed in line and by shelling the Confederates, checked their advance, when Burbridge began to rake them with his artillery and they retreated to the cover of the woods. The whole Federal force was then deployed in line of battle and pressed the enemy rapidly through the woods. Cameron with the 1st brigade of the 3d division sent cavalry to charge the Confederates through the ravine and nearly 100 prisoners were taken. Washburn moved the division upon the Confederate line of retreat about a mile and a half, but the men, having been brought up at a double-quick, were too nearly exhausted to pursue further. The cavalry pursued them about 3 miles. Federal loss, 25 killed, 123 wounded, 536 captured or missing. Total Confederate loss 181. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 91-93.
Bayou la Fourche, Louisiana, November 19, 1864. 11th Wisconsin Volunteers, and 93d U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 95.
Bayou Liddell, Louisiana, October 15, 1864. 52nd U. S. Colored Troops, 2nd Mississippi. Bayou Macon, Louisiana, August 24, 1863. 3d Division, and 3d Brigade, 6th Division, 17th Army Corps. As an incident of Stoneman's expedition from Vicksburg, Mississippi, to Monroe, Louisiana, the Confederates attempted to make a stand at Bayou Macon, but were driven from their position by Osband's cavalry, which held the ford of the bayou until the arrival of the advance guard of the infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 96.
Bayou Teche, Louisiana, March 21, 1865. Detachment of 93d U. S. Colored Infantry. During an expedition from Brashear City to Bayou Pigeon, Louisiana, a detachment of troops encountered a body of Confederates on Bayou Teche. The enemy, 25 or 30 in number, rode down to the bank and fired a number of shots at the Federals and then attempted to cross, but were prevented by a sharp musketry fire. No casualties were reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 100.
Bayou Tensas, Louisiana, August 26, 1864. 51st U. S. Colored Infantry and 3d U. S. Colored Cavalry. Early on the morning of the 26th some 200 Page 101 Confederates made a raid on the plantations near Goodrich's landing on Bayou Tensas, capturing two scouts who were killed after they surrendered. They also killed several colored people and 4 white men. A detachment of cavalry was sent in pursuit, but the enemy was not overtaken. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 100-101.
Bermuda Hundred, Virginia, November 30 to December 4, 1864. Pickets of the 20th Colored troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 116.
Big Black River Bridge, Mississippi, November 27, 1863. Detachment of troops under Colonel E. D. Osband, 3d U. S. Cavalry. For some time the Mississippi Central railroad had been the main' line of communication between Hood and his depots of supplies in Mississippi and Alabama. Several ineffectual attempts had been made to burn the bridge on this line near Canton, but the Confederates, recognizing its importance, had thrown up works about it and kept a strong force of men constantly on guard. When Colonel Osband's expedition reached the bridge, Major J. B. Cook with a portion of the 3rd U. S. colored cavalry, dismounted, charged over a trestle work 25 feet high, with nothing but the ties for a footing, in the face of a withering fire, and captured a stockade containing the main body of the guard. The bridge was burned and several miles of track in the vicinity destroyed. Cook received a promotion to the rank of lieutenant-colonel for his bravery. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 121-122.
Black River, Louisiana, November 1, 1864. 6th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 133.
Boggs' Mills, Arkansas, January 24, 1865. 11th U. S. Colored Infantry, and a Detachment of the 3d Arkansas. On the night of the 24th Colonel Newton's regiment (Confederate) took possession of Boggs' mills, 12 miles from Dardanelle, the purpose being to grind a lot of flour and get away before daylight. About midnight Lieut.-Colonel Steele, in command of the Union troops, effected a complete surprise, capturing all the flour, Newton's papers, 18 horses and 20 stands of arms. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 143.
Boyd's Station, Alabama, March 10, 1865. 101st U. S. Colored Troops. About 4 p. m. Lieut. Becker at Boyd's station heard firing in the direction of Woodville Station. A small detachment of Company E was sent out in charge of Sergt. Bell to learn the cause. He found 5 men from Woodville, surrounded in a cut by guerrillas, resisting capture. The colored troops charged the guerrillas and drove them back and then with the assistance of the 5 men kept up a skirmish until night, but as the enemy were mounted it was not easy to get in fair range. One guerrilla was seen to fall from his horse and one of the colored soldiers was captured. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 155.
Boyd's Station, Alabama, March 15-18, 1865. 101st U. S. Colored Troops. The garrison at Boyd's station, near Stevenson's gap, was in command of Lieut. Frederick Becker, of the 101st colored infantry. The Confederate Colonel Mead, with about 300 cavalry, kept in the neighborhood and never lost an opportunity to annoy the garrison and prevent the men from working on the stockade and guarding the railroad. On the 15th the men were driven in; on the night of the 16th they surrounded the stockade but left after two hours' brisk fighting, and on the 18th they made another attack and captured 9 of the colored troops. Lieut.-Colonel Wade then sent reinforcements to the garrison, thus giving Becker a force sufficiently strong to repel the attacks. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 155.
Boykin's Mill, South Carolina, April 18, 1865. Provisional Division, Department of the South. The affair at Boykin's mill, or Swift creek, as it is sometimes called, was one of a number of skirmishes that occurred on an expedition from Georgetown to Camden. The provisional division, under the command of Brigadier-General E. E. Potter, reached Camden on the 17th, to learn that the locomotives and trains had been removed to Boykin's mill, on Swift creek, 8 miles below, and that the Confederates, reinforced by two brigades of cavalry, were there throwing up intrenchments. On the morning of the 18th the division advanced on the enemy's position. Upon arriving near the mill it was discovered that the enemy had cut the dam and flooded the road, torn up the bridges and were strongly intrenched on the opposite side of the creek. On both sides of the railroad at this point there were swamps. The 32nd U. S. colored troops was pushed forward into the swamp toward the creek but were compelled to retrace on account of the mud and water. An attempt was then made by the 107th Ohio to turn the enemy's right, but it had to be abandoned for the same reason. The attention was then turned to the other direction. The 54th Massachusetts found the remains of a bridge, which appeared to offer a crossing, so that the Confederates could be taken on the left, but while in the act of crossing the creek were fired on and lost several men. Further to the left the 102nd colored infantry, guided by one of their own race, effected a crossing, while the 25th Ohio, supported by the 1st brigade, was pushed forward to the center, ready to charge across the railroad bridge. As soon as the firing of the colored troops on the left was heard the charge was made across the railroad bridge and the enemy driven from his position, retreating toward the south. One locomotive and some flat-cars were then destroyed by the Union forces, together with a large quantity of cotton and the station buildings. The pursuit was continued next day. (See Denkins' Mill, April 19.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 155-156.
Brice's Cross-Roads, Mississippi, June 10, 1864. Expedition under Brigadier- General S. D. Sturgis. On June 2, 1863, General Sturgis marched from camp near La Fayette with about 8,000 men of the Military District of West Tennessee. The force comprised a division of cavalry under Brigadier-General B. H. Grierson—the two brigades of which were commanded respectively by Colonel G. E. Waring, Jr., and Colonel E. F. Winslow—and a division of infantry under Colonel William L. McMillen, whose brigade commanders were Colonels A. Wilkin, G. B. Hoge and E. Bouton, the latter leading a colored brigade. With the cavalry were a 6-gun battery and 4 mountain howitzers, while the infantry had 12 pieces of artillery. On the morning of the 10th the cavalry, Waring's brigade in advance, left camp at 5 130 a. m. When it arrived at Brice's cross-roads the Confederates, commanded by General Forrest, were first encountered. Grierson halted his column and sent heavy patrols out on all of the four roads. The force proceeding on the Baldwyn road had gone about a mile when it encountered the enemy in great strength and Waring's whole brigade was brought into the action to develop the enemy's force. A portion of Winslow's brigade was thrown out on the Fulton road connecting with Waring's right, holding about 600 men in reserve. The Confederates advanced upon Grierson's position with double line of skirmishers and line of battle, but the Union line held. As soon as the infantry arrived Grierson asked permission to withdraw the cavalry as the men were exhausted and almost out of ammunition. Sturgis oversaw the placing of the artillery, which had no sooner opened than the enemy replied. The right of the line seemed to be bearing the brunt of the attack and Grierson was directed to send some cavalry to support it, but the pressure was too great and the exhausted cavalry began to give way. At the same time the enemy showed more strength on the left and the center was badly in need of reinforcements. Sturgis was making for the head of the colored brigade guarding the train, to bring it into action, when the whole line gave way, and at 5 p. m., after 7 hours of sharp fighting, the Union troops fell back. Part of them became confused and the result was a panic, but by hard work Grierson and Sturgis succeeded in rallying 1,200 or 1,500 men, who for a time formed a rearguard and held the enemy in check. The road became jammed with wagons and men, and 14 pieces of artillery and 200 wagons were captured by the enemy. It was not until the Federal column reached Stubbs' plantation, 10 miles from the scene of action, that a halt was made and something like order restored. Early the next morning a complete reorganization was effected at Ripley and the retreat was continued in an orderly manner. The Union loss was 223 killed, 394 wounded and 1,623 captured or missing. Forrest reported his loss as 96 killed, 396 wounded and none missing. This engagement is called in the Confederate reports the battle of Tishomingo creek, and is also sometimes referred to as the battle of Guntown, as it occurred near that place. Bridge Creek, Mississippi, May 28, 1862. 22nd Brigade, 4th Division, Army of the Ohio. Bridge creek is a small stream to the east of Corinth and flows a southwesterly direction into the Tuscumbia river. On this date, as the Union army was drawing its lines around Corinth, General Nelson, commanding the 4th division, ordered Colonel Thomas D. Sedgewick to move his brigade to the advance of the division. Upon gaining a point about three-fourths of a mile in front of the Federal intrenchments, Sedgewick disposed his command with the 2nd and 20th Kentucky in the first line, the 1st Kentucky in a second line about 70 yards in the rear of the first, and the 31st Indiana in double column 100 yards behind the 1st Kentucky. In this order the brigade advanced, two companies of each regiment being thrown forward as skirmishers. The skirmish line soon drew the fire of the enemy's pickets, posted in a thicket on the left and some woods and a swamp on the right. Those on the left were quickly driven back to the main road from Farmington to Corinth, where a larger force was encountered at the bridge. This point was of great importance to the Confederates, who held on to it tenaciously, but after a stubborn fight of half an hour the skirmishers of the 2nd and 20th Kentucky succeeded in forcing them back about 50 yards beyond the creek and gaining possession of the end of the bridge. Sedgewick requested the men at the bridge to hold on at all hazards and immediately took steps to reinforce them. Reinforcements came to the enemy also, his line/ was reformed and he advanced, fully intent on regaining possession of the bridge. To meet this movement part of the 20th Kentucky was thrown to the left and the remainder of that regiment to some woods across a small open field on the right, while Captain Mendenhall's battery was brought up to shell the enemy in front. At the same time part of the 31st Indiana was ordered to reinforce the line on the left. The well directed fire of the battery, with the cross fire of the infantry on both flanks, soon caused the enemy to beat a hasty and disorderly retreat, leaving the Federals in possession of the bridge. In this engagement Sedgewick was opposed by fully 6,000 of the best troops in the Confederate army, and his victory was a tribute to his generalship and the bravery of his men. He reported his loss as 3 killed and 20 wounded. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was not ascertained, but in the retreat a number of prisoners were taken, one company of the 21st Louisiana being cut off and nearly all captured. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 164-166.
Brownsville, Texas, May 13, 1865. 62nd U. S. Colored Troops, 2nd Texas Cavalry, and 34th Indiana Infantry. Colonel T. H. Barrett commanding the Union forces at Brazos Santiago, sent 250 men of the 62nd colored infantry and 50 of the 2nd Texas cavalry, not mounted, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel David Branson, against a strong Confederate outpost at the Palmetto ranch on the Rio Grande. After an all night march the attack was made early on the morning of the 12th. The enemy was driven from his position in confusion, all his camp equipage, stores and a number of horses and cattle falling into Branson's hands. Branson took advantage of the situation to rest and refresh his men after their long night's march and remained in possession of the ranch. About 3 o'clock that afternoon a considerable body of the enemy put in an appearance, Captain Robinson, the commandant of the outpost, having received reinforcements from Colonel Ford. Deeming his position unsafe, Branson hurriedly destroyed such of the stores as he could and fell back to White's ranch, skirmishing on the way. At daylight the next morning he was reinforced by 200 men of the 34th Indiana under Lieut-Colonel Robert G. Morrison. A little later Barrett arrived and assumed the command. An advance upon Palmetto ranch was ordered, the pickets driven in and about 8 o'clock the Confederates were again driven from their post. Such of the stores as escaped destruction the day before were now destroyed and the ranch buildings burned. Again the enemy was reinforced and Barrett slowly retired toward Brazos Santiago, fighting as he went. In his report of the affair Barrett says: "The last volley of the war, it is believed, was fired by the 62nd U. S. colored infantry about sunset of the 13th of May, 1865,' between White's ranch and the Boca Chica, Texas" The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 174.
Buck's Ferry, Mississippi, September 19-22, 1864. Detachments of the 4th Illinois Cavalry, 29th Illinois and 70th and 71st U. S. Colored Infantry. This was a foraging expedition sent out by Brigadier-General Brayman, under the command of Colonel Loren Kent, of the 29th Illinois. On the 19th and 20th the cavalry collected 185 head of fat cattle; 700 bushels of corn were taken from Helm's plantation; and on the return to Natchez enough cattle were added to make 203 turned over to the commissary. At Buck's ferry on the Homochitto river a small force of Confederates was encountered, but was driven back by a few men from the 29th. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 178.
Bullitt's Bayou, Louisiana, September 14, 1864. 63d U. S. Colored Infantry. About 8 a. m. a small party of Confederates fired upon the Union pickets and killed 2 men. Captain Elliott pursued them for about a mile and a half, but the enemy being mounted could not be overtaken and the pursuers returned to camp. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 183.
Cabin Creek, Indian Territory, July 1-2, 1863. Detachment of the 3d Wisconsin, 2nd Colorado, 9th and 14th Kansas Cavalry, 1st Kansas (Colored) Infantry, 3d Indian Home Guards and the 2nd Kansas Battery. On June 26 the detachment, under the command of Colonel J. M. Williams, of the colored regiment, left Baxter Springs, Kansas, with a supply train for Fort Blunt, in the Indian Territory. Upon reaching Cabin creek, about noon on July 1, the enemy was found strongly posted in a thicket on the opposite side of the stream in a position commanding the approach to the ford. This force, consisting of McIntosh’s and Stand Watie's Cherokee and Creek regiments, with about 600 Texas rangers, numbered from 1,600 to 1,800 men. One of the howitzers was ordered forward and a brisk fire of shell and canister poured into the thicket, but without effect. Owing to recent rains the creek was too high to risk crossing with the train, and Williams withdrew a short distance to wait until the next morning. The plan of attack on the 2nd was to place 2 pieces of artillery on the extreme left, 2 in the center and 1 on the right, and attempt to cross under the fire of the guns. The Indian home guards were deployed on the right and left of the ford and the main body placed in the center. For a half hour the artillery shelled the woods on the opposite bank, the enemy at first responding with a brisk fire, which gradually grew less, when the main column moved forward across the creek, quickly formed on the other side and by a vigorous charge drove the enemy from his position. The Kansas cavalry, under Captain Stewart, followed for some distance and succeeded in taking 9 prisoners. The Union loss was 3 killed and 30 wounded. The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was not learned. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 200.
Cabin Point, Virginia, August 5, 1864. 1st U. S. Colored Cavalry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 201.
Camargo Cross-Roads, Mississippi, July 13, 1864. Part of the 16th Army Corps. On the 5th an expedition was started from LaGrange, Tennessee, to Tupelo, Mississippi It consisted of the 1st and 3d divisions of the 16th corps, Grierson's cavalry division, the 1st brigade of U. S. colored troops and 7 batteries of artillery, and was under the command of Major-General Andrew J. Smith. The expedition broke camp at Pontotoc on the morning of the 13th and marched toward Tupelo, 18 miles distant, with Colonel Winslow's cavalry brigade in the front and the colored troops and the 7th Kansas cavalry in the rear. Winslow kept up a running skirmish for nearly 10 miles, with a detachment of the enemy's cavalry, killing 7 and wounding a large number. During this time the rear-guard was called on to repulse three attacks from that quarter. When within about six miles of Tupelo the enemy opened a heavy fire of musketry from ambush at short range. Two guns of Battery E, 1st Illinois light artillery, were quickly wheeled into position and began pouring a rapid fire of canister into the Confederate ranks. About this time a charge was made upon the train by four brigades of cavalry. Colonel Ward's brigade, which had been marching on the right flank, repulsed the attack and captured a stand of colors. The enemy quickly rallied and again attacked the train, this time a short distance from the rear. This attack was promptly met by the 1st brigade of the 1st division, commanded by Colonel W. L. McMillen, who ordered a charge, when the enemy was routed in confusion with severe loss, which put an end to the hostilities for the day. Cambridge, Missouri, September 26, 1862. Company E, 9th Missouri Militia Cavalry. While on a scout near Cambridge, the company, commanded by Lieut. Pinhard, was fired upon from ambush. Pinhard and 2 others were killed, and 2 were seriously wounded. The remainder of the company immediately gave chase, but the enemy made his escape, leaving 2 horses and 2 guns behind. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 206.
Camden, Arkansas (Expedition to), March 23-May 3, 1864. Major-General Frederick Steele, commanding the U. S. forces in the Department of Arkansas, left Little Rock with his command on March 23, 1864. His plan was to cooperate with the forces under Major-General Banks for an expedition against Shreveport. Brigadier-General John M. Thayer, commanding the Department of the Frontier, was to move from Fort Smith at the same time and unite with Steele on the march. Steele's command consisted of the 3d division, 13th army corps, 5,127 strong; Thayer had 5,082 infantry and the cavalry strength of the expedition was 3,428—a total of 13,754 men. The 3d division was directly under Brigadier-General Frederick Salomon, whose brigade commanders were Brigadier-General Samuel A. Rice and Colonels William E. McLean and Adolph Engelmann. The artillery of the division under Captain Gustave Stange comprised Battery E, Missouri light artillery, Vaughn's Illinois battery and a Wisconsin battery manned by Company F, 9th Wisconsin infantry. The brigade commanders of the Frontier (Thayer's) division were Colonel John Edwards of the 1st, Colonel Charles W. Adams of the 2nd, and Lieut.-Colonel Owen A. Bassett of the 3d or cavalry brigade. Brigadier-General Eugene A. Carr's cavalry division comprised 2 brigades, commanded by Colonels John F. Ritter and Daniel Anderson. The Pine Bluff garrison, under Colonel Clayton Powell, which moved in conjunction with Steele, consisted of the 18th Illinois and 28th Wisconsin infantry, the 7th Missouri and detachments of the 5th Kansas and 1st Indiana cavalry—2435 men. On the day that Steele left Little Rock his pickets, members of the 3d Arkansas cavalry, were attacked on the Benton road and 2 captured, the remainder being driven back until the 2nd Missouri cavalry came to reinforce them. When the column moved into Benton next day, the advance having been fired upon from ambush several times, a few of the enemy's cavalry were encountered and driven out. On the way to Rockport continual skirmishing was done. At sunset on the 27th Powell started with an expedition from Pine Bluff for Mount Elba and Longview, a cavalry force under Lieuts. Young and Greathouse in the meantime being sent to make a feint in the direction of Monticello. When near Branchville these two encountered and skirmished with a Confederate picket. After a skirmish at Brooks' mill the lieutenants built a great number of camp-fires so as to mislead the Confederates as to the location of their main force. Late in the evening of the 28th they rejoined Powell at Mount Elba, which the latter had occupied after driving away a force of the enemy. During the night the bridge over the Saline was repaired and early next morning Powell, leaving Lieut.-Colonel Marks with the infantry, 3 pieces of artillery and a squadron of cavalry to guard the bridge, crossed the river and moved in the direction of Camden. Eight miles from the river the roads from Camden, Princeton and Long View and one from up the river converge. Making this point the base of operations Young and Greathouse with 50 picked men were sent out to destroy the enemy's train at Long View, parties being sent out on the other roads to cover the movement. All these returned the same day except that under Young and Greathouse, who reported at 9:30 a. m. next day (30th) with 260 prisoners, 300 horses and mules, and an amount of arms and ammunition, having destroyed the bridge and the enemy's train. Powell then hastened back to Mount Elba, where the Confederates had attacked Marks. The latter had repulsed them, however, and had driven them back about a mile. Powell followed with all the available cavalry and found the enemy—two brigades under Dockery—posted in strong position. A spirited charge was made, resulting in the complete rout of the enemy, the Federal cavalry pursuing to Big creek, 5 miles distant. The next day (31st) Powell returned to Pine Bluff. Meantime, on the 29th, Steele had occupied Arkadelphia, his advance skirmishing with the enemy all the way. Thayer was to have joined him here, but the lack of forage had made it necessary for the latter to take another and longer route. On the 31st the Confederate forces under Lawther attacked the Federal advance 14 miles from Arkadelphia, compelling it, after a skirmish of an hour, to fall back some distance. Next day (April 1) Steele's advance and a party of the enemy's scouts became engaged near Arkadelphia, the Confederates being forced to withdraw after a brief conflict. Steele encamped that night at Spoonville, advancing from there on the 2nd. While a train of 200 wagons with its escort was passing a narrow, miry defile at a small stream, a mile east of Terre Noir creek and near Antoine, about 1,200 of Shelby's cavalry made a dash on the rear-guard. The charge was checked long enough for the train to get through the defile and the artillery to get into position, when, after a few shots, the enemy retired. While Colonel Benton with the 29th la. was crossing Terre Noir creek the action was recommenced. Before he could gain an elevation near the crossing his rear was charged, but the skirmishers held the enemy in check until the forces were disposed. After a brisk fight of an hour the attack was discontinued. On the same day, while the 50th Indiana was acting as a rear-guard for the whole column, it was hotly pressed by Confederate cavalry. Salomon, with four companies of the 9th Wisconsin and 2 pieces of artillery, was ordered to take the rear. As soon as the main column was again in motion he was beaten back by a strong cavalry force, but fought his way to a hill half a mile distant, which he held until reinforced by the 50th Indiana. The enemy kept up a harassing fire until dark, but did not again charge. Earlier in the day, when the 3d brigade had reached the forks of the Camden and Washington roads, a detachment of 200 men of the 1st la. cavalry under Captain Mclntyre, was sent down the Washington road while the main column moved down the Camden pike. Mclntyre had gone but a short distance when he encountered a force much larger than his own, but after some spirited fighting defeated it and drove it back 3 miles to Wolf creek. On a hill beyond that stream the Confederates made a stand and opened artillery on the advancing column. Finding that it was impossible to dislodge them, Mclntyre retired and rejoined his brigade at Okolona. Thayer had not yet come up and Steele was beginning to grow anxious. About noon of the 2nd a force of 1,500 Confederates under Shelby attacked the rear-guard of the 3d division near Okolona. After a sharp skirmish, in which the 50th Indiana and the 29th la. participated, the enemy was repulsed and Rice withdrew his brigade to Okolona, but before he arrived there it was necessary to repulse another of Shelby's charges. When the division moved forward on the 3d Engelmann's brigade, with 6 pieces of Vaughn's battery, was left at Okolona to await the arrival of Ritter's cavalry brigade, when the two commands were to move back to Hollywood and if possible ascertain the whereabouts of Thayer. Before the cavalry arrived Engelmann was attacked. After a sharp but sanguinary fight the attacking force was driven back, and on Ritter's arrival the two brigades moved in the direction of Hollywood. Late in the evening of the 2nd McLean's brigade, by a forced inarch, took position at Elkin's ferry or ford on the Little Missouri river. On the morning of the 3d Major W. W. Norris, commanding the 43d Indiana, proceeded to the front with four companies of his regiment for the purpose of supporting the pickets of the 1st la. cavalry already thrown out. The Confederate pickets were soon located and driven back for some distance, 16 of them being captured. During the night three companies of the 36th la. and three of the 43d Indiana, Lieut.-Colonel F. M. Drake of the la. regiment commanding, deployed to the right and left of the road leading from the ford, and a section of artillery under Lieut. Charles Peetz was placed in a position to sweep the road. At 6 a. m. of the 4th the Confederate force (Cabell's brigade, 1,600 strong) attacked Drake, who with the support of the artillery held his position for 2 hours, and then after a charge of the enemy's cavalry, was forced to slowly fall back on his reserves. Before the reinforcements sent for, consisting of the 29th la. and the 9th Wisconsin infantry under General Rice, had arrived, Drake's command, with the rest of the 36th la., had repulsed the enemy. On the 5th Ritter and Engelmann returned without having learned anything of the whereabouts of Thayer. Some skirmishing was done that day at Marks' mills which did not in the least retard the movement of the column. After ascertaining that the Confederates were fortifying in his front, Steele determined to move at once and early on the morning of the 6th the expedition started, skirmishing in the vicinity of the Little Missouri river, where the enemy abandoned a mile of hastily constructed breastworks of timber and earth which crowned the hills overlooking the river bottom. That night a messenger arriving at Steele's headquarters reported having passed Thayer at Rockport, and it was decided to await his coming where the Federal force was now encamped. A heavy rain fell during the night and by the next morning the river had risen 3 feet. It was dark before the pioneer corps reached the stream, by which time the head of Thayer's column had encamped on the hills at the farther side. By the evening of the 9th a bridge had been constructed, Thayer's column crossed without delay and joined Steele. On the 10th the joint command moved for Prairie D'Ane. At the intersection of the Spring Hill and Camden roads Price had posted all his available force. The skirmish which ensued was brief, the Confederates using artillery freely, but the Federals succeeded in occupying and holding the ground. The following afternoon Rice's brigade was ordered forward and drew the enemy's fire, but it was too late to bring on a general engagement and a halt was ordered. On the 12th the skirmishers became heavily engaged, but the enemy perceiving an attempt of Rice's brigade to flank him abandoned his works. More skirmishing occurred at Moscow on the 13th, and on the 14th a portion of Thayer's colored troops were engaged at Dutch mills. The 3d division encamped at White Oak creek, 18 miles from Camden, after driving the enemy from the place, and on the morning of the 15th moved forward with Rice's brigade and the artillery in advance. There was constant skirmishing with the Confederate rear-guard until the Washington and Camden road was reached, where the enemy opened fire with 5 pieces of artillery. Stange ordered his guns forward and after a spirited engagement of nearly 2 hours succeeded in dislodging the enemy's battery. The infantry was then sent forward, the 33d and 29th la. being deployed on the right and left respectively, while the 9th Wisconsin successfully turned the enemy's left flank. The Confederates were followed closely to Camden, skirmishing all the way, and Rice occupied the town shortly after sunset. From the 16th to the 18th inclusive foraging parties sent out from Camden encountered bands of Confederates who had been sent to burn the supplies of corn at Liberty post office, Red Mound and other places. A party of Federal cavalry captured a boat on the Ouachita river 30 miles below Camden with 3,000 bushels of corn and brought it to the Federal encampment on the 16th. A detachment of the Frontier division, with cavalry and artillery, while escorting a foraging train, was attacked near Poison spring by Price. Colonel James M. Williams, commanding, formed his men in battle array and repulsed, with heavy loss both to himself and the enemy, two dashing charges, but after a 4-hours' fight he was overwhelmed and obliged to withdraw, abandoning the train of 198 wagons. The wounded negro soldiers were killed in cold blood after the Confederates had won the field. On the 20th a slight skirmish occurred near Camden and in the evening of the 23d Price opened an artillery fire on the outposts of the town, following it up on the 24th. On the 23d, also, there was a small affair at Swan lake, not far distant from Camden. On the 22nd the supply train, comprising 240 wagons, was sent out, McLean's brigade and 400 cavalry acting as escort. When it arrived at Marks' mills on the 25th Fagan's cavalry, 5,000 strong, made a dashing charge and a fight lasting 3 hours ensued, in which the enemy overwhelmed the Federal command, McLean was wounded, and the train, with the larger part of the escort captured. A cavalry force sent from Pine Bluff arrived just in time to participate in the finish of the engagement. Another portion of the Union command did some skirmishing at Moro bottoms on the 25th and 26th. Banks' movement against Shreveport had failed and he had fallen back behind intrenchments at Grand Ecore because of a severe defeat at Pleasant hill. From Grand Ecore he sent a messenger to Steele asking that reinforcements be sent him, but Steele replied that such a move was an impossibility owing to the lack of forage in the country to be passed through and the superior force of the enemy, who had been reinforced by 8,000 of Kirby Smith's men on the 22nd. The loss of the wagon train, however, necessitated a move of some kind and on the evening of the 25th Steele announced his intention of withdrawing from Camden. Accordingly on the night of the 26th the Federal column moved quietly out and commenced the retrograde movement to Little Rock on the Jenkins' Ferry road via Princeton. The latter place was reached on the 28th and some sharp skirmishing was done with the advance of the pursuing enemy, whose cavalry attempted unavailingly to break the Union line. On the 29th the Saline river was reached at Jenkins' ferry, where there was some skirmishing with the enemy's advance on that day and early next morning. The river bottom at this point is 2 miles wide and while the expedition was crossing the stream Salomon's brigade was called upon to repulse a heavy attack. Again at 10:30 a. m. another desperate assault was made on the Union line, but again the enemy was repulsed and driven for some distance, losing 2 guns and a number of prisoners. Steele then crossed without further interruption, but found it necessary to abandon several wagons because of the condition of the roads. A scouting party was routed on the same day at Whitmore's mill by a force of Confederate cavalry. Steele proceeded to Little Rock, which he entered on the 3d of May. The Federal losses in this expedition were in the neighborhood of 700. A large number of men were captured, Shelby alone claiming to have taken over 1,000. The Confederate casualties in killed and wounded were about the same. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 206-210.
Camp Finegan, Florida, May 25, 1864. A detachment, made up of 300 of the 7th U. S. colored infantry, 100 white infantry, a few mounted men and two sections of artillery, was sent out from Jacksonville in the direction of Baldwin, under the command of Colonel James Shaw. When near Camp Finegan they were met by a force of infantry and cavalry, estimated by Shaw to have been 500 men. A brisk fire was maintained for a little while, when the artillery was brought into action and the Confederates retired from the field, as they had no cannon. No casualties reported. Camp Gonzales, Florida, July 22, 1864. An expedition, led by Brig-General Alexander Asboth, left Barrancas on the 21st and marched in the direction of Pollard, Alabama. At daybreak the next morning they reached Camp Gonzales, on the Pensacola railroad, 15 miles above Pensacola. A new fort named Fort Hodgson had just been completed there, and was garrisoned by three companies of the 7th Alabama cavalry, numbering about 120 men each. After half an hour's fighting, in which the well-aimed shells of the 1st Florida battery did considerable damage, the 7th Vermont infantry, 82nd U. S. colored infantry, 1st Florida cavalry, dismounted, and part of the 14th New York cavalry made a dash on the works, when the Confederates beat a hasty retreat. A regimental flag, all the official papers of the post, 8 prisoners, 17 horses with equipments, a number of guns and sabers, 23 head of cattle and a large quantity of ammunition fell into Asboth's hands. The fort and buildings were destroyed. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 214.
Caruthersville, Missouri, July 8, 1864. Detachment, 1st Missouri State Militia and 18th U. S. Colored Infantry. Captain Kelling, with 75 men, embarked on board the gunboat Huntress, No. 58, at New Madrid on the 6th, to go in pursuit of a party of guerrillas. Leaving the boat at Quigley's, near the Arkansas line, the next morning, Kelling marched into what was known as the Cowskin Settlement, where he had a skirmish with a small party. On the next day he moved northeast, having several brushes with the enemy during the day and encamped that night at Caruthersville. Kelling reported 8 of the enemy killed in the various skirmishes of the day. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 229.
Cedar Keys, Florida, February 16, 1865. 2nd U. S. Colored troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 239.
Charles City Court House, Virginia, December 12-14, 1863. Detachments, 139th New York and 6th U. S. Colored Infantry and New York Mounted Rifles. The expedition against Charles City Court House was sent out by General Wistar, under the command of Colonel R. M. West, the object being to capture the enemy's cavalry at that point. On the 12th 200 men of the 139th New York were started from Williamsburg, under Colonel Roberts, with instructions to reach the Forge bridge by 5 a. m. the next day and hold it. Roberts made a detour to the rear of the enemy's pickets and reached the bridge on time. At 7 o'clock that evening 275 men of the New York mounted rifles, under Colonel Onderdonk, and accompanied by West, moved by the direct road to the bridge. At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 13th the 6th Colored infantry, under Colonel Ames, was ordered to move to Twelve-mile Ordinary, with ambulances and a wagon loaded with rations, and picket the roads there. When the mounted rifles reached the bridge they were divided into two parties, one under Onderdonk and the other under Major Wheelan, and advanced on the enemy's two camps, which were near together. Wheelan surprised his camp completely, the Confederates firing a straggling volley from their houses and then surrendering. The camp attacked by Onderdonk received notice of his approach and for a short time the enemy put up a spirited resistance from the houses, but in the end they were overpowered and compelled to surrender. The Union loss was 2 killed, 4 wounded, and 1 man belonging to the Colored regiment captured. The enemy lost 8 officers and 82 men captured, with 55 horses, 3 mules, 100 carbines, 100 sabers, 100 sets of horse equipments, 20 new tents and a quantity of ammunition and provisions. Several horses that were unserviceable were shot. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 257.
Charleston, South Carolina, August 21-December 31, 1863.—In most of the operations about Charleston during the year 1863 the navy played an important part, and a detailed account of these operations will be found in the volume on the navy, with the exception of some attacks on individual fortifications where the land forces participated. Charleston, South Carolina, February 17-18. 1865. 21st U. S. Colored Troops. No engagement was fought at Charleston on this date. The Confederates evacuated their works on the night of the 17th and the early morning hours of the 18th, and about 10 a. m. Lieut.-Colonel A. G. Bennett, commanding the United States forces about Charleston, landed at Mills' wharf with about 30 men, demanded of the mayor and received a formal surrender of the city. The retreating Confederates had set fire to a number of public buildings, among them the commissary depot. This was blown up at a time when about 200 persons, mostly women and children were engaged in procuring food there by permission from the Confederate authorities. Nearly all these people were killed, many of them being blown to atoms, which were the only casualties reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 259.
Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 1-3, 1864. Army of the Potomac. This was the last engagement of any consequence in the campaign from the Rapidan to the James, which began with the battle of the Wilderness on May 5-7. The severe losses in the Wilderness, at Spottsylvania Court House and along the North Anna river had made necessary several changes, and the Army of the Potomac on the last day of May was organized as follows: The 2nd corps, Major-General Winfield S. Hancock commanding, was composed of the three divisions commanded by Brigadier-General Francis C. Barlow, Brigadier-General John Gibbon and Brigadier-General David B. Birney, and the artillery brigade under Colonel John C. Tidball. The 5th corps, commanded by Major-General Gouverneur K. Warren, included four divisions, respectively commanded by Brigadier-Generals Charles Griffin, Henry H. Lockwood, Samuel W. Crawford and Lysander Cutler, and the artillery brigade of Colonel Charles S. Wainwright. (On June 2 Crawford's division was consolidated with Lockwood's.) The 6th corps, Major-General Horatio G. Wright commanding, consisted of three divisions commanded by Brigadier-Generals David A. Russell, Thomas H. Neill and James B. Ricketts, and the artillery brigade of Colonel Charles H. Tompkins. The 9th corps, under command of Major-General Ambrose E. Burnside, was made up of the four divisions commanded by Major-General Thomas L. Crittenden, Brigadier-General Robert B. Potter, Brigadier-General Orlando B. Willcox and Brigadier-General Edward Ferrero, and the reserve artillery under Captain John Edwards. (Ferrero's division was composed of colored troops.) The cavalry corps under Major-General P. H. Sheridan, consisted of three divisions commanded by Brigadier-Generals Alfred T. A. Torbert, David McM. Gregg and James H. Wilson, and a brigade of horse artillery under Captain James M. Robertson. The 18th corps, formerly with the Army of the James, commanded by Major-General William F. Smith, embraced three divisions, respectively commanded by Brigadier-Generals William H. T. Brooks, James H. Martindale and Charles Devens, and the artillery brigade under command of Captain Samuel S. Elder. This corps was added to the Army of the Potomac just in time to take part in the battle of Cold Harbor. The artillery reserve was under command of Brigadier-General Henry J. Hunt. On June 1 Grant's forces numbered "present for duty" 113,875 men of all arms. The Confederate army, under command of General Robert E. Lee, was organized practically as it was at the beginning of the campaign, (See Wilderness) with the exception of some slight changes in commanders and the accession of the divisions of Breckenridge, Pickett and Hoke. Various estimates have been made of the strength of the Confederate forces at Cold Harbor. Maj! Jed Hotchkiss, topographer for Lee's army, states it as being 58,000 men, which is probably not far from the truth. Cold Harbor is about 3 miles north of the Chickahominy river and 11 miles from Richmond. Grant considered it an important point as several roads centered there, notably among them those leading to Bethesda Church, White House landing on the Pamunkey, and the several crossings of the Chickahominy, offering facilities for the movement of troops in almost any direction. On the last day of May Sheridan sent Torbert's division to drive away from Cold Harbor the Confederate cavalry under Fitzhugh Lee, which was done with slight loss. Gregg's division reinforced Torbert, but the Confederates were also reinforced and Sheridan sent word to Grant that the enemy was moving a heavy force against the place and that he did not think it prudent to hold on. In response to this message Sheridan was instructed to hold on at all hazards, as a force of infantry was on the way to relieve him. This infantry force was the 6th corps, which arrived at Cold Harbor at 9 a. m. on the 1st, just as Sheridan had repulsed the second assault by Kershaw's division, the rapid fire of the retreating carbines and the heavy charges of canister proving too much for the enemy. Wright relieved the cavalry and about 2 p. m. Smith's corps came up from Newcastle and took position on the right of the 6th. Both were under instructions to assault as soon as they were ready, but the troops were not properly disposed until 6 o'clock that afternoon. When Lee discovered that Grant was moving some of his force to the left of the Federal line, he decided to meet the maneuver by transferring Anderson's corps from the Confederate left to the right in order to confront Wright. Anderson took position on the left of Hoke, whose division formed the extreme right of Lee's line. At 6 p. m. Wright and Smith moved forward to the attack. In their front was an open , space, varying in width from 300 to 1,200 yards, and the moment the first line debouched from the wood the enemy opened fire. The troops pressed forward, however, with an unwavering line until they reached the timber on the farther side of the clearing. Ricketts' division struck the main line of intrenchments at the point where Anderson's and Hoke's commands joined, with such force that the flank of each was rolled back and about 500 prisoners were captured. Smith drove the enemy from a line of rifle-pits in the edge of the wood and captured about 250 prisoners, but when he attempted to advance on the main line he was met by such a galling fire that he was compelled to retire to the woods, holding the first line captured. After trying in vain to dislodge Ricketts the enemy retired from that part of the works and formed a new line some distance in the rear. Wright and Smith then intrenched the positions they had gained and held them during the night, though repeated attacks were made by the enemy in an endeavor to regain the lost ground. Badeau says: "The ground won, on the 1st of June, was of the highest consequence to the national army; it cost 2,000 men in killed and wounded, but it secured the roads to the James, and almost outflanked Lee." In the meantime Lee had assumed the offensive on his left. Hancock and Burnside along Swift run and near Bethesda Church were attacked, probably with a view to force Grant to draw troops from Cold Harbor to reinforce his right. Three attacks were also made on Warren, whose corps was extended to cover over 4 miles of the line, but each attack was repulsed by artillery alone. Late in the afternoon Hancock was ordered to withdraw his corps early that night and move to the left of Wright at Cold Harbor, using every effort to reach there by daylight the next morning. Grant's object was to make a general assault as early as possible on the 2nd, Hancock, Wright and Smith to lead the attack, supported by Warren and Burnside, but the night march of the 2nd corps in the heat and dust had almost completely exhausted the men, so that the assault was first postponed until 5 p. m. and then to 4:30 on the morning of the 3d. The 2nd was therefore spent in forming the lines, in skirmishing and intrenching. In the afternoon it was discovered that a considerable Confederate force under Early was in front of the Federal right and at midnight the orders to Warren and Burnside were modified by directing them, in case Early was still in their front, to attack at 4:30 "in such manner and by such combinations of the two corps as may in both your judgments be deemed best. If the enemy should appear to be in strongest force on our left, and your attack should in consequence prove successful, you will follow it up, closing in upon them toward our left; if, on the contrary, the attack on the left should be successful, it will be followed up, moving toward our right." The battle of June 3 was fought on the same ground as the battle of Gaines' mill in the Peninsular campaign of 1862, except the positions were exactly reversed. Lee now held the trenches, extended and strengthened, that had been occupied by Porter, who, with a single corps, had held the entire Confederate army at bay and even repulsed its most determined attacks, inflicting severe loss upon its charging columns, while the Union troops were now to assault a position which Lee two years before had found to be impregnable. The Confederate right was extended along a ridge, the crest of which formed a natural parapet, while just in front was a sunken road that could be used as an intrenchment. Promptly at the designated hour the columns of the 2nd. 6th and 18th corps moved to the attack. Hancock sent forward the divisions of Barlow and Gibbon, supported by Birney. Barlow advanced in two lines under a heavy fire of infantry and artillery, until the first line encountered the enemy's line in the sunken road. This was quickly dislodged and as the Confederates retired over the crest Barlow's men followed, capturing several hundred prisoners and 3 pieces of artillery. These guns were turned on the enemy, who broke in confusion, leaving the national forces in possession of a considerable portion of the main line of works. The broken ranks were soon rallied and reinforced, a heavy enfilading artillery fire was brought to bear on the assailants, and as Barlow's second line had not come up in time to secure the advantage gained he gave the order to fall back to a slight crest about 50 yards in the rear, where rifle-pits were dug under a heavy fire, and this position was held the remainder of the day. Gibbon's division, on the right of Barlow, was also formed in two lines, Tyler's brigade on the right and Smyth's on the left in the first line, McKeen's and Owen's on the right and left respectively in the second. As the division advanced the line was cut in two by an impassable swamp, but the men pushed bravely on, in spite of this obstacle and the galling fire of cannon and musketry that was poured upon them, until close up to the enemy's works. A portion of Smyth's brigade gained the intrenchments, and Colonel McMahon, with part of his regiment, the 164th New York, of Tyler's brigade, gained the parapet, where McMahon was killed and those who were with him were either killed or captured, the regimental colors falling into the hands of the Confederates. Owen had been directed to push forward in column through Smyth's line, but instead of doing so he deployed on the left as soon as Smyth became engaged, thus losing the opportunity of supporting the lodgment made by that officer and McMahon. The result was the assault of Gibbon was repulsed, and the division fell back, taking advantage of the inequalities of the ground to avoid the murderous fire that followed them on their retreat. Some idea of the intensity of the fighting on this part of the line may be gained from the fact that Gibbon's command lost 65 officers and 1,032 men in killed and wounded during the assault. Wright's advance with the 6th corps was made with Russell's division on the left, Ricketts' in the center and Neill's on the right. Neill carried the advanced rifle-pits, after which the whole corps assaulted the main line with great vigor, but the attack was repulsed with heavy loss. The only advantage gained—and this a rather dubious one—by the corps was that of being able to occupy a position closer to the Confederate intrenchments than before the attack. A description of the attack by the 18th corps is perhaps best given by quoting Smith's report. He says: "In front of my right was an open plain, swept by the fire of the enemy, both direct and from our right; on my left the open space was narrower, but equally covered by the artillery of the enemy. Near the center was a ravine, in which the troops would be sheltered from the cross-fire, and through this ravine I determined the main assault should be made. General Devens' division had been placed on the right to protect our flank and hold as much as possible of the lines vacated by the troops moving forward. General Martindale with his division was ordered to move down the ravine, while General Brooks with his division was to advance on the left, taking care to keep up the connection between Martindale and the Sixth Corps, and if, in the advance, those two commanders should join, he (General Brooks) was ordered to throw his command behind General Martindale ready to operate on the right flank, if necessary. The troops moved promptly at the time ordered, and, driving in the skirmishers of the enemy, carried his first line of works or rifle-pits. Here the command was halted under a severe fire to readjust the lines. After a personal inspection of General Martindale's front, I found that I had to form a line of battle faced to the right to protect the right flank of the moving column, and also that no farther advance could be made until the Sixth Corps advanced to cover my left from a cross-fire. Martindale was ordered to keep his column covered as much as possible, and to move only when General Brooks moved. I then went to the front of General Brooks' line to reconnoiter there. General Brooks was forming his column when a heavy fire on the right began, which brought so severe a cross-fire on Brooks that I at once ordered him not to move his men farther, but to keep them sheltered until the cross-fire was over. Going back to the right, I found that Martindale had been suffering severely, and having mistaken the firing in front of the Sixth Corps for that of Brooks had determined to make the assault, and that Stannard's brigade had been repulsed in three gallant assaults." On the right the attacks of Burnside and Warren were attended by no decisive results. The former sent forward the divisions of Potter and Willcox, Crittenden's being held in reserve. Potter sent in Curtin's brigade, which forced back the enemy's skirmishers, carried some detached rifle-pits and buildings, and gained a position close up to the main line, from which the Federal artillery silenced the principal battery inside the Confederate works and blew up two of their caissons. Willcox recaptured a line of rifle-pits from which he had been driven the day before, Hartranft's brigade driving the enemy to his main intrenchments and establishing itself close in their front. In this attack Griffin's division of the 5th corps cooperated with Willcox. Owing to the necessity of placing artillery in position to silence the enemy's guns, active operations were suspended until 1 p. m. An order was therefore issued to the various division commanders in the two corps to attack at that hour, and Wilson was directed to move with part of his cavalry division across the Totopotomy, with a view of attacking the Confederate position on the flank and rear. The arrangements were all completed by the appointed time and the skirmish line was about to advance for the beginning of the assault, when an order was received from headquarters to cease all offensive movements, on account of the general repulse on the left. Meade reported his loss in the battle of Cold Harbor as 1,705 killed, 9,042 wounded and 2,042 missing. As in the other engagements of the campaign from the Rapidan to the James, no detailed report of the Confederate casualties was made, but Lee's loss at Cold Harbor was comparatively slight. Hotchkiss gives it as "about 1,700." Some of the Federal wounded were brought in at night by volunteers from the intrenching parties, but most of them lay on the field, under the hot sun of a Virginia summer, for three days before Grant would consent to ask permission under a flag of truce to bury the dead and care for the injured. By that time the wounded were nearly all beyond the need of medical aid, and the dead had to be interred almost where they fell. The assault on the 3d has been severely criticised by military men. General Martin T. McMahon, in "Battles and Leaders," begins his article on the battle of Cold Harbor with the following statement: "In the opinion of a majority of its survivors, the battle of Cold Harbor never should have been fought. There was no military reason to justify it. It was the dreary, dismal, bloody, ineffective close of the Lieutenant- General's first campaign with the Army of the Potomac, and corresponded in all its essential features with what had preceded it." Grant, in his "Personal Memoirs" (Vol. II, page 276), says: "I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. * * * No advantage whatever was gained to compensate for the heavy loss we sustained. Indeed the advantages other than those of relative losses, were on the Confederate side." After the battle Grant-turned his attention to the plan of effecting a junction with Butler and approaching Richmond from the south side of the James, along the lines suggested by McClellan two years before. The "hammering" process had proved to be too costly and the army settled down to a regular siege of the Confederate capital. The campaign from the Rapidan to the James began with the battle of the Wilderness on May 5, and from that time until June 10, when the movement to the James was commenced from Cold Harbor, the Army of the Potomac lost 54,550 men. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 298-302.
Coleman’s Plantation, near Port Gibson. Mississippi, July 4-5. 1864 52nd U. S. Colored Troops (2d Mississippi) and Mississippi Marine Brigade. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 304.
Columbus, Kentucky, April 11, 1864. 34th New Jersey Infantry and 3d U. S. Colored Troops. About 1 p. m. the pickets, consisting of details of the regiments mentioned, were attacked and driven in by about 50 Confederate cavalry. Two of the Federal force were wounded. The mounted infantry was immediately sent out and pursued the enemy 7 miles, wounding 1 man. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 312.
Cove Point, Maryland, August 22, 1864. Detachment of 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry. This was an attack on 7 men, including a sergeant, who had gone to investigate a case of blockade-running. The men were eating breakfast on the beach when they were fired into by a party of bushwhackers and the sergeant and 2 men fell. The others retreated hastily and on foot, not having time to secure their horses. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 324.
Cow Creek, Kansas, November 14-28, 1864. 54th U. S. Colored troops (2nd Arkansas), and 3d Kansas Indian Home Guards. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 325.
Cunningham's Bluff, South Carolina, November 24, 1863. Detachments Companies E and K, 1st South Carolina Colored Infantry. This command, after successfully liberating some 25 slaves belonging to a Mr. Heyward, was attacked by a superior force of the enemy. Fighting continued for some time before the Union force succeeded in getting off in the boats in which they had come. The Federal report says that several of the Confederates were killed, but Brigadier-General W. S. Walker makes no report of any casualties. The Federals lost 7 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 334.
Dalton, Georgia, October 13, 1864. 44th U. S. Colored Infantry, and Detachments of 57th Illinois Infantry, 7th Kentucky Cavalry and 20th Ohio Battery. The garrison at Dalton. comprising about 750 men, was attacked by a force of 10,000 men under Major-General J. B. Hood. When the Confederates approached the city they sent a summons to surrender, which was refused. Hood then began skirmishing while he posted his artillery of 30 pieces and deployed his troops to surround the town. Colonel Lewis Johnson, commanding the post, then sent 3 officers under flag of truce to Hood and arranged terms of surrender. Nine of the enemy were killed and 20 wounded in the skirmishing. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 342.
Dardanelle, Arkansas, November 29, 1864. Steamer Alamo and Detachment of the 40th Iowa Infantry. The steamer, guarded by 43 men of the 40th Louisiana, under command of Lieut. Fry, was ascending the Arkansas river to Fort Smith. When about 2 miles above Dardanelle some 300 of General Newton's Confederate cavalry suddenly appeared on the high ground on the south side of the river, dismounted and commenced firing. They followed the vessel for 6 miles, keeping up an incessant fire, but the Iowa men. protected by sacks of grain, returned the fire with coolness and deliberation. Upon reaching a bar that was difficult to cross. Fry ordered the boat to be landed on the north shore. The Confederates now demanded a surrender, but it was refused and the firing continued for about an hour, when it ceased. The enemy camped opposite the boat for the night, but early the next morning withdrew. Although the boat was riddled with bullets no one was hurt. The Confederates lost 2 killed. Darien, Georgia, June 11, 1863. According to Confederate reports, two Federal gunboats ascended the Altamaha river and shelled the town of Darien on this date, after which they landed about 200 negro troops, under white officers, and set fire to the town, totally destroying it except a church and two or three small buildings. They then captured a pilot-boat with about 60 bales of cotton on board, and dropped back down the river. Union reports do not mention the incident. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 346.
Davis' Mill, Mississippi, June 11, 1864. 1st Brigade, Infantry Division, Expedition into Mississippi. While repairing the bridge at Davis' mill, which had been partially destroyed by the Confederates, the brigade was fired upon by the enemy and 3 men were wounded. Soon after another attack in front was repulsed, the negro troops in the rear meantime dispersing a party of 150 of Buford's cavalry. When the column again advanced it was fired into, but no execution was done. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 349.
Decatur, Alabama, October 26-29, U. S. Troops of the District of Northern Alabama. About noon of the 26th the advance of Hood's Confederate force then operating in Georgia and north Alabama appeared in front of Decatur, after driving in a Federal scouting party. Late in the afternoon an attack was made on the garrison, but without effect. The 27th was spent by the enemy in intrenching his position. Brisk skirmishing was carried on by the opposing forces all day but no artillery was used. That night under cover of darkness the Confederates in strong force drove in the Union pickets and established a line of rifle-pits within 500 yards of the town. At daylight it was evident that the enemy must be dislodged from that position, as he could cover the guns in the Federal works and render them useless. Accordingly Captain William C. Moore, with detachments of the 18th Michigan, the 102nd Ohio and the 13th Wisconsin infantry, moved out on the extreme right, deployed his men under cover of the river bank, moved quietly up to the open ground and then with a yell charged the flank and rear of the rifle-pits. The Confederates became panic-stricken and fled, only to be met by a galling fire of musketry and artillery from the Union lines. Moore pursued closely until near the Confederate main line, where he halted and commenced retreating, his force having been reduced one-half to guard prisoners. The enemy failed to follow him. While the rifle-pits were being dug on the front during the night the Confederates had posted :i battery of 8 guns on their right. When the fog lifted in the morning Brigadier-General R. S. Granger, commanding the Union forces, sent a section of the ist Tennessee battery to the other side of the river with instructions to enfilade this battery. After the successful sortie of Captain Moore the 14th U. S. colored infantry under Colonel Doolittle charged the battery under cover of the firing of the ist Tennessee and the gunboat Stone River. The result was the capture of 14 prisoners and the spiking of 2 guns. The enemy returned in force and Doolittle was compelled to retire, which he did in good order. During the 28th heavy firing occurred all along the line, but neither force assaulted. The Stone River ran the Confederate battery and took a position above where it could play upon the enemy with its long-range guns. On the morning of the 29th it was apparent that the Confederate force was retreating and the 14th U. S. colored infantry was sent out to reconnoiter. On their return they reported a strong rear-guard the only part of the enemy's force left. At 4 p. m. Granger ordered an attack on the last line of rifle-pits, which resulted in the withdrawal of the last of the Confederates. The Federal loss in killed, wounded and prisoners was 113; that of the enemy in killed, wounded and prisoners was much heavier, probably about 1,000. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 350-351.
Deep Bottom, Virginia, August 13-20, 1864. 2nd and 10th Army Corps and Gregg's Cavalry Division. Early in August General Grant received information from various sources that led him to believe Lee had sent three divisions of infantry and one of cavalry to reinforce General Early in the Shenandoah valley, leaving, according to General Butler's estimate, only 8,500 men to hold the intrenchments north of the James. At noon on the 12th Grant ordered Major-General W. S. Hancock to move with his own corps, the 2nd, the 10th corps, Major-General D. B. Birney commanding, and Gregg's cavalry to the north side of the James at Deep Bottom and threaten Richmond. The movement was almost identical with that of the latter part of July (see preceding article), except Hancock was to embark his corps on steamers at City Point and move up the river to the lower pontoon bridge during the night of the 13th, Birney's corps crossed at the upper bridge and the cavalry at the lower. It was intended to have all the troops on the north side of the James and ready for an advance by daylight on the 14th, but owing to delay in disembarking it was well toward noon when the advance was commenced. The plan was for Birney to attack the enemy on the west side of Four-mile creek at daybreak, and if successful he was to move over the roads leading to Chaffin's bluff and Richmond. Mott's division, as soon as it was disembarked, was to move up the New Market road, drive the enemy into his intrenchments on the west side of Bailey's creek, and farther if practicable. Barlow was to move to the right of Mott and attack the enemy's works near Fussell's mill, and Gregg's cavalry was to cover the right flank. If Barlow succeeded in carrying the lines in his front he was to move to the left and uncover Mott's front, after which the two divisions were to advance on the New Market road and form a junction with Birney. The object of these combined movements was to turn the Confederate position and gain possession of Chaffin's bluff, which would be an important step toward opening the James river to the Federal gunboats. Barlow carried one line, held by dismounted cavalry, and about 4 p. m. assaulted the works near Fussell's mill, but the attack was made with only one brigade and was not a success. His advance was so threatening, however, that the enemy weakened his right to strengthen the line near the mill, and Birney, taking advantage of this, carried a part of the line west of Four-mile creek, capturing 4 guns and a few prisoners. Gregg advanced up the Charles City road and carried a line of rifle-pits, and at night a strong picket line was established along the entire front. During the night the troops were disposed for an attack on the next morning. Birney's command was massed in the rear of Barlow, with instructions to find and turn the Confederate left. The dense woods made a reconnaissance difficult, and the operations of the 15th were begun without knowing just how the enemy was located. Slight skirmishing occurred at several points during the day, but Birney did not come upon the Confederate line until nearly 7 p. m., and as the ground was not favorable for a night attack further operations were postponed until the next day. Early on the morning of the 16th Gregg moved out on the Charles City road and drove the enemy before him across Deep creek, nearly to White's tavern. In a skirmish near Deep creek Confederate General Chambliss was killed. About 10 a. m. Terry's division of Birney's corps carried the works above Fussell's mill, capturing about 300 prisoners. Craig's brigade and the colored troops under Brig-General William Birney made an assault 0n the right and captured the intrenchments, but were unable to hold them. In this action Colonel Craig was killed. About 5 p. m. Gregg was driven from his position on the Charles City road and forced back across Deep creek. When night closed the Federals held only the advanced rifle-pits of the enemy. During the night of the 16th a fleet of steamers came up from City Point to Deep Bottom to convey the impression that the Union forces were withdrawing, in the hope that the enemy would come out of his works and attack, but the ruse was not successful. Nothing was done on the 17th, but about 5 p. m. on the 18th the Confederates sallied out of their works above Fussell's mill and attacked Birney. While the fight was going on Miles, now in command of Barlow's division, struck the enemy on the left flank, driving him in confusion and with considerable loss. The 19th was spent in looking for a weak point in the Confederate line, but none could be found. Grant's information, regarding the number of troops sent to Early, was erroneous, only Kershaw's division having left Richmond, and as soon as Hancock crossed the James, Mahone's division and Hampton's cavalry were sent over from Petersburg to reinforce the lines on the north side of the river. Finding the position there too strong to be carried, Grant ordered Hancock and Birney back to their original positions on the Petersburg lines, and immediately after dark on the 20th the troops were withdrawn, Birney covering the movement. The Union loss in the operations about Deep Bottom was 328 killed, 1,802 wounded and 721 missing. The Confederate loss was not ascertained, Page 355 but it was probably somewhat less, as they fought most of the time behind breastworks. Among their killed were Generals Chambliss and Girardy, both of whom fell on the 16th. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 353-355.
Deveaux Neck, South Carolina, December 6-9, 1864. Unofficial accounts mention engagements on these dates at Deveaux's neck, on the Tillafinney river, at Mason's bridge and Gregory's farm, in which the 26th. 33d, 34th and 102nd U. S. colored troops; 54th and 55th Massachusetts colored infantry; the 56th and 155th New York and 25th and 107th Ohio infantry; the 3d R. I. artillery, and a naval brigade were engaged. The official reports of the war contain no information regarding the affair. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 358-359.
Doboy River, Georgia, November 18, 1862. 1st South Carolina Volunteers. Colonel O. T. Beard of the 48th New York infantry, with 160 South Carolina colored troops, accompanied by the steamers Darlington and Ben DeFord and the Federal gunboat Madgie, made an expedition up this river to some sawmills guarded by a small force of Confederates. He landed 34 men to reconnoiter. As they were crossing the swamp on a narrow causeway the guard fired on them and 1 man was severely wounded. The remainder retreated to the boats, when the artillery of the Darlington commenced shelling the woods where the Confederates were stationed, compelling them to retire. The Federals then carried off about 300,000 feet of lumber and a great part of the machinery of the mills. No casualties were reported on the Confederate side. Dog Walk, Kentucky, October 9, 1862. 32nd Indiana, 1st Ohio, 15th and 19th U. S. Infantry, and a section of Battery H, 5th U. S. Artillery. When a portion of the 2nd division, 1st army corps, was moving out from Lawrenceburg it came upon a body of the enemy about half a mile from camp. Colonel Edwin A. Parrott had no more than deployed his men when the enemy charged up a hill, upon which was posted the ist Ohio. The fire of the battery, however, checked his advance and compelled him to fall back to cover. From this latter position the Confederates advanced a heavy line of skirmishers which drove in the skirmishers of the ist Ohio, but which in turn was driven back, and after 4 hours' fighting the Confederates withdrew. The Federal loss was 5 killed and 8 wounded, while the enemy, though not reporting his loss, left 11 dead and 2 mortally wounded on the field. (Also called Dry Ridge and Chesser's Store.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 360-361.
Dutch Gap, Virginia, September 7, 1864. 4th U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 372.
Eastport, Mississippi, October 10, 1864. 1st Brigade, District of Memphis. As an incident of Forrest's raid into Alabama and Tennessee, the brigade consisting of the 113th and the 120th Illinois and the 61st U. S. colored infantry and Company G, 2nd Missouri light artillery, Colonel George B. Hoge commanding, embarked on transports at Clifton and proceeded up the river to Eastport. As the troops approached the town, the transport Key West, under command of Captain King, went above the landing. Not observing any signs of the enemy. King signaled Hoge to land his men, which the latter at once proceeded to do. Lieuts. Lytle and Boals went forward for the purpose of reconnoitering and about 500 yards from the landing discovered the enemy's pickets. As soon as the troops were all landed a masked battery opened fire on the transports and gunboats accompanying them. One of the gunboats, the Undine, was disabled at the first fire and dropped down stream. Shells struck caissons on the transports Aurora and Kenton, setting fire to both boats, causing great confusion among the reembarking troops and the boat crews. The transports finally pulled out, leaving still on shore about two-thirds of the troops, who marched down stream and were taken aboard later. The Union loss was 18 killed, 31 wounded and 25 missing. The enemy also captured the 4 guns of the battery, 60 small-arms, 20 horses, 4 boat cables and some artillery harness. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 374.
Egypt Station, Mississippi, December 28, 1864. 7th Indiana, 4th and 11th Illinois, 4th and 10th Missouri, 2nd Wisconsin, 2nd New Jersey, 1st Mississippi, and 3d U. S. Colored Cavalry. As an incident of the expedition sent out from Memphis to destroy the Mobile & Ohio railroad, the Union troops attacked the enemy at Egypt Station on the morning of December 28. The Confederate force was about 1.200 strong and consisted of infantry, cavalry and 4 guns mounted on platform cars. Two trains of Confederate troops under Major-General Gardner were in sight when the attack was made, but a Federal force being thrown between them and the stockade, which was taken by assault in 2 hours, they were unable to do anything. The entire garrison, numbering 500, were made prisoners. The casualties are not given, but it is noted that Confederate Brigadier-General Gholson was killed. The Union force also captured or destroyed 300 army wagons, 4.000 new carbines, an immense amount of ammunition, two trains of cars and a large amount of commissary and quartermaster's stores. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 377.
Elrod's Tan-Yard, Alabama, January 27, 1865. Detachments of 68th New York, 18th U. S. Colored Infantry, 1st and 9th Ohio Artillery. The expedition, led by Colonel Felix Prince Salm, came in sight of a portion of Captain Sparks' Confederate company encamped for the night at Elrod's tan-yard about 7 p. m. Salm divided his force to surround and capture the entire party (of about 40), but owing to a misunderstanding only a part of his command heard the order to charge and the larger portion of the enemy managed to escape into surrounding woods. The Union loss was 1 killed, while the Confederates had 1 killed, 8 wounded and 3 taken prisoners. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 380.
Farrar's Plantation, Mississippi, September 22, 1864. Detachments of the 4th Illinois Cavalry, 28th and 29th Illinois, and 71st U. S. Colored Infantry, and the 6th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery. A few days before a foraging expedition had brought in good results from a visit to this section and this was a second expedition ordered by Brigadier-General Brayman. At Farrar's place 51 wagons were loaded with corn, 47 bales of cotton taken, and 143 head of cattle collected, after which the expedition started to return to Natchez. Soon after leaving the plantation a party of Confederates attacked the rear and skirmishing was kept up for about 6 miles. One of the enemy was seen to fall from his horse and it was thought he was killed. Fair's Mills, Arkansas, July 14, 1864. A Battalion of the 4th Arkansas Cavalry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 394.
Five Forks, Virginia, April 1, 1865. 5th Army Corps and Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. Five Forks was about 12 miles in a south-westerly direction from Petersburg, some 4 miles north of west from Dinwiddie Court House, and was so called because roads ran in five different directions; the Ford road, running north and south, crossed the White Oak road, running east and west, the fifth road running southeast to Dinwiddie Court House. Toward the close of March General Grant grew apprehensive that Lee might any night abandon his intrenchments about Richmond and Petersburg, gain the Danville or Lynchburg railroad, and endeavor to form a junction with General J. E. Johnston, whose forces were then opposing General Sherman's army in North Carolina. To prevent any maneuver of this character Grant resolved upon a movement against Lee's right, the objective points being the South Side and Danville railroads, the destruction of which would hold Lee's army at Richmond and ultimately force it to surrender. Orders were issued on the 24th, the movement to begin on the 29th. Major-General Ord, commanding the Army of the James, left the north side of the James river on the night of the 27th, taking with him General Gibbon, with Foster's and Turner's divisions of the 24th corps, Birney's colored division of the 25th, and Mackenzie's cavalry and moved to the left of the Army of the Potomac, relieving the 2nd corps on the evening of the 28th. This movement was made with such secrecy that the enemy did not discover it until April 2. As soon as Ord was in position on the left Grant ordered Sheridan to move out with his cavalry early on the following morning, cross Hatcher's run at Monk's Neck bridge, pass through Dinwiddie Court House and gain Lee's right flank. In support of this movement the 2nd and 5th corps, respectively commanded by Major-General A. A. Humphreys and Major-General G. K. Warren, were to take position on the Vaughan road, extending the line to Dinwiddie. If the Confederates refused to come out and attack, Sheridan was to move against the railroads without delay. The movement began at 3 a. m. on the 29th and that evening the Union army held an unbroken line from the Appomattox river east of Petersburg to Dinwiddie Court House. A heavy rain during the night of the 29th precluded active operations the next day, though Sheridan pushed out Devin's division, which encountered a small force of the enemy and forced it back toward Five Forks. Major Morris, with 150 men of the 5th and 6th U. S. cavalry, pursued this force to within less than a mile from Five Forks, when he was suddenly surrounded by overwhelming numbers and forced to cut his way out. Reinforcements were ordered to him and a second attempt made to occupy the junction of the roads, but the enemy's force was too large. During the day Warren advanced his left across the Boydton road toward Five Forks and also found the Confederates in force in his front, though he was directed to fortify and hold his new position. Humphreys drove the enemy behind his main line on Hatcher's run near Burgess' mill and also along the White Oak road, and extended his line of battle as close to these works as he could without bringing on an engagement. Lee discovered the movement to his right almost as soon as it was commenced, and hurried General Anderson with Bushrod Johnson's division to the right of the Confederate works on the White Oak road. It was this force that Warren met on the afternoon of the 29th. Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry division was moved to Five Forks early on the morning of the 30th and advanced from there toward Dinwiddie Court House. About dark that evening he was joined by the cavalry under Rosser and W. H. F. Lee. Pickett's division of Longstreet's corps was also sent to the right and late on the afternoon of the 30th took position at Five Forks, where it was joined by Ransom's and Wallace's brigades of Johnson's division. Altogether the Confederate general had massed about 18,000 troops on his right against Sheridan. His plan was to sweep the Union cavalry out of the way, get on Warren's left flank, and roll up the Federal line, the troops inside the intrenchments to join the attack in order as the flanking force came in front of their positions. On the morning of the 31st Warren reported that it was possible for him to get possession of the White Oak road, and he was directed to do so. At 9 a. m. Devin was reinforced by Davies' brigade of General Crook's cavalry division, General Merritt assumed command, and the cavalry advanced against Five Forks, while Warren moved against the enemy on the White Oak road. Merritt's advance gained possession of Five Forks, but Warren, instead of advancing with his entire command, sent forward Ayres' division only, which met a heavy resistance and was forced back on Crawford's division. This division also fell back until Griffin's line was reached, when the whole corps was rallied and the enemy repulsed. The Confederates now turned their attention to the cavalry at Five Forks. Merritt's advance was driven back and the enemy advanced by the roads west of Chamberlain's creek against Sheridan at Dinwiddie Court House. In the meantime Crook, with Gregg's and Smith's brigades, had moved to the left. Smith was stationed at one of the fords on Chamberlain's creek and Gregg was sent to a position on the right. Smith dismounted two regiments and sent a battalion of the 1st Maine across the creek to reconnoiter. This battalion was quickly driven back by an overwhelming force, the enemy pursuing in hot haste and forcing a passage of the stream. The two dismounted regiments retired in some confusion, but they were soon rallied, when the whole brigade charged and drove the Confederates back across the creek. They then crossed higher up, struck Davies' brigade, which was forced back on Devin's division. Sheridan sent orders to Merritt to cross over to the Boydton road, come down that road and take place in the line of battle at Dinwiddie Court House. As the enemy followed Merritt his rear was presented to Sheridan, and when the lines were nearly parallel Gibbs' and Gregg's brigades made a gallant attack, forcing the Confederates to abandon their movement, leaving a number of wounded in the hands of the Union troops. In changing front to meet this attack the enemy gave Merritt his opportunity to join Sheridan, and then followed an obstinate and fiercely contested battle for the possession of Dinwiddie Court House. Two divisions of Confederate infantry and practically all their cavalry were unable to force five brigades of Federal cavalry from their position behind some slight breastworks on the open plain in front of Dinwiddie Court House, and shortly after dark the firing ceased, the enemy lying on his arms that night not more than 100 yards in front of Sheridan's position. On the afternoon of the 31st Warren advanced with Griffin's division, supported by portions of Ayres' and Crawford's, with Miles' division of the 2nd corps on the right, and regained the ground lost by Ayres in the morning, after which Griffin attacked with Chamberlain's brigade and drove the enemy from the White Oak road. About 5 p. m. the sound of Sheridan's engagement reached Warren, who immediately ordered Bartlett's brigade to Sheridan's support, with instructions to attack the enemy on the flank. When the position of the Confederate force in front of Sheridan was learned at headquarters, Grant determined to make an effort to cut it off from the main body, and at 9 o'clock that evening Warren was ordered to report to Sheridan and to send Griffin's division at once down the Boydton road to Dinwiddie. Mackenzie's cavalry was also ordered to Sheridan's support. At the time Warren was ordered to report to Sheridan it was expected that his troops would reach Dinwiddie by midnight or a little later. Several messages passed between him and headquarters, in which he was urged to be prompt and move at once, but for some inexplicable reason Griffin did not receive his orders to move until 5 o'clock on the morning of April 1. Sheridan was advised at 10 p. m., on the 31st, of the dispositions of troops to aid him and at 3 a. m. sent the following despatch to Warren: "I am holding in front of Dinwiddie Court House, on the road leading to Five Forks, for three-quarters of a mile, with General Custer's division. Page 402 The enemy are in his immediate front, lying so as to cover the road just this side of A. Adams' house, which leads out across Chamberlain's bed or run. I understand you have a division at J. Boisseau's; if so, you are in rear of the enemy's line and almost on his flanks. I will hold on here. Possibly they may attack Custer at daylight; if so, attack instantly and in full force. Attack at daylight anyhow, and I will make an effort to get the road this side of Adams' house, and if I do you can capture the whole of them. Any force moving down the road I am holding, or on the White Oak road, will be in the enemy's rear, and in all probability get any force that may escape you by a flank attack. Do not fear my leaving here. If the enemy remains I shall fight at daylight." Had Warren reached his assigned position in time to attack simultaneously with Sheridan, there would have been but little chance of escape for the Confederate force at Dinwiddie. Sheridan made his attack at daylight, according to his despatch, thinking that the 5th corps was near enough to strike the enemy in the rear. The Confederate officers had learned that Warren was coming up, and, as soon as Sheridan began his attack, fell back across Chamberlain's creek, not halting until they were behind their works along the White Oak road at Five Forks, where Pickett formed his forces with Corse's brigade on the right, three-fourths of a mile west of Five Forks, then the brigades of Terry, Steuart, Ransom and Wallace in the order named, Wallace's left being refused for about 100 yards to meet any attack coming from the east along the White Oak road. On Corse's right were 3 guns of Pegram's artillery battalion; 3 more were placed at Five Forks between Terry and Steuart, and McGregor's battery of 4 guns was placed on the left. W. H. F. Lee's cavalry division covered the right flank and Munford's, dismounted, was posted on Wallace's left. Sheridan decided to attack the enemy in his intrenchments. His plan was to make a feint of turning Pickett's right flank with Custer's and Devin's cavalry, while Warren was to move up with his entire corps and attack the left flank, the cavalry feint to be made a real attack as soon as Warren became engaged. The divisions of Griffin and Ayres were ordered to halt near the Boisseau house until Crawford could come up, when the corps was to be formed with two divisions in front and one in reserve, and be ready to advance when required to do so. Sheridan's object was either to crush Pickett or cut him off and drive him westward, thus isolating him from the Confederate army at Petersburg. It was a repetition of the maneuver that he had so successfully employed at Fisher's hill, when Early's army was almost completely destroyed. Custer was pushed well out on the western road, Devin advanced on the road running from Dinwiddie to Five Forks, and by noon the enemy's skirmish line had been driven into the trenches. About 1 p. m. Sheridan sent orders to Warren to bring up his infantry, but it was 4 o'clock before his corps was in position to begin the attack. While Warren was getting ready to open the battle Sheridan learned that the left of the 2nd corps had been swung back parallel to and fronting the Boydton road, thus opening a way for the enemy to march down the White Oak road and attack his right and rear. Mackenzie, who had been held near Dinwiddie Court House, was therefore ordered to move up the Crump road, gain the White Oak road, drive back any force he might find there, and then join Sheridan in front of Five Forks. Mackenzie encountered a force on the White Oak road and drove it back toward Petersburg, then countermarched and came up on Warren's right just as that officer was beginning his advance. He then moved to the right of the infantry and gained a position on the Ford road near Hatcher's run, from which he attacked the Confederate flank and rear, capturing a number of prisoners. A little after 4 o'clock Ayres' division of Warren's corps advanced obliquely toward the White Oak road, receiving only a light fire in front, but soon after crossing the road a heavy fire was poured on the left from the short line of intrenchments where Wallace's left was refused. In moving forward the corps had not kept far enough to the left, throwing Ayres in front of the return, where it was intended for Crawford to strike the enemy's line. It was therefore necessary for Ayres to change front to the left. While executing this movement, which was done under fire and in a piece of woods, Crawford lost the connection and Ayres' right flank was thrown in the air. As a result Gwyn's brigade, which occupied the right, became somewhat unsteady. Part of the line gave way and one or two regiments began to retire in disorder, when Sheridan, with some of his staff, rode up to reassure the men and the line was soon reestablished. Concerning the battle at this juncture, Badeau, in his Military History of U. S. Grant, says: "Meantime the fire of Ayres' division was heard by Merritt, and the cavalry promptly responded to the signal for their assault. They had the brunt of the battle to bear, for their attack was directly in front, on the main Five Forks road, and the angle where Ayres joined the cavalry right was the key of the entire position. If this could be gained, Ayres would completely enfilade the enemy's line on the White Oak road, and render the direct assault comparatively easy; while if the rebels held the 5th corps in check, they could probably repulse the cavalry with heavy loss, for their works were strong and difficult to approach in front, and, sheltered by these, they could pour out a deadly fire. It was therefore vital that the rebel flank should be promptly attacked and broken. The burden of this now fell upon Ayres, for Crawford, on the right, had deflected so far from the line pointed out by Sheridan that he was of no use at all at this juncture. After crossing the White Oak road, he failed to wheel to the left, as ordered, and pushed straight for Hatcher's run, leaving, as we have seen, a gap between himself and Ayres. This deflection was occasioned by Crawford's obliquing his line to avoid the fire of the enemy, instead of pushing directly upon the rebel work. Griffin, who was in reserve on the right, naturally followed Crawford for awhile, so that Ayres was left to contend alone with the enemy." Warren was on the right with Crawford, and Sheridan remained with Ayres during the greater part of the battle. Winthrop's brigade was double-quicked to the left of Ayres' line to connect with Devin, and Coulter's brigade—the reserve of Crawford's division— was hurried into the gap on the right. Every one of Warren's staff officers and several of Sheridan's were sent to bring Griffin and Crawford against Pickett's rear. The direction of the two divisions was finally changed to the left, but they did not come up in time to join in the assault until after Ayres had carried the angle. Griffin attacked Ransom's brigade and part of Wallace's, that had formed a new line, behind slight breastworks and at right angles to the old one. After a half an hour of stubborn fighting Gwyn's and Coulter's brigades were sent to Griffin's assistance, the line was carried and the Confederate left was doubled up in confusion. When the battle began Pickett was on the north side of Hatcher's run. He reached the field about the time his left gave way and threw Terry's brigade, commanded by Colonel Mayo, back to the Ford road to check the attack from the rear. Finding that Mayo was unable to maintain his position, Pickett next ordered Corse to form a new line at right angles to the main line of intrenchments to cover the retreat. Mayo began to fall back to this line, but about the time he passed the battery at the junction of the roads some of Merritt's cavalry charged the works there, captured the 3 guns and turned them on the panic-stricken Confederates. Then dashing down the White Oak road the Federal cavalry completely demoralized the enemy and drove him from the field. Pickett himself was almost surrounded while vainly striving to stem the tide. As he galloped away the remnant of what had once been the flower of the Army of Northern Virginia fled in disorder, hotly pursued for 6 miles by Merritt and Mackenzie, a number of the enemy being captured during the chase. The official records of the war give no detailed statement of the casualties at Five Forks. Sheridan's loss was estimated at 700, and Warren reported a total loss of 634 in the 5th corps. The Confederate loss, according to Lee's adjutant-general, was 7,000, most of whom were captured. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 399-404.
Fort De Russy, Louisiana, May 4, 1863. (See Naval Volume.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 415.
Fort De Russy, Louisiana, March 14, 1864. Detachments of the 16th and 17th Army Corps. After the fall of Vicksburg and the other Confederate positions in the vicinity, the attention of the government was directed to the conquest of Texas. The first effort in that direction was the ill-fated Sabine Pass expedition in September, 1863. In March, 1864, a joint movement was started up the Red river, having in view the capture of Shreveport, Louisiana, and a junction at that point or in the vicinity with the troops of General Steele from Arkansas. The effective force of the expedition, all under Major-General Nathaniel P. Banks, consisting of a detachment of the 13th army corps (Brigadier-General Thomas E. G. Ransom, the two divisions (3d and 4th) present being commanded by Brigadier-General Robert A. Cameron and Colonel William J. Landram. Major-General William B. Franklin's corps (the 19th) furnished two divisions, the 1st and 2nd, commanded respectively by Brigadier-General William H. Emory and Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover. The cavalry division was under Brigadier-General Albert L. Lee, and there was some artillery and colored infantry, all the above belonging to the Department of the Gulf. General William T. Sherman furnished from the Army of the Tennessee detachments from the 16th and 17th army corps, under Brigadier-Generals Andrew J. Smith and T. Kilby Smith. These troops were taken to the mouth of the Red river in transports, where the fleet of Adm. Porter was in waiting to cooperate in the movement, and were landed at Simsport. The troops of the Department of the Gulf moved by way of Bayou Teche under orders to unite with the other forces at Alexandria. On the 14th the detachments of the 16th and 17th army corps marched toward Fort De Russy, on the left bank of the Red river, near the little town of Marksville. This fort was discovered to be occupied by a garrison of about 350 men. The 1st and 2nd brigades, 3d division, 16th corps, advanced in line of battle, followed by the 3d brigade. The enemy's artillery opened on the line as soon as it came within sight, but the guns were soon silenced by the skirmishers. About 6:30 p. m. a charge was made and the parapet scaled, when the garrison surrendered. The Union loss was 3 killed and 35 wounded; the Confederate casualties were not reported. The prisoners numbered 319. This affair was the first engagement of the Red river campaign. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 415.
Fort Donelson, Tennessee, October 11, 1864. Detachment of 4th U. S. Colored Artillery. On the morning of this date Lieut.-Colonel Thomas R. Weaver, with a detachment of 85 men, started from Pine Bluff on a recruiting trip. When within 5 miles of Fort Donelson the advance came up with three regiments of Confederate cavalry under Colonel Chenoweth. The Union troops were formed in line of battle on an elevated position, occupied by the house and outbuildings of a farmer, where an attack was repulsed and Weaver, seeing that he was being surrounded, took possession of the buildings. After another fruitless attempt to drive the Federals from the hill, Chenoweth withdrew, having suffered a loss of 20 men killed and wounded. The Union loss was 4 killed and 9 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 420-421.
Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, September 16, 1864. Detachments of 2nd Kansas Cavalry and 79th U. S. Colored Infantry. While guarding a hay party on the prairie 15 miles west of Fort Gibson, Captain Edgar A. Barker, with 125 men, received word of the advance of a Confederate force in the direction of his camp. Drawing his infantry up in line of battle, he moved out with a squad of cavalry and came up with the enemy about 2 miles away. He immediately fell back, thwarting several attempts of the Confederates to cut him off from his main column. The enemy then surrounded the camp and attacked from all sides, their cavalry charging three times, but each time being repulsed. Finding himself about to be overwhelmed, Barker with his cavalry made a dash for liberty, leaving the infantry to fight it out. The Confederates immediately closed in, captured all the white soldiers and killed all the colored troops. Only 15 men in the cavalry division succeeded in getting through, as the Confederates numbered 1,500. The total Federal loss was 40 killed and 66 wounded, missing or captured. The enemy's loss was not reported. All of the equipment of the hay party was taken or destroyed by the enemy. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 424.
Fort Harrison, Virginia, September 29-30, 1864. 10th and 18th Army Corps, and Kautz's Cavalry Division. Fort Harrison was a redoubt on the Confederate line of defenses north of the James river, and about a mile directly east of Chaffin's bluff. A short distance north was another redoubt known as Fort Gilmer, both forts being connected with the works at Chaffin's bluff by lines of intrenchments, while an advanced line, held by the enemy's pickets, extended northeast from Fort Harrison. On September 28 Major-General David B. Birney, commanding the 10th corps, was directed to cross the James river at the upper pontoon bridge at Deep Bottom (q. v.) and advance upon Richmond by the Newmarket and Darbytown roads. Kautz, with his cavalry division, was to move on the latter road in support of Birney's movement, and as a diversion Major-General E. O. C. Ord, with the 18th corps, was directed to cross the river by a pontoon 2 miles below Dutch gap and move up the Varina road against the Confederate works about Chaffin's bluff. The movement was made secretly, and by daylight on the 29th both corps were north of the James. The Confederate pickets and skirmishers were driven in and about 7:30 the head of Ord's column reached the open fields of the Chaffin farm in front of Fort Harrison, when the enemy immediately opened fire with artillery from the fort and the adjacent trenches. Ord reconnoitered the ground and made dispositions to attack. Stannard's division was directed to push forward on the left of the road, advance at quick time across the open ground, and at the double-quick upon arriving at the foot of the hill in front of the fort, while Heckman's division was to move to the right of the road and attack in front. Heckman went too far into the woods and when the time came for him to assault his brigades were scattered and could not be brought up in time to be of service. Stannard's men, Burnham's brigade in the lead, advanced across the open ground in the face of a severe fire, swept over the parapet, and after a sharp encounter carried the fort, capturing 16 guns and a number of prisoners. The guns were turned on the works to the right and left of the fort and two lunettes, about 600 yards apart, with 6 more pieces of artillery, fell into the hands of the Federals. Ord then tried to form his men to swing round inside the trenches toward Fort Gilmer, but in the excitement and confusion, and owing to the heavy loss in brigade and regimental commanders, the attempt did not succeed. Burnham had been killed early in the assault and two other officers that succeeded him in command of the brigade were wounded in quick succession. While trying to rally his men Ord was severely wounded and the command of the corps devolved on General Heckman, who was just about to attack Fort Gilmer. Ord had been instructed to occupy such works as he took, after which he was to push on with any spare force he had, and attack the works toward Richmond. These instructions were imparted to Heckman when he assumed command, and he afterward made an attack on Fort Gilmer, but as that work had been strongly reinforced the assault was repulsed with considerable loss. The 10th corps, Foster's division in advance, moved forward on the Kingsland road from Deep Bottom about 6 a. m. and shortly after 9 o'clock met the enemy s pickets along the line of works at the junction of the Mill and New Market roads. Part of the 142nd New York, under Lieut.-Colonel Barney, was deployed as skirmishers, and closely followed by the remainder of the 1st brigade, charged the works, driving the enemy in some confusion back to Laurel Hill Church, where the Confederates had a battery of 12-pounders in position. This battery was quickly dislodged and Foster formed his command along the New Market road, his right resting at the church, where he remained until about the middle of the afternoon, when the corps was ordered to make an assault on Fort Gilmer and the main line of works as far as New Market road. In this assault the only Union troops that reached the fort were those belonging to the colored brigade. They jumped into the ditch and endeavored to scale the parapet by climbing upon each other's shoulders, but their determined efforts were finally defeated and the brigade driven back with severe loss. The corps then fell back to Laurel hill, where it intrenched. During the night of the 29th and the forenoon of the 30th large parties of Stannard's division worked arduously to made Fort Harrison an enclosed work in anticipation of an attempt to recapture it. General Ewell, who was in command of the Confederate forces on the north side of the James, was joined by General Lee soon after Stannard's successful assault on the fort, and steps were at once taken to recover the lost position. Troops were hurried over from the south side of the river and by daylight on the 30th ten brigades were concentrated near Fort Gilmer ready for an attack on Stannard. About 2 p. m. the enemy opened fire with 12 pieces of artillery on Stannard's center and left and Anderson, now in command of Longstreet's corps, advanced on the right with the brigades of Law, Anderson, Bratton, Colquitt and Clingman. Stannard ordered his men to reserve their fire until the Confederates came out of the chaparral, when the whole line opened a most effective fire, which drove the enemy back to the cover of the underbrush. At this unfortunate juncture it was discovered that the Federal supply of artillery ammunition was exhausted and Stannard ordered the guns to be removed by hand. Two subsequent attacks were repulsed in like manner and the day closed with the Union troops still in possession of the fort. The Federal loss during the several engagements about Fort Harrison, Fort Gilmer, New Market Heights, Laurel Hill Church, etc., was 383 killed, 2,299 wounded and 645 missing. The "Medical and Surgical History of the War" gives the total number of Confederates killed and wounded at 2,000. In addition to this list of casualties about 300 were captured, together with 22 pieces of artillery and a large quantity of ammunition, camp equipage, etc. Although the expedition was not entirely a success its principal object—that of preventing Lee from sending reinforcements to Early in the Shenandoah valley—was accomplished. Had it not been for Heckman's unfortunate error in taking position and the destructive fire of the Confederate gunboats in the river just at the time Ord was trying to rally his men for an attack on Fort Gilmer, that work would have undoubtedly fallen into the hands of the Union forces, thus opening the way for an entry into Richmond. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 425-426.
Fort Jones, Kentucky, February 18, 1865. Detachment of 12th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery. While on their way from Fort Jones to Colesburg to draw rations 3 members of this troop were attacked and killed by Magruder's band of guerrillas. Sue Mundy's force meanwhile had ridden to within 200 yards of the fort, drawing the fire of the garrison. This skirmish was an incident of the raid of guerrilla bands in the vicinity. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 428.
Fort Pillow, Tennessee, April 12, 1864. Detachments of 6th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery, 13th Tennessee Cavalry and 2nd U. S. Colored Light Artillery. As an incident of Forrest's raid into Tennessee his force marched on the morning of the 12th to attack the garrison at Fort Pillow. The pickets were driven in with little trouble, but the Confederates found the Union troops ready in the rifle-pits. After repulsing three cavalry attacks of the enemy, the Federals withdrew into the fort. A demand for surrender was sent in by Forrest and upon its being refused an attack was made, but without success. Another demand for surrender was made and refused and about 4 p. m. the fort was stormed and carried by the Confederates. No quarter was given and the colored troops were indiscriminately slaughtered. Of the original garrison of 500 over 350 were killed, the majority after the fort had been carried. The enemy's losses were not reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 431.
Fort Powhatan, Virginia, May 21, 1864. 22nd U. S. Colored Troops, and 3d Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery. At noon of the 21st a detachment of Confederate cavalry made a demonstration in front of Fort Powhatan, on the south bank of the James river, 25 miles below Richmond. Reinforcements were hurried from City Point but before they arrived the enemy had been dispersed by a few well directed shots of the artillery. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 421.
Fort Smith, Arkansas, August 24, 1864. 16th U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 433.
Fort Wagner, South Carolina, July 10-11, 1863. Troops under Major-General Q. A. Gillmore, Department of the South. In this attack on the Confederate fortifications about Charleston Harbor the capture of Charleston was the ultimate object in view. A complete blockade of the harbor was important. The capture of Morris island, thereby enabling blockading vessels to lie inside the bar, even without occupying the waters of the inner harbor, would secure that end. In the opinion of the naval authorities at Washington, Fort Sumter was the key to the position. The barbette fire of Sumter was dreaded because of the comparative vulnerability of the monitors' decks to falling missiles. The stronghold demolished or its efficiency destroyed, monitors and ironclads could remove channel obstructions, gain control of the harbor and reach the city. It was therefore determined to attempt the destruction of Fort Sumter unless it should be necessary to detach troops from the Atlantic coast to reinforce Banks at Port Hudson. Briefly stated, the plan of attack was as follows: (i) To capture the south end of Morris island; (2) to lay siege to and secure Fort Wagner, a heavily armed earthwork of strong plan and relief, near the north end of the island, 2,600 yards from Fort Sumter; Cummings point would fall with Fort Wagner. (3) From the position thus secured, to demolish Fort Sumter and with a strong artillery fire to cooperate with the fleet whenever it should be ready to move in. (4) The monitors and ironclads to enter, remove the channel obstructions, pass the batteries on James and Sullivan's islands and reach the city. The plan for occupying the south end of Morris island comprised three distinct operations: (1) A real attack from Folly island to be made a surprise if possible. (2) A demonstration in force on James island by way of the Stono river to prevent reinforcement of the enemy on Morris island from that quarter and, if possible, to draw a portion of the Morris island garrison in that direction. (3) The cutting of the Charleston & Savannah railroad at Jacksboro by ascending the South Edisto river, in order to delay reinforcements from Savannah, should the real attack be postponed or prematurely divulged. The attempt to cut the railroad was entrusted to Colonel Higginson, of the 1st South Carolina colored infantry, who with 250 officers and men of his regiment and a section of the 1st Conn, battery under Lieut. Clinton, was sent on July 9 from General Saxton's command at Beaufort for that purpose. He was accompanied by the armed steamer John Adams, the transport Enoch Dean and the tug Governor Milton. This movement signally failed, with a Federal loss of 3 killed and 2, including Higginson, wounded. Two field pieces were lost and the Governor Milton was burned to prevent its capture by the Confederates. On the afternoon of the 8th Brigadier-General Terry's command of about 3,800 men proceeded up the Stono river and confronted the enemy on James island. The immediate effect of this demonstration was to draw off a portion of the Confederate force on Morris island. Folly island had been occupied by the Federals under General Vogdes since early in April. Batteries had been constructed on the north end of the island, where 32 rifled guns and 15 mortars had been placed in position with skill and secrecy. This artillery was in command of Lieut.-Colonel R. H. Jackson. The south end of Morris island was protected by a number of batteries, most of which had only 1 gun each, but that was of heavy caliber. These batteries were covered in the rear by an extensive series of rifle-pits. Under instructions given him by General Gillmore July 9, General Strong that night embarked all his infantry except six companies of the 48th New York, in row boats, near the southwestern extremity of Folly island. Convoyed by 4 howitzer boats, he proceeded, at 1 a. m. on the 10th, up Folly river and Folly Island creek and thence to a point in Light House inlet a mile northwest of the Federal masked batteries at the northern extremity of Folly island, arriving there just before daybreak. The boats kept close to the east side of the creek and were screened by marsh grass from the enemy on Morris island. The Federal batteries opened fire shortly after daylight. The crushing effect of a concentrated and well directed fire of artillery has seldom been better illustrated than in this action. At the beginning the Confederates were so bewildered that they were unable to serve their guns effectively. The incessant rain of shot and shell drove their artillerists from their posts, killing and wounding many. The Confederate infantry were prevented from taking position in the rifle-pits about 800 yards in advance of the Federal batteries and did not attempt to occupy them until Federal troops were disembarked on Morris island. Soon after the first fire from the batteries, Lieut. Bunce opened fire from the howitzer boats on the nearest works of the enemy. About 6 o'clock a line of skirmishers approached from the Federal rear in the direction of Secessionville. The flotilla dropped down the inlet and was assailed by the Morris island batteries with no loss except that of one launch. At 7 a. m. Strong was signaled by Gillmore to land and assault the enemy's works. Four companies of the 7th Connecticut, led by Lieut.-Colonel Rodman, immediately landed at the extremity of the Confederates' extensive series of rifle-pits opposite the left of the Federal batteries. They were followed by four companies of the 48th New York under Lieut.-Colonel Green; the 9th Maine under Colonel Emery; the 3d New Hampshire under Colonel Jackson and the 76th Pennsylvania under Colonel Strawbridge. This main column drove the enemy's infantry out of the rifle-pits, while the 6th Conn, under Colonel Chatfield having passed along the entire front of the enemy's line and effected a landing, was forming on the southeastern point of the island, constituting alone the Federal right column of assault. Under a lively discharge of shell, grape and canister, the two columns now moved forward, converging toward the works nearest the southern extremity of the island. They marched along the ridge and eastern coast of the island, capturing successively the eight batteries of 1 heavy gun each occupying the commanding point of that ridge and the two batteries which together mounted three 10-inch sea coast mortars. All of this ordnance was fit for service. The head of the column was halted within musket range of Fort Wagner, to which the enemy had retreated. Meanwhile, as soon as the troops had disembarked, the boats were sent across the inlet to the northern point of Folly island and had brought thence, the 7th New Hampshire, the remainder of the 48th, and all of the 100th New York The promptness of this reinforcement was remarkable. Including 11 commissioned officers, 150 prisoners, and 5 stands of colors, were taken, with much ammunition, camp equipage and several horses and mules. Owing to the excessive heat and the fatigue of the men an assault on Fort Wagner was not ordered that day. On the morning of the 11th a column of assault was formed, consisting of companies A, B, I and K of the 7th Connecticut, the 76th Pennsylvania, and the 9th Maine, the 3d and 7th New Hampshire being held in reserve. The assault was made at daybreak. The four companies of the 7th Conn, deployed in advance, supported by the Pennsylvania, and Maine regiments, each in close columns of divisions, The Connecticut men were ordered to move steadily forward until the pickets fired, then to follow them close and rush for the works. They were not more than 500 yards from the works when they started and had not gone far when the pickets fired. Then they made the rush, but before they reached the outer work, they received a murderous fire from protected riflemen, though encouraged by their officers, they reached the outer work and Lieut.-Colonel Rodman led his men to the top of the parapet, where under a heavy fire of both artillery and musketry some of them bayoneted two of the enemy's gunners. But just at this time the enemy opened simultaneously along his whole line at a range of some 200 yards which caused the 76th Pennsylvania to halt and lie down on the ground. Though they remained in that position but a few moments and afterward moved gallantly forward, some of them even to the ditch, that halt cost the Federals the battle, for the interval was lost and the remnant of the four Connecticut companies was driven from the parapet. The whole column, including the 9th Maine, which had reached the ditch on the left, gave way and retreated from the field. The Federal loss in the attack on Morris island July 9 was 106 killed, wounded and missing; in the assault on Fort Wagner, 339. Only 88 of the 191 officers and men of companies A, B, I and K, 7th Connecticut, remained. The Confederate loss in the two engagements was 303 (See also Naval Volume.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 435-438.
Franklin, Mississippi, January 2. 1865. Detachments of the 4th Illinois and 3d U. S. Colored Cavalry. As an incident of the expedition from Memphis to destroy the Mobile & Ohio railroad, Colonel E. D. Osband, commanding the 3d brigade, on learning that a force of Confederates was at Goodman Station, started in that direction. When about half a mile out of Franklin his advance guard of the 3d U. S. was attacked, but the charge was repulsed and the Confederates driven back to a stretch of timber surrounding a church. After a determined resistance they were forced to abandon this position, cross a small stream and fall back upon the main body, under General Wirt Adams. The colored troops followed but were driven back across the bridge in confusion. The arrival of the Illinois regiment just at this moment prevented the enemy making a flank movement and cutting off the advance guard from the rest of the detachment. After some desultory firing both parties withdrew. The Union casualties amounted to 4 killed, 7 wounded and 2 missing. The Confederate loss was not reported but the report of the Union commander estimated it at 50. Osband captured 7 prisoners. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 438-439.
Ghent, Kentucky, August 29, 1864. 117th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 466.
Glasgow, Missouri, October 15, 1864. U. S. Troops under Colonel Chester Harding, Jr. As an incident of Price's Missouri expedition an attack on Glasgow was planned by the Confederate leaders. General Shelby's brigade was to open on the town from the south bank of the river in order to cover the real assault, which was to be made from the east by General Clark with his own brigade and Jackman's. The Federal garrison consisted of detachments of the 43d Missouri and 62nd U. S. colored infantry, the 9th Missouri state militia and the 13th Missouri and the 17th Illinois cavalry, all under command of Colonel Chester Harding, Jr., of the 43d Missouri At daylight on the 15th Shelby opened on the town with his artillery, but for some unknown reason Clark's command did not get within striking distance until 2 hours later, the garrison in the meantime preparing to meet it . There was no artillery in the town and the enemy was thus enabled to get within 40 yards of the Union works. The fighting was continuous and brisk until about 1:30 p. m., when Harding, realizing that it would be useless to resist the charge which the Confederates were about to make, sent out a flag and asked Clark for his terms of surrender. On receiving the answer the garrison capitulated. The Confederates took some 500 prisoners and a quantity of quartermaster's supplies. The Union casualties were 11 killed and 32 wounded. The enemy's loss was not reported but in killed and wounded was about double that of the garrison. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 467-468.
Harrisburg, Mississippi, July 14-15, 1864. Right Wing, 16th Army Corps. On July 13 the cavalry of the expedition to Tupelo under Major-General Andrew J. Smith occupied Tupelo. As soon as this fact was ascertained by Smith he parked his train 2 miles west of Tupelo, at the same time forming line of battle at Harrisburg with the 3d division on the left of the road and the 1st division on the right, with a front of 2 brigades and 2 brigades in reserve. The colored brigade was placed in the rear of the 3d division, facing the left flank to assist the cavalry in protecting the train. Early on the morning of the 14th the Confederates opened the engagement by an attempt to secure a commanding position on the Union left. The 3d division was advanced and with the colored brigade easily drove the enemy from the hill. At 7:30 a. m. the enemy advanced in line on the right of the 3d division on the Pontotoc road. The Federal skirmishers were driven in and the enemy was allowed to get within 100 yards of the main line before a gun was fired. Then the whole 1st brigade of the 3d division rose, fired a volley and charged with the bayonet, driving the Confederates from the field. They rallied, however, at the edge of the timber slightly to the right of where they had assaulted, and supported by the rest of Forrest's available force returned to the attack. The point of the 2nd assault was the front of the 1st division, and they moved in 3 lines under cover of the fire of 7 pieces of artillery. As they approached their lines lost all semblance of organization and became a huge mass, with no skirmish or reserve force. When within canister range the 1st division batteries opened upon them, and for 2 hours the fight raged at that point, when Brigadier-General Joseph A. Mower moved forward with the 1st division about a quarter of a mile and drove the Confederates from the field. Until dark there was sharp skirmishing, though Mower's advance had put a stop to the hard fighting of the day. During the night an attempt was made to turn the Federal left, the skirmishers being driven in, but the Confederates were met and repulsed by the 2nd and 3d brigades of the 3d division and the colored brigade. It was apparent next day that the Union troops would have to abandon the pursuit of Forrest because of the shortage of rations. Accordingly at noon the retrograde movement was commenced. As the troops left the eminence on the left of the line the Confederates occupied it and were attempting to place a battery in position on it when 2 regiments of the colored brigade and 2 brigades of the 1st division charged and drove them from the hill, following nearly a mile. When the column reached Old Town creek the 1st division, which had just taken the advance, was attacked by about 1,000 Confederates. Mower sent out a brigade which drove the enemy from his position and about a mile to the rear. The Federal casualties in the expedition to Tupelo, in which the Harrisburg engagement was the only affair of any consequence, were 77 killed, 559 wounded and 38 captured or missing. Forrest reported his losses at 153 killed, 794 wounded and 49 captured or missing. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 487-488.
Harrodsburg, Kentucky, October 31, 1864. 5th U. S. Colored Cavalry. Harrodsburg, Kentucky, January 29, 1865. Bridgewater's Kentucky Scouts. A dispatch from Brigadier-General S. S. Fry from Camp Nelson, under date of January 30, says: "J. H. Bridgewater overtook 40 guerrillas in Federal uniform 5 miles west of Harrodsburg yesterday evening. Killed and captured 12." The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 488.
CYCLOPEDIA OF BATTLES, Continued
Hickory Station, Arkansas, April 2, 1865. Detachment of 112th U. S. Colored Infantry. Captain Richard C. Custard, in charge of a train guard of 19 men, reports that a band of 25 Confederates tore up the rails for some distance and then attacked his command but were repulsed with the loss of 1 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 499-500.
Holly Springs, Mississippi, August 27-28, 1864. 14th Iowa and 11th U. S. Colored Infantry, and 10th Missouri Cavalry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 501.
Horse Landing, Florida, May 23, 1864. U. S. S. Columbine. As the steamer was returning down the St. John's river from a trip to Volusia, with 2 officers and 25 men of the 35th U. S. colored infantry on board, in addition to her regular crew, she was fired upon at Horse landing by the sharpshooters of the 2nd Florida cavalry and a section of artillery. After an engagement of 45 minutes her rudder was shot away and she became unmanageable. The white flag was then run up, the crew and troops surrendered as prisoners of war and the vessel was burned. The Confederate casualties were not reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 504.
Indian Bay, Arkansas, April 13, 1864. 56th U. S. Colored Troops (3d Arkansas). The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 509.
Indiantown, North Carolina, December 18, 1863. Detachment of 5th U. S. Colored Infantry. Four companies of colored infantry while out on a reconnaissance were fired upon from a dense thicket of pines about 400 yards from the road. Two companies were sent out to flank the attacking party, but before they reached the pines the Confederates had fled. Two of the reconnoitering party were killed and 2 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 510.
Island Mound, Missouri, October 27-29, 1862. Detachment of the 1st Kansas Colored Infantry. The detachment, numbering about 240 men and commanded by Major Richard G. Ward, left camp on the 26th and the next day crossed the Osage river at Dickey's ford. Near this point the Confederates had a force of about 800 men concentrated on Osage island, and the next two days were spent in desultory skirmishing, Ward trying to draw the enemy from the island and the Confederates trying to draw the Union men from the cover of the timber. While Ward's men were at dinner on the 29th his pickets were driven in, and suspecting that the enemy was taking position behind the eminence known as Island mound, Lieut. Gardner was sent with 25 men to dislodge him. Gardner succeeded in doing this, but on attempting to return to camp was charged by about 400 of the enemy and his little band would have been annihilated but for the timely arrival of Captain Armstrong with reinforcements. Even then it was an unequal contest and the remainder of the Union troops were speedily brought into action, with the result that the Confederates were repulsed. The Federal loss was 8 killed and 11 wounded. The enemy's loss was not ascertained, but it must have been considerably more. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 512.
Island No. 65, Mississippi River, May —, 1863. Detachments of 1st Indiana Cavalry, 36th Iowa Infantry and 2nd Arkansas Colored Infantry. The steamboat Pike, with a force of troops under Lieut.-Colonel George W. De Costa, while proceeding down the Mississippi for the purpose of recruiting for the 2nd Arkansas, was fired into near Island No. 65. Brisk fighting ensued for a time, one of the 2 Confederate pieces of artillery being silenced by a howitzer on board the vessel. Captain Waters of the Union command was slightly wounded, and 2 contrabands received death wounds. The Confederates are thought to have lost 10 or 15 in killed or wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 512.
Island No. 76, Mississippi, January 20, 1864. Battery E, 2nd Colored Light Artillery. Island No. 82, Mississippi, May 18, 1863. Detachment of 4th Division, 16th Army Corps. While proceeding on transports, 15 miles from Greenville and near Island No. 82, the advance boat of the transport fleet was fired into from the Mississippi side of the river, wounding 14 men of the 3d la. A force was immediately landed and started in pursuit, but the chase was futile. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 512
Jacksboro, Tennessee, March 14, 1862. (See Big Creek Gap.) Jack's Fork, Missouri, August 14, 1863. Detachment of 5th Missouri State Militia Cavalry. Sergt. Thomas J. McDowell with 26 men started in pursuit of a band of guerrillas who had taken 3 Union men prisoners. After a chase of two days the band was overtaken and 2 of its members captured, but the captured prisoners were not released. Jackson, Louisiana, August 3, 1863. Detachments of 3d Massachusetts Cavalry, 2nd Vermont Battery, 1st, 3d and 6th U. S. Colored Infantry. On Sunday, August 2, Lieut. M. Hanham with about 325 men left Port Hudson for the purpose of collecting negroes for the 12th regiment of infantry, Corps d'Afrique, then being mustered. On Monday, after collecting about 50, his command was attacked by the Confederates under Logan. After several hours of fighting, Hanham started to withdraw, but the loss of a guide caused him to take a wrong road and he was obliged to abandon his artillery. The enemy followed closely for some hours. The Federal loss was 78 in killed, wounded and missing, 6 wagons and 24 mules. The enemy lost 12 in killed and wounded and 6 prisoners. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 516.
Jacksonville, Florida, Expedition to, March 23-31, 1863. 8th Maine, detachments of 6th Connecticut and Higginson's Colored Troops. On March 13 the expedition embarked at Beaufort for Jacksonville on board the transports Delaware and General Meigs and ten days later landed at Jacksonville, having been delayed by rough weather. On their arrival a Confederate battery mounted on a platform car was shelling the town, but was soon forced to retire by the gunboat Norwich, which accompanied the expedition. The following night the enemy again approached with the same battery and shelled the city. On Wednesday, the 25th, a portion of the troops made a reconnaissance in force for about 4 miles along the railroad, driving in the Confederate pickets. On the same day the platform car battery appeared a third time and shelled the city, killing 2 men and wounding 1, the only casualties suffered by the Union troops during the operations. Colonel Montgomery with 120 men, accompanied by gunboat Paul Jones, made a successful expedition, 75 miles up the Page 521 river to Palatka, capturing 15 prisoners and a quantity of cotton, rifles, horses, etc., and on the 31st the expedition re-embarked on the transports and left Jacksonville. A portion of the city was fired before the troops left. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 520-521.
Jacksonville, Florida, May 1, 1864. 7th U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 521.
Jacksonville, Florida, May 28, 1864. 7th U. S. Colored Troops. Jacksonville, North Carolina, January 20, 1862. 3d New York Cavalry. While on a reconnaissance from New Berne to Pollocksville this regiment, under Colonel Simon H. Mix, found its progress checked at Big Northeast run, five miles from Jacksonville, by the destruction of the bridge. On the opposite side and about 100 yards from the stream was a stockade from which the Confederates poured a volley on the Federal advance. A howitzer was brought to bear, the stockade was cleared, the bridge repaired and the command crossed. The Union loss in the affair was 1 killed and 1 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 521.
John’s Island, South Carolina, July 4-10, 1864. U. S. Troops of the Department of the South under Brigadier-General John P. Hatch. During the day of the 4th Hatch moved to a point on Aberpoolie creek. The following day he marched to a point opposite Battery Pringle. leaving four battalions of the 26th U. S. colored infantry at the camp of the night before and two companies at the forks of the Bugbee bridge and Legareville roads. The last named companies were attacked and driven back on the four battalions guarding the camp. On the 6th the enemy appeared on the Federal front with 3 guns and shelled their camp, but the next day the tables were turned, as Brigadier-General Rufus Saxton, with the 26th, attacked the enemy's line of rifle-pits and drove both the artillery and the infantry from the field. The Confederates were strongly reinforced and shelled the Union camp with an 8-inch and a 10-inch columbiad during the day of the 8th. At daylight on Saturday morning (the 9th) the enemy drove in the Federal pickets and at 5:45 a. m. attacked the line, but was easily repulsed. At 6:30 a. m. he attacked with a larger force, but was again repulsed. During the remainder of the day the Confederates kept quiet. The Federal loss was 11 killed and 71 wounded. The Confederate casualties amounted to over 100 killed and wounded. Hatch withdrew his forces from the island on the 10th. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 524.
Johnsonville, Tennessee, September 25, 1864. 13th U. S. Colored troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 525.
Jones' Bridge, Virginia, June 23, 1864. 1st Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. As the army was moving toward the James river after the battle of Cold Harbor, Torbert's cavalry division was sent on the 22nd to secure Jones' bridge over the Chickahominy river. The bridge was secured without opposition and Devin's brigade was thrown forward to picket the Long Bridge and Charles City roads. Early on the morning of the 23d the pickets on the Long Bridge road were attacked by Chambliss' brigade of Confederate cavalry and driven in. General Getty, who had succeeded General Abercrombie in command of the force at White House, sent six companies of colored troops to reinforce the pickets and these checked the enemy's advance until Devin could bring up the remainder of his brigade, when Chambliss was driven back to a strong position behind some barricades. Devin attacked his works and again forced him back with some loss in killed and wounded. The Union loss was 6 killed. 9 wounded and 1 missing. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 528.
Lake Providence, Louisiana, May 27, 1863. 47th U. S. Colored Troops. Lake Providence, Louisiana, June 9, 1863. 1st Kansas Mounted Infantry, 16th Wisconsin and 8th Louisiana Colored Infantry. An attack was made on the afternoon of the 9th by the Confederates, 600 in number, on the post of Providence. The enemy was first met 6 miles from town by two companies of the 1st Kansas, which slowly fell back to within a mile of the post, where the whole garrison had been drawn up in support. The mounted infantry crossed the bridge and then destroyed it. The Confederates brought up a 6-pounder piece and opened fire, but the effective fire of the Federal skirmishers soon silenced it. A heavy force of skirmishers finally caused the Confederate withdrawal to Floyd at dusk. The Federal loss was 1 man wounded; the Confederate, 2 killed and 5 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 549.
Lake Providence, Louisiana, June 28, 1863. U. S. Forces under Brigadier General Hugh T. Reid. C. A. Dana, assistant secretary of war, reporting to the head of the department from near Vicksburg says: "A rebel force, said to be 6,000 men, with 2 guns, attacked General H. T. Reid at Lake Providence on the 28th, and was repulsed. Reid had three regiments of white troops." Lake Saint Joseph, Louisiana, June 4, 1863. Major-General Richard Taylor, of the Confederate army, reports that a company of his command attacked the camp of a company of colored Federal soldiers on the morning of the 4th. The white captain and 12 negroes were killed and the remainder captured. Union reports make no mention of the affair. Lake Verret, Louisiana, January 30, 1865. Detachment of 1st Louisiana Cavalry. Captain John H. Alexander reports that his company (K of the 1st Louisiana cavalry) came upon a party of Confederates just as they were embarking in a fishing boat on Lake Verret. One volley was fired by the enemy, wounding a sergeant. It is not known whether any of the Confederates were killed or wounded by the Union fire on the boat. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 549.
Little Rock, Arkansas, May 28, 1864. 57th U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 567.
Liverpool Heights, Mississippi, February 3-4, 1864. Detachments of 11th Illinois Infantry, 8th Louisiana Colored Infantry and 1st Mississippi Colored Cavalry. During the Meridian expedition a side expedition, under Colonel James H. Coates, was sent up the Yazoo river in transports under escort of gunboats. On the morning of the 3d the Confederates opened on the gunboats with 2 pieces of field artillery and Coates immediately landed 250 men of the 11th Illinois , who steadily advanced up the hill and drove the enemy from his first position. By the time he had rallied, one wing of the 8th Louisiana colored infantry had been thrown to the right of the Illinois detachment, but the Federals were hard pressed and it became necessary for the balance of the 11th Illinois to go to the assistance of the troops already engaged. About this time the Confederates opened fire from 2 pieces of artillery and attempted to outflank the Union men, a movement which was frustrated by Coates bringing the remainder of his force into action. A charge by the first battalion of the 11th Illinois was repulsed and the Confederates in a countercharge were themselves repulsed and driven back over the hill on which the contest had been Waged. The following day as the transports were passing the heights the Confederates on the opposite shore opened upon them with musketry. The troops on board returned the fire from behind hastily constructed barricades of boxes, etc., and the enemy was driven away. The Confederate casualties were not ascertained; the losses on the Union side were 6 killed, 26 wounded and 8 captured or missing. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 567-568.
Madison Station, Alabama, November 26, 1864. 101st U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 581.
Marianna, Florida, September 27, 1864. Detachments of 2nd Maine, 1st Florida cavalry and 82nd and 86th U. S. Colored Infantry. As an incident of an expedition from Barrancas the Confederates at Marianna were drawn up in front of the town to oppose the Federal advance. A charge by a battalion of the 2nd Maine was repulsed but a second attempt by a larger force succeeded in breaking the enemy's line. The Union troops then entered the town, where some 80 prisoners, 95 stands of arms, a considerable quantity of commissary stores and 400 head of cattle were taken. The Federal loss was 15 or 20 killed and wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 585.
Mitchell's Creek, Florida, December 17, 1864. 82nd U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 605.
Moscow, Tennessee, June 15, 1864. 55th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 615.
Mount Pleasant Landing, Louisiana, May 15, 1864. Detachments of 118th Illinois Cavalry, 67th and 78th U. S. Colored Infantry and 12th Massachusetts Battery. The guard of 21 men of the 67th U. S. infantry was overpowered by a superior Confederate force, which attacked the stockade at daylight. Upon the alarm being given, portions of the 118th Illinois cavalry, the 78th U. S. infantry and the 12th Page 620 Massachusetts battery immediately started in pursuit and overtook the enemy 3 miles out. After a sharp fight all but 2 of the prisoners were recaptured. The righting at the stockade and on the road resulted in a loss to the Confederates of 6 killed, several wounded and 2 captured. The Federal troops had 1 man killed. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 620.
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, September 3, 1864. 100th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 625.
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, December 24, 1864. 12th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 626.
Nashville, Tennessee, May 24, 1864. 15th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 628.
Nashville, Tennessee, December 15-16, 1864. U. S. Forces commanded by General George H. Thomas. After the battle of Franklin on November 30, Major-General George H. Thomas, commanding at Nashville, ordered General Schofield to fall back to that city, where Thomas had been industriously engaged for some time in collecting an army of sufficient strength to drive the Confederate forces under General Hood out of the State of Tennessee. General A. J. Smith, with three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, had been expected to arrive from Missouri in time to reinforce Schofield at Franklin, but he did not reach Nashville until the last day of November. At the time of the battle of Nashville Thomas' army numbered altogether about 55,000 men, though less than 45,000 were actually engaged. The 4th corps, temporarily commanded by Brigadier-General T. J. Wood, General Stanley having been wounded at Franklin, was composed of three divisions commanded respectively by Brigadier-Generals Nathan Kimball, W. L. Elliott and Samuel Beatty; the 23d corps, under Major-General John M. Schofield, consisted of two divisions, the 2nd commanded by Major-General D. N. Couch and the 3d by Brigadier-General J. D. Cox; (the 1st division of this corps was absent on detached duty); three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, (Major-General A. J. Smith's command) the 1st commanded by Brigadier-General John McArthur, the 2nd by Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard, and the 3d by Colonel J. B. Moore; the provisional detachment of Major-General J. B. Steedman, consisting of one division under the immediate command of Brigadier General Charles Cruft; the post of Nashville, troops of the 20th corps, under command of Brigadier-General John F. Miller; the quartermaster's division, commanded by Bvt. Brigadier-General J. L. Donaldson; the cavalry corps under command of Bvt. Major-General J. H. Wilson, consisting of Croxton's brigade of the 1st division, the 5th division commanded bv Brigadier-General Edward Hatch, the 6th division under command of Brigadier-General R. W. Johnson, and the 7th division under Brigadier-General J. F. Knipe. With this force of infantry and cavalry were 40 batteries of light artillery. Hood's army was organized as follows: Lee's corps, Lieut.-General S. D. Lee, was composed of the divisions of Johnson, Stevenson and Clayton; Stewart's corps, Lieut.-General A. P. Stewart, consisted of the divisions of Loring, French and Walthall; Cheatham's corps, Lieut.-General B. F. Cheatham, included the infantry divisions of Cleburne and Bate, and the cavalry division of General J. R. Chalmers. General Cleburne was killed at the battle of Franklin and his division was commanded at Nashville by Brigadier-General J. A. Smith. The strength of Hood's army has been variously estimated at from 30,000 to 39,000 men of all arms. Colonel Stone, who went into the subject somewhat exhaustively, fixes it at 37,937. Nashville is situated on the south side of the Cumberland river. In December, 1864, several turnpike roads radiated from the city between the southeast and southwest, all running through a country somewhat broken. Six miles due south are the Brentwood hills, along the east side of which ran the Franklin pike, while the Hillsboro pike ran along the western base. Two creeks rise in these hills, their sources being less than a mile apart. Brown's creek flows northeast, emptying into the Cumberland above the city, and Richland creek flows northwest into the river some distance below. Along the ridge between the two streams ran the Granny White pike. The Nolensville pike entered the city from the southeast, crossing Brown's creek not far from the Chattanooga railroad, while north of the railroad, and between it and the river, ran the Murfreesboro, Chicken and Lebanon pikes. Another range of hills near the city had been fortified by order of Thomas. Hood followed Schofield from Franklin and during the afternoon of December 2 his cavalry engaged the Union skirmishers in front of Nashville. The next day the whole Confederate force appeared, the Federal skirmishers were crowded back, and Hood proceeded to form his main line on the hills immediately south of the Union fortifications. The morning of the 4th found his salient on Montgomery hill, within 600 yards of the Union works. Cheatham's corps on the right occupied a position behind Brown's creek, extending from the railroad to the Franklin pike; Stewart's corps formed the center and lay across the Granny White pike, while Smith's corps on the left extended the line to the Hillsboro pike. From there to the river below, across the Hardin and Charlotte pikes, and from Cheatham's right to the river above the cavalry was posted. Having taken this position Hood did not attack the works in front of the city, but spent several days in reducing some of the smaller outlying garrisons and blockhouses along the railroad. This gave Thomas time to complete his preparations, to mount and equip his cavalry and thoroughly organize his troops. General Grant in Virginia and the authorities at Washington grew impatient at the delay, fearing that Hood would eventually elude Thomas, pass round Nashville, and invade Kentucky as Bragg had done in the summer of 1862. But Thomas was guarding the fords and bridges with his cavalry, and the gunboats of Fitch's squadron were patrolling the river above and below the city. General Lyon, with a detachment of Confederate cavalry, did succeed in crossing at Clarksville on the 9th, with a view to destroying the Louisville & Nashville railroad, but Thomas despatched General E. M. McCook, with two brigades of the 1st cavalry division, to look after Lyon, so that the latter's expedition proved fruitless. Grant, however, was of the opinion that Thomas should have given battle before the enemy had time to recover from the blow received at Franklin, and on December 2 he telegraphed Thomas to leave the defenses of Nashville to Donaldson's division and attack Hood at once. Although this telegram was not an official order, its language was scarcely less imperative, but Thomas was so anxious to increase his force of cavalry, and so certain that he could do so within a few days, he decided to wait until he could attack with every assurance of success. In reply to Grant's telegrams Thomas said: "I now have infantry enough to assume the offensive, if I had more cavalry; and will take the field anyhow as soon as the remainder of General McCook's division of cavalry reaches here, which I hope will be in two or three days. We can get neither reinforcements nor equipments at this great distance from the North very easily, and it must be remembered that my command was made up of the two weakest corps of General Sherman's army, and all the dismounted cavalry except one brigade; and the task of reorganizing and equipping has met with many delays, which have enabled Hood to take advantage of my crippled condition. I earnestly hope, however, in a few more days, I shall be able to give him a fight." This explanation was evidently not satisfactory, either to Grant or to Sec. of War Stanton, and Thomas was again urged to attack the enemy in his front. It was a case of the man at the desk a thousand miles away trying to direct the operations of the man in the field. The record of Thomas at Mill Springs and Chickamauga ought to have been a sufficient guarantee of his ability to command an army or to plan a campaign, yet that record availed him nothing now, when the secretary of war and the lieutenant-general of the Federal armies were "spoiling for a fight." On the 6th Grant sent another telegram to Thomas, directing him to attack at once, and to wait no longer to remount his cavalry. To this Thomas replied that he would make the necessary disposition and attack, "agreeably to your orders, though I believe it will be hazardous with the small force of cavalry now at my command." This elicited a sarcastic telegram from Stanton to Grant, in which he said: "Thomas seems unwilling to attack because it is hazardous, as if all war was any but hazardous. If he waits for Wilson to get ready, Gabriel will be blowing his last horn." To such sneers as this the hero of Chickamauga paid no attention, but went quietly ahead completing his arrangements for a battle that was to forever destroy the usefulness of Hood's army as a factor in the War of the Rebellion. By the 9th he was ready to attack, but a severe storm came on, covering the ground with a thick coating of sleet, over which it was impossible to move troops with that celerity so essential to success in making an assault on an enemy. On the 9th General Halleck telegraphed him as follows: "Lieut.-General Grant expresses much dissatisfaction at your delay in attacking the enemy." To this Thomas replied: "I feel conscious I have done everything in my power, and that the troops could not have been gotten ready before this. If General Grant should order me to be relieved, I will submit without a murmur." He seems to have had a premonition of what was about to occur, for on the same day Grant asked the war department to relieve Thomas and turn over the command of the army at Nashville to Schofield. When notice of this order was received at Nashville, Thomas called a council of his corps commanders and asked their advice, informing them that he was ordered to give battle immediately or surrender his command. The council Was unanimous in the opinion that it was impracticable to make any attack until the ice should melt. The order relieving Thomas was then suspended, but on the 13th Grant again became impatient and ordered General Logan to proceed at once to Nashville, and the next day started for that place himself to assume command of the army in person. By noon on the 14th the ice had melted sufficiently to permit the movement of troops. At 3 p. m. Thomas called together his corps commanders and laid before them his plan of battle for the following morning. Steedman was to make a feint against the enemy's right, while Smith, with the three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, was to form his troops on the Hardin pike and make a vigorous assault on Hood's left. In this movement Smith was to be supported by Wilson, with three divisions of cavalry, and one division of cavalry was to be sent out on the Charlotte pike to clear that road of the enemy and keep watch on Bell's landing. Wood was directed to leave a strong skirmish line in his works from Lawrens' hill to his right, form the remainder of the 4th corps on the Hillsboro road to support Smith's left, and at the same Page 631 time move against the left and rear of the salient on Montgomery hill . Schofield, after leaving a strong line of skirmishers in the trenches from Lawrens' hill to Fort Negley, was to move with the rest of the 23d corps and cooperate with Wood, protecting his left against any attack by the enemy. The troops under Donaldson, Miller and Cruft were to occupy the inner line of works and guard the approaches to the city. At 4 a. m. on the 15th everyone within the Federal works was awake, and at daylight the several commands began to move to their assigned positions. A dense fog hung over the field during the early morning hours, completely concealing the movements of the Federal troops. Each officer seemed to feel the injustice of the imputation cast on Thomas, and all now moved as if determined to vindicate the valor of the Army of the Cumberland and the honor and judgment of its commander. At 6 o'clock Steedman moved out on the Murfreesboro pike and 2 hours later began his demonstration against Cheatham's right. This demonstration was so vigorous that it was virtually an assault. The roar of his artillery and the rapid fire of his musketry soon drew Hood's attention to that part of his line. Reinforcements were hurried to Cheatham and Steedman withdrew his men after they had carried part of the enemy's intrenchments, as they were subjected to an enfilading fire and the object of the feint had been gained, though toward noon Colonel Thompson, with three regiments of colored troops assaulted and carried the left of the front line of Confederate works on the Nolensville pike, holding his position there until the next morning. Smith had to move farther than anticipated, and the movements of his men were retarded by the fog and mud, so that it was 10 o'clock before he reached the first of the detached redoubts which Hood had built between his left flank and the river. This was between the Hardin and Hillsboro roads and was manned by a detachment of Walthall's infantry, with 4 pieces of artillery. Hatch and McArthur opened fire on it with their batteries, Coon's cavalry brigade dismounted and charged, carrying the redoubt and capturing the guns. At the same time McArthur charged from another direction and as the enemy was retiring captured 150 prisoners. The captured redoubt was under the fire of another and stronger one, and the two commands now turned their attention to its reduction. Again Coon's brigade, armed with repeating rifles, advanced up the hill, firing as they went, while McArthur was in such close support that the Confederates saw they were doomed to defeat and made the attempt to abandon the redoubt. Just then McArthur ordered a charge, which was successfully made, and 250 prisoners were added to those already taken. In the meantime Hatch had engaged a portion of French's division near Richland creek and driven it back beyond the Hardin house, where Colonel Spaulding, with the 12th Tennessee cavalry made a brilliant charge, capturing 43 prisoners and the headquarters train of Chalmers' division. As soon as Wood heard the sound of Smith's guns, he moved against Montgomery hill, swinging to the left as he advanced in an effort to uncover the enemy's flank. At 1 p. m. Post's brigade of Hearty's division dashed up the hill and over the intrenchments. He was promptly supported by the rest of the division, and the enemy's salient was in possession of the Federals. Wood then threw his reserve brigade of each division to his right and engaged the enemy with his entire corps. This movement of the 4th corps to the right caused Thomas to order Schofield to the right of Smith. In executing this movement Couch's division pushed beyond the second captured redoubt and carried the enemy's line on a. range of hills parallel to the Granny White pike. Cox's division moved st1ll farther to the right, driving the Confederates from the hills along Richland creek. As Schofield was thus moving to the right Smith bore to the left, assaulted Walthall's division behind a stone wall near the Hillsboro road, driving Reynolds' brigade on the left in confusion, and finally routed the entire division. At sunset the whole Confederate army had been driven from its original line and forced back to the Brentwood hills. During the night Hood formed a new line with his right resting on Overton's hill near the Franklin pike and extending from there along the base of the Brentwood hills, his left being refused a little west of the Granny White pike. The Union forces bivouacked on the field, and Thomas gave orders for each corps to move forward at 6 o'clock the next morning, not halting until the enemy should be met. If Hood showed a disposition to accept battle a general attack was to be made, but if he should retreat the whole army was to be pushed forward in pursuit. The battle on the 16th was opened by the advance of the 4th corps on the Franklin pike. The enemy's skirmishers were driven back and Wood pressed forward to the main line of works on Overton's hill. Steedman came up on the Nolensville road and formed on Wood's left, while Smith connected with Wood's right, forming a continuous line of battle. Schofield occupied a position facing east, perpendicular to Smith's line, and Wilson, on the right of Schofield, was directed to gain the enemy's rear with his cavalry. By noon Wilson had reached the rear and stretched his line across the Granny White pike. Thomas then ordered an assault on Overton's hill, in the hope of gaining the Franklin road, thereby cutting off the last avenue of retreat. Morgan's brigade of Steedman's command, with the left brigades of the 4th corps, moved forward to the assault, advancing in the face of a heavy fire of infantry and artillery until near the crest, when a line of reserves arose and opened such a destructive fire that the column was compelled to fall back. The heaviest losses sustained by the Union army was in this attack on Overton's hill. Immediately following Wood's repulse here Smith and-Schofield moved against the enemy's works in their front, carried everything before them, broke the line in a dozen places, captured all the artillery and several thousand prisoners. At the same time Wilson attacked the enemy in the rear, clinching his possession of the Granny White pike and completely shutting off retreat by that road. Wood and Steedman, hearing the shouts of victory on their right, now made another assault on Overton's hill, and although they were met by the same heavy fire as before, the onset was irresistible. As the Federal lines advanced the enemy broke in confusion, leaving all his artillery and many prisoners in the hands of the victorious assailants. On through Brentwood pass the Confederates fled, a disorganized mob, closely pursued by the 4th corps for several miles, or until darkness put an end to the chase for that day. The pursu1t was continued for ten days, but owing to the delays encountered m crossing Rutherford's creek and Duck river, both swollen by recent rains and the bridges destroyed, Hood got so far in advance that he crossed the Tennessee river at Bainbridge on the 26th and the chase was abandoned. The Union loss in the battle of Nashville was 387 killed, 2,562 wounded, and 112 missing. No detailed report of the Confederate losses was made. Hood reached Tupelo, Mississippi, with about 21,000 men. In his report of the campaign he says: "The official records will show that my losses, including prisoners, during the entire campaign do not exceed 10,000 men." On the other hand Thomas officially reports the capture of 13,189 prisoners, and it is known that the Confederate loss in killed and wounded at the battle of Franklin alone was about 5,000, to say nothing of Nashville and the other engagements of the campaign. In addition to the prisoners reported by Thomas, the Union army captured 72 pieces of artillery, and a large number of battleflags. Notwithstanding Grant's severe criticisms of Thomas' delay, he sent a telegram congratulating him on his victory, and Sec. Stanton ordered a salute of 100 guns to be fired on the 16th to celebrate the event. General Cullum, in speaking of the battle of Nashville, says: "The best tactical battle of the war, so decisive in results, was the last and crowning glory of Thomas' campaigns; but it sufficed to stamp him as one of the foremost soldiers of the great civil contest, a general who had never been defeated, and one whose victories had placed him among the greatest heroes of the Republic." The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 628-633.
Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, Tennessee, December 2-5, 1864. Detachments of the Army of the Cumberland. As the Confederates under General Hood were advancing upon Nashville, they made several attacks on the garrisons at the various blockhouses along the line of the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad. Blockhouse No. 2, located 5 miles from Nashville, was garrisoned by Lieut. George D. Harter and a small detachment of the 115th Ohio infantry. On the morning of the 2nd a force of the enemy, most of whom wore the Federal uniform, began surrounding the stockade. Before the movement was completed a train came up from Murfreesboro, having on board the 44th and part of the 14th U. S. colored infantry. While the train was still on the Mill creek trestle it was fired upon by the Confederate battery, disabling the locomotive and injuring several men Colonel Lewis Johnson, commanding the colored troops, hurried his men to the blockhouse, where they received ammunition from Harter and joined in the defense of the post. From 10 a. m. until dark an incessant fire of artillery was kept up by the enemy, nearly 500 rounds of solid shot from 10 and 20-pounders being discharged against the garrison. Several times the fire from the blockhouse compelled the enemy to change the position of his guns, but at dark the building was in a state of wreck . The north wing was destroyed, the west wing badly damaged, the main support of the roof had been shot away and the other supports were much weakened. Under the circumstances Harter decided to evacuate the stockade, and accordingly at 3 a. m. on the 3d quietly withdrew and marched with his own detachment and the colored troops to Nashville, where they arrived safely about daylight. The Union loss in this action was 12 killed, 46 wounded and 57 missing. No. 1 blockhouse, 4 miles from Nashville, garrisoned by a few of the 115th Ohio, under Lieut. J. N. Shaffer, was attacked on the morning of the 3d by artillery. The firing lasted all d-.y and five times the Confederates sent in a flag of truce to demand a surrender, but each time it was refused. Toward evening the ammunition of the garrison was exhausted and Shaffer was unable to continue the fight, so there was nothing left for him but to surrender. On the same day blockhouse No. 3, near Antioch, commanded by Captain D. N. Lowrey, was attacked by a large force of the enemy. Artillery was brought to bear on the garrison and the cannonade was kept up for 36 hours, during which time no less than 90 shots from 10 and 20-pounder guns struck the stockade. At the end of that time, as the enemy showed no signs of withdrawing, Lowrey surrendered the garrison. The blockhouse at Overall's creek, about 4 miles north of Murfreesboro, was attacked on the 4th by Bate's division, with several pieces of artillery. General Rousseau sent General Milroy, with the 8th Minnesota, 61 st Illinois and 174th Ohio, from Murfreesboro to the relief of the garrison. The timely arrival of this reinforcement enabled the garrison to hold its position, as Bate was driven off with a loss of several in killed and wounded and about 20 prisoners. Milroy stated the total number of his casualties as 64, many of whom were only slightly wounded Four miles below Murfreesboro was blockhouse No. 7, garrisoned Dy Company E, 115th Ohio, commanded by Lieut. H. H. Glosser. This post was attacked on the 4th by General Forrest, with a large force of cavalry and artillery. Of the 76 artillery shots fired at the blockhouse, 32 struck it, though the structure was but slightly damaged. In his report of the affair Glosser says: "General Forrest sent in a flag of truce four times, demanding the surrender of this house, promising to treat me well, and threatening to burn me with Greek fire it I refused. I resolved to believe nothing but such things as I could see; and as I could not see the Greek fire, I thought I would wait until I did." Forrest finally withdrew, but left some sharpshooters, who kept the garrison hemmed in for thirteen days. No casualties here, either during the attack or the siege. General George H. Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, sent out an order on the 4th to evacuate all the blockhouses between Nashville and Murfreesboro. As soon as this order was received at Murfreesboro couriers were started to notify the commanders of the blockhouses. Sergt. William McKinney, commanding at No. 4, received the order on the 5th, and was preparing to carry it out, when he was attacked by overwhelming numbers and compelled to surrender. Nos. 5 and 6, commanded respectively by Captain W. M. McClure and Lieut. J. S. Orr, received the order late on the 4th and evacuated early the next morning, just as straggling parties of the enemy had began to make their appearance. Both garrisons were compelled to move by circuitous routes, but reached Murfreesboro that afternoon without casualty. At blockhouse No. 9, near Bellbuckle, the Confederates appeared and sent in a flag of truce to Lieut. M. S. Hurd, the commander of the garrison, demanding a surrender. Hurd replied: "If you want this blockhouse, come and take it." The enemy evidently had no artillery here, and after firing a few volleys of musketry withdrew. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 633-634.
Natchez, Mississippi, November 11, 1863. 58th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 634.
Natchez, Mississippi, November 11, 1863. 58th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 634.
Natural Bridge, Florida, March 6, 1865. 2nd and 99th U. S. Infantry, Colored. At daylight Major Benjamin Lincoln with two companies of the 2nd U. S. colored infantry drove the advanced pickets of the Confederates over the Natural bridge, further pursuit being stopped by a deep slough. Learning that there was no other way of crossing it was determined to force a passage and while three companies attempted a direct assault three others were to attempt to turn the Confederate right. The enemy fled from their works on Lincoln's approach, and again the slough stopped further progress. No casualties were reported. The affair was one of the incidents of the operations about Saint Mark's. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 635.
Olustee, Florida, February 20, 1864. Florida Expedition. About 3 p. m. the advance of the expedition, Colonel Guy V. Henry's brigade of cavalry, came upon the Confederate pickets somewhat to the east of Olustee. They were soon driven back to their supports, which opened fire, when a portion of the 7th Connecticut cavalry was deployed as skirmishers and a battery placed in position to develop the Confederate force and position. It was the intention of Brigadier-General Truman Seymour, commanding, to engage the enemy in front with artillery, meanwhile throwing out a brigade to fall upon the Confederate left. The disposition was accord1ngly made, the cavalry skirmishers called in and the 7th New Hampshire deployed in their places, but the troops were hardly in position before the New Hampshire regiment broke and fled in confusion. The 8th U. S. colored infantry, moving into the same position, also broke and fled after its colonel had been killed. The 54th Massachusetts colored infantry, then occupied the position and the fighting continued sharp until dark, the whole Federal force except the cavalry being actively engaged. After dark Seymour withdrew, abandoning 6 pieces of artillery. His losses were 1,800 in killed, wounded and missing, and 39 horses. The Confederate casualties were about 250 killed and wounded. (Sometimes called Ocean Pond.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 657-658.
Owensboro, Kentucky, August 27, 1864. 108th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 660.
Owensboro, Kentucky, September 2, 1864. Lieut.-Colonel John C. Moon, of the 118th U. S. colored infantry, commanding the post of Owensboro, reports under date of September 17: "On the second day of the present month this town was visited by a band of guerrillas, who murdered 3 U. S. soldiers after they had surrendered, and 1 citizen who had once been an officer in the Federal army." The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 660.
Pascagoula, Mississippi, April 9, 1863. 74th U. S. Colored Infantry. Colonel N. W. Daniels, with a detachment of 180 men, embarked on the transport General Banks at Ship Island for an attack upon Pascagoula. After landing, taking possession of the place and hoisting the American flag, Daniels was attacked by some 300 Confederate cavalry and a company of infantry, which he repulsed with a loss of but 2 killed and 5 slightly wounded. The Confederate loss was 20 killed, a large number wounded, and 3 taken prisoners. Their colors were also lost. Learning of reinforcements coming to the enemy's aid, Daniels withdrew to his transport about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The gunboat Jackson, accompanying the expedition, fired a shell by mistake into the Union troops, killing 4 men and seriously wounding 5 others. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 666.
Petersburg, Virginia, June 9, 1864. Detachment, Army of the James. Brigadier-General August V. Kautz with the cavalry division, in what was to be a joint movement on Petersburg, assailed and carried the first line of the Confederate intrenchments by dismounting his men and slowly advancing until the enemy was obliged to retreat. The men were then remounted and started for the city, but before reaching it a large ravine had to be crossed. While Kautz was moving down this he was fired on by the Confederate artillery and musketry and after waiting for some time for the infantry under Major-General Q. A. Gillmore to come up, he withdrew, having lost 4 killed, 26 wounded and 6 captured or missing. Gillmore's command, through some misunderstanding did not advance to support Kautz, but during the day skirmished with the enemy in his works on another side of town. In the fighting there Gillmore lost 25 in killed and wounded. Petersburg, Virginia, June 15, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Army of the Potomac and Army of the James. When the Army of the Potomac began the campaign from the Rapidan to the James on May 4, 1864, General Butler, with the Army of the James, was directed to move against Richmond by the south bank of the James river, and General Hunter was to move up the Shenandoah Valley, "destroying, as far as practicable, railroads that could be used as lines of supplies to the enemy, and also the James river and the Kanawha canal." After the battle of Cold Harbor, on June 3, Grant resolved to transfer the field of operations to the south side of the James, and on the 5th he sent a despatch to General Halleck, chief of staff, in which he stated: "My idea from the start has been to beat Lee's army if possible north of Richmond; then after destroying his lines of communication on the north side of the James river to transfer the army to the south side and besiege Lee in Richmond, or follow him south if he should retreat. * * * Once on the south side of the James river, I can cut off all sources of supply to the enemy except what is furnished by the canal. If Hunter succeeds in reaching Lynchburg, that will be lost to him also. Should Hunter not succeed, I will still make the effort to destroy the canal by sending cavalry up the south side of the river with a pontoon train to cross wherever they can." Grant had now adopted practically the same plan that had been proposed by McClellan two years before. In June, 1862, McClellan said: "The superiority of the James river route as a line of attack and supply is too obvious to need exposition," and again in August, when the authorities in Washington were needlessly alarmed for the safety of the national capital, he telegraphed General Halleck: "Here is the true defense of Washington. It is here, on the banks of the James, that the fate of the Union should be decided." In view of the final success of the army under Grant these words are prophetic. The siege of Petersburg was also the siege of Richmond, for with the fall of the former the latter was doomed. From Richmond the James river flows south in almost a straight line for 10 miles, when it turns toward the southeast and after a sinuous course receives the Appomattox at City Point. Petersburg is located on the Appomattox, 10 miles above its mouth and 22 miles south of Richmond. The two cities were connected by the Richmond & Petersburg railway. From Petersburg the South Side railroad ran west along the bank of the Appomattox to Lynchburg; the Weldon railroad ran south and the Norfolk southeast. A short line also connected Petersburg with City Point. Directly across the James from Richmond was the village of Manchester, from which the Richmond & Danville railroad ran west along the south bank of the James river, while along the north bank of that stream was the Kanawha canal, mentioned by Grant in his despatch to Halleck. To cut these lines of commun1cation was the first object of the Federal commander. About half way between Petersburg and City Point are the Point of Rocks and Broadway landing on the Appomattox. From this point to the Dutch Gap bend on the James the distance in a straight line is about 3 miles. The peninsula enclosed by the two rivers below this line is known as Bermuda Hundred, which had been occupied by Butler early in May and a line of works constructed across the neck of the peninsula. This position was a strong one for defense, but General Beauregard, commanding the defenses of Petersburg, threw up a line of works immediately in Butler's front, thus preventing his further advance and bottling him up on the peninsula, where he remained until the Army of the Potomac moved to the south side of the James. On June 9, Kautz charged and carried a portion of the Petersburg works, but not being supported by the infantry was unable to hold them, though he brought out 40 prisoners and 1 piece of artillery when he withdrew. The withdrawal of troops from Cold Harbor began on the 10th. Shortly after dark on the 12th the 18th corps, the last to leave the trenches, took up the march to White House landing on the Pamunkey river, where the men were embarked on transports, and by sunset on the 14th the corps joined Butler at Bermuda Hundred, near the junction of the James and Appomattox rivers. The other corps crossed the Chickahominy and marched across the country, striking the James river in the vicinity of Malvern hill. By the 20th of June Grant had about 110,000 men in front of the Petersburg and Richmond intrenchments. His forces were organized as follows: The Army of the Potomac, Major-General George G. Meade, commanding, consisted of the 2nd, 5th, 6th and 9th corps of infantry and the cavalry corps. The 2nd corps was commanded by Major-General Winfield S. Hancock and was composed of three divisions, the first under command of Brigadier-General Francis C. Barlow, the 2nd under Major-General John Gibbon, and the 3d under Major-General David B. Birney. The 5th corps, commanded by Major-General Gouverneur K. Warren, embraced four divisions, respectively commanded by Brigadier-Generals Charles Griffin, Romeyn B. Ayres, Samuel W. Crawford and Lysander Cutler. The 6th corps. Major-General Horatio G. Wright commanding, included three divisions, the 1st commanded by Brigadier-General David A. Russell, the 2nd by Brigadier-General George W. Getty, and the 3d by Brigadier-General James B. Ricketts. Major-General Ambrose E. Burnside was in command of the 9th corps, which was composed of four divisions respectively commanded by Brigadier-Generals James H. Ledlie, Robert H. Potter, Orlando B. Willcox and Edward Ferrero, the last named being composed of colored troops. The cavalry corps was under command of Major General Philip H. Sheridan, and was made up of three divisions, the 1st commanded by Brigadier-General Alfred T. A. Torbert, the 2nd by Brigadier-General David McM. Gregg, and the 3d by Brigadier-General James H. Wilson. With the 2nd corps was the artillery brigade of Colonel John C. Tidball; Colonel Charles S. Wainwright commanded the artillery brigade of the 5th corps, and Colonel Charles H. Tompkins of the 6th, while the artillery of the 9th was distributed among the several divisions. Captain James M. Robertson's brigade of horse artillery was attached to Sheridan's command. The Army of the James, Major-General Benjamin F. Butler commanding, was made up of the 10th and 18th infantry corps, the cavalry division under Brigadier-General August V. Kautz, the siege artillery under Colonel Henry L. Abbot, and the naval brigade under Brigadier-General Charles K. Graham. The 10th corps, commanded by Brigadier-General William H. T. Brooks, included the three divisions commanded by Brigadier-Generals Alfred H. Terry, John W. Turner and Orris K. Ferry. The 18th corps, commanded by Major-General William F. Smith, embraced the three divisions under Brigadier-Generals George J. Stannard, John H. Martindale and Edward W. Hinks. In addition to the regular organizations named there were some unattached troops. Early on the morning of June 13 Lee discovered that the Federal troops in his front had been withdrawn, and immediately put his own army in motion for the Richmond and Petersburg intrenchments. The Confederate works about the two cities are thus described by Hotchkiss in the Virginia volume of the Confederate Military History: "At this time, Beauregard's left rested on the navigable Appomattox, about one mile north of east from Petersburg. * * * On his right, Anderson, with the First corps, extended the Confederate line for some 3 miles to the southward, in front of Petersburg, crossing the Norfolk & Petersburg railroad in the vicinity of the Jerusalem plank road, thence westward for some 2 miles; the Third corps, under A. P. Hill, extended the Confederate right, on the south of Petersburg, to the Weldon & Petersburg railroad. Pickett's division took up the line on the west side of the Appomattox and extended it north to the James, at the big bend opposite Dutch gap. The fortifications on the north of the James, from Chaffin's bluff northward, along the front of Richmond, were held by batteries and by local troops in command of Lieut.-General R. S. Ewell. Subsequently the Confederate works were extended to the southwest of Petersburg for more than 10 miles to beyond Hatcher's run, until Lee's line of defensive works, consisting of forts and redoubts connected by breastworks and strengthened by all means known to the art of war, extended for nearly 40 miles." According to the same authority, "Lee had, in his 40-mile line, for the defense of Richmond and Petersburg, some 54,000 men, the remaining veterans of the Army of Northern Virginia, and of the department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, Beauregard's army." From official sources it is learned that on June 30 Lee's forces numbered 54,751 men, which was gradually increased until on December 20 he had 66,533. During the same period the Union army had lost in killed, wounded and missing 47,554 men, but recruits had been brought in until on December 20 Grant had 110,364 men of all arms in front of the Confederate works. About 4 a. m. on June 15 Smith's corps and Kautz's cavalry left Broadway landing for an assault on Beauregard's works. Kautz soon met the Confederate skirmishers and at Baylor's farm, about 4 miles from Petersburg, a force of infantry and artillery was found occupying a line of rifle-pits. Hinks' division of colored troops made a vigorous attack, dislodged the enemy and captured 1 piece of artillery. Smith then advanced about a mile and a half to the Jordan farm, where his entire front was subjected to an artillery fire that drove the Union batteries from their position. Some delay was incurred in reconnoitering, but at 7 p. m. the divisions of Brooks and Hinks pushed forward and carried the works, capturing over 200 prisoners, 4 guns, with horses, caissons and ammunition, several stands of colors and the intrenching tools. About the same time Martindale's division carried the works between Jordan's house and the Appomattox, capturing 2 pieces of artillery and equipments complete. Hancock was directed on the evening of the 14th to hold his corps in readiness to move, but he was delayed in waiting for rations from City Point until 10:30 a. m. on the 15th, when the -command moved without the rations. Owing to an incorrect map l1e was unable to join Smith until after the action at Jordan's was over. At 8 o'clock that evening Burnside started the 9th corps to reinforce Smith and Hancock, and at 10 o'clock the next morning his command went into position on Hancock's left. Hancock was placed in command of all the troops and ordered to make a general assault at 6 p. m. Before that hour Egan's brigade of Birney's division assaulted and carried a redoubt, known as redan No. 12, on Birney's left . In the attack at 6 o'clock redans Nos. 4, 13 and 14, with their connecting lines of breastworks, were carried, but with considerable loss to the assailants. At dawn on the 17th Potter's division surprised the enemy in the works on the ridge near the Shand house, captured 4 guns, 5 stands of colors, 600 prisoners and 1,500 stands of small arms. This was accomplished without a shot being fired, the bayonet alone being used. The Confederates were asleep with their arms in their hands, but Potter's men moved so quietly, and at the same time so swiftly, that they were over the works before the alarm could be given. Those captured surrendered without resistance and the others fled precipitately to an intrenched position along the west side of Harrison's creek. Later in the day this line was attacked by Willcox, but owing to a heavy enfilading fire of artillery from the left, and the lack of proper support, the assault was repulsed. Hartranft's brigade went into this action with 1,890 men, of whom but 1,o50 came back. In the meantime Warren's corps had come up and taken position on the left of Burnside. From prisoners Meade learned the character of Beauregard's intrenchments and the strength of his force, and ordered an assault by the whole line to be made at daylight on the morning of the 18th, hoping to carry the works before Lee could send reinforcements. When the line advanced on the morning of the 18th it was found that the enemy had evacuated the trenches held the day before and now occupied a new line some distance farther back toward the city of Petersburg. It was also discovered that Field's and Kershaw's divisions had arrived during the night and were already in position to meet the assault. On account of the change in the enemy's position and the nature of the ground over which the Federal troops had to advance, the attack was postponed until 12 o'clock. The 2nd corps then made two attacks on the right of the Prince George Court House road, but both were repulsed. Burnside encountered some difficulty in driving the Confederates from the railroad cut, but finally succeeded and established his corps within a hundred yards of the enemy's main line. Warren's assault was also unsuccessful, though some of Griffin's men fell within 20 feet of the enemy's works. Martindale's division carried a line of rifle-pits, but made no attack on the main line. The positions gained by the several commands were then intrenched and the siege of Petersburg was begun in earnest. From that time until the fall of the city on April 2, 1865. there was almost daily skirmishing at some point along the lines in front of Petersburg, with more serious engagements on the Jerusalem plank road, at Deep Bottom, along the Weldon, South Side and Danville railroads, Reams' Station, Yellow Tavern, Globe Tavern, Dinwiddie Court House, Fort Harrison, Chaffin's farm, Fair Oaks, Hatcher's run, Five Forks, Sailor's creek, and a number of minor skirmishes, each of which is herein treated under the proper head. In Potter's division of the 9th corps was the 48th Pennsylvania, a regiment made up chiefly of miners from Schuylkill county and commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Henry Pleasants, who was a pract1cal mining engineer. After the assault of the 18th the men of this regiment began discussing the feasibility of running a mine under the enemy's works, and the plan was finally proposed by Pleasants to Burnside, who gave the project his unqualified approval and gained Meade's consent to it . The portion of the works to be mined was known as Elliott's salient, being occupied by Elliott's brigade of Bushrod Johnson's division and was near the center of the line on the east side of the city. With no tools but the pick and shovel the Pennsylvanians excavated a main gallery 522 feet in length with lateral galleries 37 and 38 feet long running under and nearly parallel to the enemy's works, the earth taken from the tunnel being carried out in cracker boxes. The work was commenced on June 25, and on July 27 the mine was charged with 8,000 pounds of powder, which was placed in eight magazines of 1,000 pounds each. On the 26th Burnside reported his plan for an assault to follow immediately upon the explosion of the mine. This plan contemplated the placing of Ferrero's division in the advance, because his other divisions had been under a heavy fire, day and night, for more than a month, while the colored troops had been held as a reserve. This selection was not approved by Meade and Grant, partly for the reason that it might be charged they were willing to sacrifice the negro soldiers by pushing them forward and partly because Ferrero's division had never been in close contact with the enemy and it was not known how they would conduct themselves in such an emergency, though the men had been drilling for several weeks for the work, and were not only willing but anxious for the undertaking. A division was then selected by lot, and it fell to General Ledlie to lead the assault. This was Burnside's weakest division and was commanded by a map whom General Humphreys, Meade's chief of staff, characterizes as "an officer whose total unfitness for such a duty ought to have been known to General Burnside, though it is not possible that it could have been. It was not known to General Meade." On the 29th an order was issued from headquarters providing that "At half-past three in the morning of the 30th, Major-General Burnside will spring his mine, and his assaulting columns will immediately move rapidly upon the breach, seize the crest in the rear and effect a lodgment there. He will be followed by Major-General Ord (now in command of the 18th corps), who will support him on the right, directing his movement to the crest indicated, and by Major-General Warren, who will support him on the left. Upon the explosion of the mine the artillery of all kinds in battery will open upon those points of the enemy's works whose fire covers the ground over which our columns must move, care being taken to avoid impeding the progress of our troops. Special instructions respecting the direction of the fire will be issued through the Chief of Artillery." At the appointed time Ledlie's division was in position in two lines, Marshall's brigade in front and Bartlett's in the rear, ready to charge into the breach the moment the mine was sprung. Four o'clock came and still no explosion. Officers and men who had been in a state of feverish expectancy since shortly after midnight, began to grow restless. An officer was sent to Burnside to inquire the cause of the delay, and it was learned that the fuse had died out. Lieut. Jacob Douty and Sergt. Henry Rees volunteered to enter the gallery and reignite the fuse. Their efforts were crowned with success though they had barely emerged from the mouth of the mine at 4:45 when the explosion took place. A solid mass of earth, mingled with timbers, dismantled cannon and human beings, rose 200 feet in the air, and where Elliott's salient had stood was a ragged crater 170 feet long, 60 feet wide and 30 feet deep, filled with dust and debris. Immediately the Federal artillery—about 160 guns and mortars—opened fire and as soon as the dust had cleared away Marshall's line advanced, closely followed by Bartlett's, but the men could not resist the temptation to crowd forward to look into the hole, and the two brigades became hopelessly mixed. When the explosion occurred the Confederates hurried away from the intrenchments for 200 or 300 yards on either side of the mine, but the confusion of Ledlie's men and the delay in restoring something like order gave the enemy time to recover from his bewilderment, so that when the Union troops attempted to cross the crater they were met by a fire of musketry, straggling at first but increasing in effectiveness until at the end of half an hour the two brigades were huddled in a confused mass in the hole, unable to advance or withdraw. General Humphreys says: "General Ledlie did not accompany, much less lead, his division. He remained, according to the testimony before the Court of Inquiry that followed, in a bomb-proof about 50 yards inside our intrenchments, from which he could see nothing that was going on. He could not have given the instructions he received to his brigade commanders. Had the division advanced in column of attack, led by a resolute, intelligent commander, it would have gained the crest in fifteen minutes after the explosion, and before any serious opposition could have been made to it." Willcox sent in part of a brigade on the left of the mine, halting the remainder of his command until Ledlie's men should advance. He was criticised by the court of inquiry for not making efforts "commensurate with the occasion to carry out General Burnside's order to advance to Cemetery Hill." Ferrero moved in the rear of Willcox and upon reaching the most advanced line of the Federal works was compelled to halt on account of other troops occupying the position assigned to him. After some delay he was ordered to advance and carry the crest beyond the crater and was moving forward for that purpose when he was directed to halt. All seemed to be confusion, for in a little while the order to advance was renewed. By this time the enemy had strengthened his position on the hill and when Ferrero tried to carry it he failed. His colored troops established their valor, however, as in his report Ferrero says: "They were repulsed, but veterans could hardly have stood the fire to which they were exposed." At 6:30 orders were again sent to the division commanders not to halt at the works, but to advance at once to the crest without waiting for mutual support. Potter had moved his division forward by the flank soon after Ledlie began his advance. Upon reaching the vicinity of the mine Griffin's brigade turned to the right, took possession of the intrenchments which the Confederates had abandoned and began an attack upon Elliott's troops which were forced back after a long and severe contest. The other brigade attacked on the right of Griffin but was repulsed. The support of Ord and Warren did not come up to the expectations and at 9:15, after four hours of desultory fighting, Burnside received a peremptory order to withdraw his troops from the enemy's lines and cease offensive operations. This order was sent into the crater with instructions to the brigade commanders to consult and determine as to the time and manner of retiring. They sent back a request that a heavy fire of artillery and infantry should be opened to cover the withdrawal, but before the messenger reached Burnside the enemy made another attack and the men fell back in some disorder leaving the wounded to fall into the hands of the Confederates. The Union loss on the 30th was 419 killed, 1,679 wounded and 1,910 missing. Marshall and Bartlett were both captured and 23 regimental commanders were reported either killed, wounded or missing. On the Confederate side the loss in Elliott's brigade was 677, and as Weisinger's brigade lost about as heavily the total casualties among the enemy numbered probably not far from 1,000, most of whom were killed or wounded, as but few prisoners were taken by the Federals. On July 5, General Early, commanding the Confederate forces in the Shenandoah valley, crossed the Potomac near Shepherdstown and moved toward Washington, hoping thereby to compel Grant to withdraw troops from in front of Richmond and Petersburg for the defense of the national capital and thus giving Lee an opportunity to once more assume the offensive. Grant did send Wright with the 6th corps to Washington and this corps was not with the Army of the Potomac again until the early part of December. Soon after the mine explosion Lee felt that he could reduce his force at Petersburg and sent Kershaw's division to reinforce Early in the valley. Grant met this movement by sending Sheridan with two divisions of cavalry early in August to operate against Early. After the failure of Burnside's mine no more assaults were made on the Confederate fortifications, the Union army conducting the siege by regular approaches, raids against the railroads and various movements by detachments. A few days after the battle of Hatcher's run (October 27) the army went into winter quarters and from that time until the next spring the operations were confined to occasional picket firing and artillery duels. Late in the summer Butler conceived the idea of cutting a canal across the narrow neck of the peninsula known as Dutch gap, by means of which the Union gunboats could ascend the James river without running the fire of the Confederate batteries. The isthmus was less than half a mile in width and by the close of the year the canal was completed, except a bulkhead at the upper end. This was blown up on New Year's day, but the earth fell back in the canal and the enemy immediately planted a battery opposite the entrance to the canal, thus preventing its being opened, and the whole scheme came to naught. By the latter part of March, 1865, numerous changes occurred in the Union army. Hancock had been sent north to organize a new corps and the 2nd was now commanded by Major-General A. A. Humphreys, the divisions being commanded by Miles, Barlow and Mott. Cutler's division of the 5th corps was no longer in existence as a separate organization. The divisions of the 6th corps were commanded by Wheaton, Getty and Seymour. After the mine explosion Burnside was, at his own request, granted leave of absence, the command of the 9th corps being turned over to Major-General John G. Parke. Willcox took command of the 1st division, Potter of the 2nd and Brigadier-General John F. Hartranft of the 3d. Sheridan still commanded the cavalry of the army, the 1st and 3d divisions, commanded by Devin and Custer, being known as the Army of the Shenandoah under command of General Merritt, and the 2nd division was commanded by General George Crook. Wilson had been sent to General Thomas at Nashville, Tennessee The Army of the James, Major-General E. O. C. Ord commanding, was composed of the 24th and 25th corps and some detached troops guarding the defenses of Bermuda Hundred and the landings along the James. The 24th corps, under Major-General John Gibbon. 1ncluded the divisions of Foster, Devens and Turner, and the 25th, Major-General Godfrey Weitzel commanding, consisted of the divisions of Major-General August V. Kautz, Brigadier-General William Birney, and the cavalry division under Brigadier-General Ranald S. Mackenzie. On the last day of March the total strength of the army that was destined to close the war in Virginia was 114,335 men. On February 27, 1865, Sheridan, with the two divisions of cavalry, left Winchester and moved up the Shenandoah valley via Staunton and Charlottesville to within a short distance of Lynchburg, destroying the James river canal for some distance, and on March 27 effected a junction with Grant's army in front of Petersburg and Richmond. A few days before his arrival Lee and Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, held a conference in Richmond, at which it was decided to abandon the Richmond and Petersburg lines as soon as the railroads would admit of it, the purpose being to unite Lee's forces with those of Johnston in North Carolina and attack Sherman there. Lee knew that Grant was preparing for a movement against the Danville and South Side railroads and to counteract this he proposed a sortie against the works on the east side of Petersburg, which he believed would oblige Grant to concentrate there, thus thwarting the design on the railroads and postponing the evacuation until the weather was more favorable. The point selected for the attack was a redoubt known as Fort Stedman, about a mile from the Appomattox and not more than 150 yards from the Confederate works. This part of the line was held by the 9th corps, Willcox on the right, Potter on the left and Hartranft in reserve, Fort Stedman being garrisoned by a detachment of the 14th New York heavy artillery under Major G. M. Randall. Gordon's corps was chosen to lead the assault, in which he was to be supported by portions of Hill's and Longstreet's commands. At this time Lee's army was in desperate straits for food. The capture of Fort Fisher in January had closed the port of Wilmington to the Confederacy, thus making it impossible to obtain supplies from abroad. It had become a common occurrence for squads of Confederate soldiers, impelled by the hope of securing better rations, to desert with their arms in their hands and come over to the Union lines. About 4 a. m. on March 25 several such squads, claiming to be deserters, left the enemy's works and when near enough made a dash and overpowered the Federal pickets. Immediately three strong columns emerged from the Confederate abatis, one moving straight on Fort Stedman, one on Battery No. 10, a short distance north of the fort, and the third against Battery No. 11, about the same distance on the south of it. The second column broke the main line between Batteries 9 and 10 and then turned toward the fort, taking it on the flank. The garrison was soon overpowered and the guns of the fort, as well as those of Battery 10, were turned on Willcox's troops. Batteries 11 and 12 were quickly captured by the column that had turned to the right, and for a little while it looked as though Gordon's attack was to be a complete success. When the assault was commenced it was so dark that friends and foes could not be distinguished and the artillery of the other batteries could not be used. As soon as it was light enough General McLaughlin, whose brigade occupied the line near Battery 11 opened a mortar fire on the enemy there and soon afterward carried the battery at the point of the bayonet. He then entered Fort Stedman, not knowing it was in the hands of the enemy, and was taken prisoner. Gordon was under the mistaken impression that there were some forts in the rear of the main line and the column which captured Battery 10 was moving to capture these forts when it came in contact with Hartranft's division, which was coming up to Willcox's support, and was driven back to the battery and Fort Stedman. Battery 12 was retaken soon after No. 11, and by 7:30 Parke had driven the Confederates there into the fort, upon which was concentrated the fire of several of the Union batteries on the high ground in the rear. A heavy cross-fire of artillery and infantry was also brought to bear on the open space between the lines, rendering it almost impossible for the enemy to return to his own works or to receive reinforcements. Hartranft then moved against the enemy in the fort and recaptured the position with comparatively small loss, capturing 1,949 prisoners, most of whom had sought shelter in the bomb-proofs, and 9 stands of colors. Many of the Confederates were killed or wounded by the murderous cross-fire, while endeavoring to get back to their own lines. The Union loss was 494 in killed and wounded and 523 missing. The 2nd and 6th corps were then directed to make a reconnaissance of the enemy's works in front of Fort Fisher on the right of Fort Stedman, and to attack if it was found the force there had been sufficiently weakened to support Gordon. The intrenched picket line was carried and the Union troops advanced close to the main works, when it was found that Hill occupied them with a force too strong to be assaulted. The enemy tried to recapture the picket line at several points, but every attack was repulsed. In this affair the Union loss was about 900 in killed and wounded and 177 missing. The Confederate loss in killed and wounded was about the same and nearly 1,000 were captured. Grant was now in shape to operate against the railroads on Lee's right. On April 1 the Confederate forces under General Pickett were defeated in the battle of Five Forks, and on the morning of the 2nd the 6th corps broke through the Confederate lines near Hatcher's run, about 4 miles southwest of Petersburg. In an attempt to recover the captured line General A. P. Hill, one of Lee's ablest lieutenants, was killed. The defeat of Pickett and the breaking of his line determined Lee to evacuate the Petersburg fortifications before it was too late, and early on Sunday morning, April 2, he sent the following despatch to General J. C. Breckenridge, Confederate secretary of war: "I see no prospect of doing more than holding our position here till tonight. I am not certain that I can do that. If I can I shall withdraw tonight north of the Appomattox, and, if possible, it will be better to withdraw the whole line tonight from the James river. The brigades on Hatcher's run are cut off from us; the enemy has broken through our lines and intercepted between us and them, and there is no bridge over which they can cross the Appomattox this side of Goode's or Beaver's, which are not very far from the Danville railroad. Our only chance, then, of concentrating our forces is to do so near the Danville railway, which I shall endeavor to do at once. I advise that all preparation be made for leaving Richmond tonight. I will advise you later, according to circumstances." This despatch reached Richmond at 10:40 a. m. and was handed to President Davis while in attendance upon the service at St. Paul's church. He at once left the church and late in the day, in company with the officials of the Confederate States, took a train for Danville. That night the Confederate army withdrew from Richmond and Petersburg and commenced its last march, the line of which was up the Appomattox river toward Amelia Court House. During the winter the people of Richmond had been kept in ignorance of the real state of affairs and gave themselves up to pleasures, confidently expecting to hear any moment of a great Confederate victory. Lee's despatch, therefore, created consternation among them and there was a mad rush for the railroad stations in the desire to leave the doomed city. But transportation was out of the question, as every available coach and car were loaded with the officials, attaches and effects of the government, and to make matters worse orders had been issued that none should be permitted to board the trains without a pass from the secretary of war, who could nowhere be found. Ewell's command was the last to leave the city, and scarcely had his rearguard departed when a fire broke out near the center of the town and the mob took possession. Stores were broken open and plundered, private residences were robbed and new fires kindled, until the city was a perfect pandemonium. At 3 a. m. on the 3d Parke and Wright discovered that the enemy had been withdrawn from the trenches in their front, and upon advancing ascertained that Petersburg was evacuated. Willcox was ordered to occupy the town with his division, while the remainder of the 9th, with all of the 6th and 2nd corps, pushed on after Lee. Weitzel, who commanded the Union forces on the north side of the James, was informed by General Devens about 5 o'clock that the Federal pickets had possession of the enemy's line. Two staff officers, with 40 of the headquarters' cavalry, were sent forward to receive the surrender of the city, in case the Confederates had evacuated it, and soon afterward Weitzel followed with the divisions of Kautz and Devens. Entering the city by the Osborn pike, Weitzel rode direct to the city hall, where he received the formal surrender of the city at 8:15 a. m. For several days Lieut. J. L. de Peyster, a son of Major General J. W. de Peyster, had carried a United States flag upon the pommel of his saddle, ready to raise it over the Confederate capitol when the city should fall into the hands of the Union forces. The same flag had waved over Butler's headquarters at New Orleans. Scarcely had the surrender been made before de Peyster, in company with Captain Langdon, chief of artillery on Weitzel's staff, raised this flag over the state house, bringing Virginia once more under the realm of the Stars and Stripes. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 675-684.
Pierson's Farm, Virginia, June 16-17, 1864. Detachment, 36th U. S. Colored Infantry; 2nd and 5th U. S. Cavalry. While on an expedition from Point Lookout, Maryland, to Pope's creek, Virginia, the detachment, Colonel Alonzo G. Draper commanding, encountered the enemy at Pierson's farm on the afternoon of the 16th. Draper ordered a charge and started himself to lead it, but when within a few hundred yards of the enemy's lines he discovered that he was accompanied by only his staff and part of his escort, the main body having failed to obey the order to charge. Under the circumstances he hastily withdrew, but the next morning he again advanced with 200 infantry and 36 cavalry and found the Confederates, estimated at 600 strong, 'busily engaged in constructing a barricade across the road. Concealing the cavalry and 50 of the infantry at the bend of the road, Draper advanced with the remainder of the infantry and opened fire at 500 yards range, directing his men to fire at the bottom of the barricade. After a few volleys the enemy hastily withdrew, taking several killed and wounded with him. No Federal casualties were reported. Pigeon Mountain, Georgia, September 14-18, 1863. (See Catlett's Gap.) The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 689.
Pine Bluff, Arkansas, July 2, 1864. 64th U. S. Colored Troops. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 691.
Pocotaligo Road, South Carolina, December 20, 1864. Detachment of the 33d U. S. Colored Infantry. Lieut.-Colonel Trowbridge left camp at 3:30 p. m. with 300 men, and when near Stewart's plantation, some 3 miles beyond the Union picket line, he encountered a strong cavalry picket line of the enemy, posted with their left on the Pocotaligo river and the right on a swamp on the west side of the road. Trowbridge sent two companies, under Major Whitney, to get between the Confederates and the swamp with a view to cutting off their retreat, but the movement was discovered, the enemy opening fire on Whitney's men and then falling back on the reserves, some 30o strong. Trowbridge then formed line of battle and charged, when the enemy broke and fled, leaving 1 man dead on the field. A number of abandoned haversacks, guns, blankets, etc., indicated a more severe loss. The Union casualties were 7 men wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 699.
Point Lookout, Virginia, May 13, 1864. Detachment of the 36th U. S. Colored Infantry and Seamen from the Potomac Flotilla. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 700.
Point of Rocks, Maryland, June 9, 1864. 2nd U. S. Colored Cavalry. Point of Rocks, Maryland, July 5, 18564. 8th Illinois Cavalry. Lieut. Colonel David B. Clendenin with his regiment arrived at Point of Rocks from Washington at 2 p. m. to find Mosby, with 2 pieces of artillery and 200 men, posted on the south bank of the Potomac. A skirmish of half an hour ensued, during which Clendenin lost no men and the enemy 1 killed and 2 wounded. Later in the evening the same regiment frustrated an attempt on the part of Mosby to cross the river at Noland's ferry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 701.
Point Pleasant, Louisiana, June 25, 1864. 64th U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 701.
Pollard, Alabama, December 13-19, 1864. 82nd, 86th and 97th U. S. Colored Infantry. An expedition under Colonel George D. Robinson from Barrancas, Florida, reached Pollard on the 16th. After burning some Confederate stores a return march was begun and severe f1ghting occurred at all the streams which Robinson had to cross from the Page 702 Little Escambia to Pine Barren creek, where the enemy was decisively repulsed. The Federal loss during the expedition was 17 killed and 64 wounded, Robinson among the latter. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 701-702.
Port Gibson, Mississippi, September 30, 1864. Detachments of 2nd Wisconsin Infantry, 5th and 11th Illinois and 3d U. S. Colored Cavalry and 26th Ohio Battery. As an incident of an expedition from Vicksburg to Rodney and Fayette, Mississippi, the detachment, under Colonel Embury D. Osband, reached Port Gibson at 4 p. m. Thirty of Cobb's Black river scouts congregated in the town were charged and driven with a loss of 2 killed. Osband had 1 man killed. Port Gibson, Mississippi, May 3-4, 1865. 9th Indiana Cavalry. Colonel George W. Jackson with his regiment, while on an expedition from Rodney, charged into Port Gibson on the 3d. One of the enemy was killed and 2 were captured. Next morning 125 Federals met and drove a number of Owen scouts several miles on the Gallatin road, but without taking any prisoners. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 708.
Powhatan, Virginia, January 25, 1865. 1st U. S. Colored Cavalry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 715.
Pulaski, Tennessee (Note.) During the war Pulaski lay directly in the path of armies moving between Tennessee on the north and Alabama or Mississippi on the south. Consequently there were frequent collisions in the vicinity between the contending forces. In addition to the engagements above described, the official records of the war mention skirmishes on May 4 and 11, and August 27, 1862; July 15 and October 27, 1863; and May 13, 1864. No circumstantial reports of these affairs were made, however, and nothing can be gleaned concerning them, except that the Union troops engaged on July 15, 1863, were the 3d Ohio and 5th Tennessee cavalry, and those on May 13, 1864, were the 11th U. S. colored infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 719.
Richland Plantation, Louisiana, January 30, 1865. Detachment of 80th U. S. Colored Infantry. Major William A. Hatch, with a portion of the 80th colored infantry, while on a scout from Bayou Goula came upon a party of 20 or more guerrillas at the Richland plantation and drove them into the dense swamp surrounding, where pursuit was futile. Hatch encamped at the plantation and during the night the guerrillas attempted to break through the picket lines, but were unsuccessful. No casualties were reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 733.
Rolling Fork, Mississippi, September 22-23, 1864. Detachment of 3d U. S. Colored Cavalry. Major J. B. Cook with 330 men of the 3d U. S. colored cavalry, on the 22nd attacked the Confederate commands of Bradford and Montgomery, about 150 strong, near Rolling fork. The enemy was routed and pursued 15 miles to where they crossed the Sunflower river. Next day Cook met Captain Sutton, a Confederate commissary, with 12 men driving 300 head of cattle. Eight of the escort were killed and Sutton and the other 4 captured. Two hundred of the cattle were brought into the Federal camp. Both affairs are incidents of an expedition from Vicksburg to Deer creek. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 753.
Rolling Fork, Mississippi, November 22, 1864. 3d U. S. or 1st Mississippi Colored Cavalry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 753.
Ross Landing, Arkansas, February 14, 1864. 51st U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 756.
Saint Charles, Arkansas, October 22, 1864. 53d U. S. Colored Infantry. While the regiment was proceeding down the White river on board transports it was fired upon near Saint Charles from the south bank of the stream. Three of the men were killed and 17 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 767.
Satartia, Mississippi, June 4, 1863. (See Mechanicsburg.) Satartia, Mississippi, June 5, 1863. Kimball's Division and Gunboats. Brigadier General Nathan Kimball, commanding the provisional division in Blair's expedition from Haynes' bluff, reported that on this date some 500 Confederate cavalry planted 2 pieces of artillery on the left of his encampment and dropped a few shells among the transports, but that the enemy was driven away by the fire of the gunboats. Satartia, Mississippi, February 7, 1864. Detachments of 11th Illinois Infantry and 8th Louisiana Colored Infantry. As an incident of a side expedition up the Yazoo river from the Meridian expedition Colonel James H. Coates landed his force a short distance below Satartia. The 8th Louisiana was deployed as skirmishers and with the Illinois men in reserve soon engaged the enemy, who rallied and moved by the left flank to the main Confederate body at Liverpool. No casualties reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 776.
Scottsboro, Alabama, January 8, 1865. 54 men of the 101st U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 779.
Sharpsburg, Kentucky, December 31, 1864. Detachment of 121st U. S. Colored Infantry. Major W. R. Gerhart, commanding the post at Sharpsburg, reported that he was attacked on the morning of the 31st by a force which came from the direction of Owingsville. The Union casualties were 1 man killed and 1 wounded. The Confederates retired very slowly, but for lack of horses Gerhart was unable to pursue them. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 795.
Sherwood, Missouri, May 5-9, 1863. 2nd Kansas Cavalry and 1st Kansas Colored Infantry. Adjt. M. M. Ehle with detachments of the two regiments, numbering about 200 men, attacked and broke up a guerrilla camp on Center creek near Sherwood. Subsequently he surprised another outlaw band near the town and captured some prisoners. No casualties were reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 799.
Sherwood, Missouri, May 18, 1863. Detachments of 1st Kansas Colored Infantry and 2nd Kansas Battery. A foraging party of about 60 men was attacked by Livingston's guerrillas in the vicinity of Sherwood and 3 Union men were killed. The Confederates sustained no loss. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 799.
Simpsonville, Kentucky, January 25, 1865. Detachment of Negro Soldiers, 2nd Division, District of Kentucky. The cattle guard at Simpsonville, composed of negro soldiers, was attacked and overwhelmed by a superior force of Confederates. Several were killed and 17 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 813.
Smithfield, Kentucky, January 5, 1865. 6th U. S. Colored Infantry. Smithfield, North Carolina, April 11, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps. At 5:30 a. m. the corps broke camp on Moccasin creek and began the advance on Raleigh, with Colonel P. H. Jones' brigade of Geary's division in advance. Small parties of the enemy's cavalry appeared at various places along the road, sometimes behind rail barricades, and the skirmishing was kept up until Smithfield was reached about 3 p. m. Here a junction was effected with the 14th corps and the two commands went into camp. No losses were incurred by the Union troops during the day. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 814.
Snow's Pond Kentucky, September 25, 1862. U. S. Forces under General Q. A. Gillmore. About 11 a. m. some 500 Confederate cavalry, with a field Page 819 piece, made an attack on Gillmore's lines at Snow's pond. They made a sudden dash on the pickets and captured several small outposts, as Gillmore reported 50 men missing. Snyder's Bluff, Mississippi, March 30, 1864. The only official mention of this affair is in the report of Brigadier-General Ross, of the Confederate army, who states that he sent Colonel Jones, with two regiments to attack the outpost at Snyder's bluff. The result was the capture of 100 mules, a few negro soldiers, and the destruction of the Federal quarters. Jones reported 30 Union men killed, but did not give his own losses. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 818-819.
South Tunnel, Tennessee, October 10, 1864. Detachment of 40th U. S. Colored Infantry. A squad of negro soldiers guarding the south tunnel, near Gallatin, was attacked by a band of outlaws under command of one Harper and all but 2 were killed. The 2 survivors brought word to Gallatin and a cavalry force sent out in pursuit drove the enemy from the tunnel. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 825.
Spanish Fort, Alabama, Siege of, March 27-April 9, 1865. Army of West Mississippi. On March 27, during the Mobile campaign, Garrard's division of the 16th corps was established in an intrenched camp to cover the right and rear of Canby's army as it moved to invest Spanish fort . The dispositions made during the day were as follows: the 3d division of the 16th corps, under Brigadier-General Eugene A. Carr, occupied the extreme right, with its right resting on Bay Minette; then came McArthur's division of the 16th, then Benton's and Veatch's divisions and Bertram's brigade of the 13th corps, the latter with its left resting on the impassable swamp bordering on Olive creek. Five miles below Spanish fort a Federal supply depot was established. On the 28th and 29th batteries were planted on the bluff of Bay Minette to counteract the effect of the firing of the Confederate gunboats and batteries Tracy and Huger. Meanwhile Steele's column had moved from Pensacola to cooperate with Canby and on April 1 had attacked and driven in a Confederate force at Fort Blakely. On the 2nd the Confederates made a desperate attempt to retake the positions which Steele's column held, but were repulsed by the colored troops. Steele then set about investing Fort Blakely and on the 4th, after a bridge had been completed over Bayou Minette, Spanish fort and Fort Blakely were included in the same general line of investment. The same day a bombardment of Spanish fort was commenced, and although it continued from 5 a. m. to 7 p. m. it did not have much effect, as the enfilading batteries were not yet in position. Canby had expected that the navy would complete the investment of Spanish fort, but low water in the Blakely river prevented a near approach of the boats, and consequently the treadway leading from the rear of Spanish fort to Battery Tracy was not destroyed as had been planned. By the afternoon of the 8th there were in position against Spanish fort 53 siege guns and 37 field pieces. At 5:30 p. m. that day a bombardment was ordered and under cover of it two companies of the 8th la., supported by the remainder of the regiment and other regiments of Geddes' brigade, effected the capture of a position on the Confederate works from which a musketry fire could sweep 200 yards of the intrenchments. This position was soon taken and with it some 200 prisoners. Although it was now dark the work of pushing forward the engagement both within and without the works was carried on by Major-General A. J. Smith's corps within and Granger's division from the outside. By midnight the whole fort was in possession of the Federals with all its armament, supplies, etc., and 600 prisoners. The larger part of the garrison, however, had escaped over the treadway to Battery Tracy, and thence to Mobile. From the 6th to the 9th the Union works in front of Fort Blakely had been pushed forward in earnest, and immediately after Spanish fort had fallen portions of Canby's command were sent to aid Steele. By 5:30 p. m. of the 9th his line, then 4 miles in length, moved forward simultaneously and after a gallant advance under a heavy fire of musketry and artillery had by 5 :50 p. m. carried the works in every part. The net result of this capture was 3,700 men, besides all the armament, supplies, etc. The Union casualties in the 2 actions were 61 killed, 639 wounded and 32 captured or missing. The enemy's losses in killed and wounded were never reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 826-827.
Statesburg, South Carolina, April 15, 1865. 1st Brigade, Provisional Division. The affair at Statesburg on this date was-an incident of the expedition sent out from Georgetown under command of Brigadier-General E. E. Potter, to destroy the railroad between Camden and Sumterville. On the 15th the 25th Ohio infantry was sent forward to Statesburg, where it was to wait for further orders. Before the town was reached the enemy was encountered behind a breastwork. A charge drove the Confederates from their position, with a loss to the Union regiment of 1 man killed and 7 wounded. A short distance farther on another line of works was discovered, and the regiment halted until the rest of the brigade could come up. When it arrived Colonel Brown ordered the 107th Ohio to the left and the 157th New York to the right, to flank the enemy's position, the 25th Ohio was deployed as skirmishers, supported by the remainder of the command, ready to press any advantage gained by the flanking regiments. In a short time the cheers on the left told that the 107th Ohio had broken the enemy's lines. The whole brigade then moved forward and drove the Confederates through Statesburg. The only loss reported was that of 2 men wounded, both belonging to the 107th Ohio. Station Four, Florida, February 13, 1865. 2nd Florida Cavalry and 2nd U. S. Colored Infantry. Major Edmund C. Weeks with 386 men had returned to Station Four after a successful foraging expedition, when at 7 a. m. of the 13th his command was attacked by about 250 or 300 Confederates and driven across the bridge. Most of the Federal force was thrown into confusion and disorder, but 40 men under Captain Pease charged across the bridge again and drove the Confederates from the Union camp which they were sacking. The fight lasted from 7 a. m. until noon and Weeks had 5 killed, 18 wounded and 3 captured. Confederate reports state that the enemy's loss was 5 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 839-840.
Suffolk, Virginia, March 9, 1864. 2nd U. S. Colored Cavalry. The regiment, Colonel George W. Cole commanding, while reconnoitering the different roads beyond Suffolk, was attacked by a greatly superior force of the enemy. The colored troops were obliged to retire after fighting desperately for a time, and cutting their way through the enemy's lines which almost surrounded them. The Union loss was 7 killed, 2 missing and 6 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 859.
Sugar Creek Hills, Missouri, December 23-31, 1862. Detachment of 8th Missouri State Militia Cavalry. Major Edward B. Eno with 80 men made a scout through the Sugar creek hills and succeeded in surprising three different camps of from 30 to 50 guerrillas each. The net results were the capture of 10 men, 12 horses with saddles, bridles, etc., 2 wagons, and other equipage, and the breaking up the bands. No casualties were reported on the Union side. Sugar Loaf, North Carolina, February 11, 1865. 3d Division, 10th Army Corps. In his report Brigadier-General Charles J. Paine, commanding the division, says: "The division broke camp on Federal Point, where it had remained after the capture of Fort Fisher, and moved toward the enemy's line at Sugar Loaf, the 2nd brigade, Colonel J. W. Ames commanding, having the advance. After a brisk skirmish, in which the division suffered a loss of 2 commissioned officers and 14 men killed, and 7 commissioned officers and 69 men wounded, Lieut.-Colonel Rogers, commanding 4th U. S. colored troops, with his regiment deployed as skirmishers, drove the enemy very handsomely from his intrenched picket line into his main works. The division constructed a line of works at this point and occupied them until the morning of the 19th, when the enemy retiring from his line in our front, the division moved into the rebel works." The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 859-860.
Sulphur Branch Trestle, Alabama, September 25, 1864. Detachments of mth U. S. Colored Infantry, 9th Indiana and 3d Tennessee Cavalry. During Forrest's raid into Alabama and Tennessee he approached the bridge over Sulphur branch on the morning of the 25th. The garrison there had been reinforced, and on the appearance of the enemy it was all called into the blockhouse. After several hours of desperate resistance the Federals were overpowered and compelled to surrender to a greatly superior number. While the casualties for the whole Union command were not definitely reported they amounted in the detachments of the mth U. S. Colored infantry and 9th Indiana cavalry to 47 killed, 6 wounded and 379 captured. No Confederate losses were reported. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 860.
Township, Florida, January 26, 1863. Detachment of 1st South Carolina Colored Infantry. The report of Colonel T. W. Higginson, of the 1st South Carolina, commanding an expedition up the Saint Mary's river, contains the following: "At Township, Florida, a detachment of the expedition fought a cavalry company which met it unexpectedly on a midnight march through pine woods and which completely surrounded us. They were beaten off with a loss on our part of 1 man killed and 7 wounded, while the opposing party admits 12 men killed, besides many wounded." The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 875.
Trout Creek, Florida, July 15, 1864 . Detachment of 3d U. S. Colored Infantry. This affair was an incident of an expedition from Jacksonville up Trout creek. The advance guard under Captain Hart skirmished' with the enemy for a distance of 10 miles, inflicting some loss. One wounded man fell into Federal hands and 1 Union man was killed. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 878.
Vicksburg, Mississippi, August 27, 1863. 5th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 900.
Vidalia, Louisiana, September 14, 1863. Detachments of 30th and 35th Missouri Infantry and 2nd Mississippi Heavy Artillery (Colored). On the morning of the 14th a party of 150 or 200 Confederates cut its way through the negro pickets of the Federal camp at Vidalia and commenced firing into the men and loosing the mules. The firing aroused the men of the 30th Missouri, 40 in number, who advanced and attacked the enemy, driving him from the camp and compelling him to abandon the mules he had captured. A detachment sent over the river from Natchez followed, skirmishing for a distance of 16 miles, and then came upon the enemy's main body 800 strong. Three Federals were killed, 2 wounded and 9 captured or missing. The Confederate casualties were not ascertained, but were undoubtedly heavier. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 900.
Vidalia, Louisiana, February 7, 1864. 2nd Mississippi Heavy Artillery, African descent. Lieut.-Colonel Hubert A. McCaleb with a detachment of 432 men was sent to reinforce Colonel Farrar who was being hard pressed by the enemy at Vidalia. Upon his arrival there McCaleb deployed his men and had no sooner taken position that the Confederates advanced. The Federals waited until the enemy was within 200 yards and then poured in a volley which checked his advance. Another volley sent the Confederates flying in confusion, with a loss of 1 man killed and 5 wounded. Not a man of the Federal command sustained any injury. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 900.
Vidalia, Louisiana, July 22, 1864. 6th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery. Vienna, Alabama, July 8, 1864. Detachment of 12th Indiana Cavalry. Company B of this regiment, while scouting in the vicinity of Vienna, when about 3 miles from that place, was fired upon and dispersed. The guide was killed and 8 men were wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 901.
Wallace's Cross Roads, Tennessee, July 15, 1862. 25th Brigade, 7th Division, Army of the Ohio. The brigade, commanded by Brigadier-General J. G. Spears, surprised a body of Confederate cavalry at Wallace's crossroads about 11 a. m. and completely routed it . The enemy lost 10 killed, several wounded and 18 captured, together with 30 horses, 30 sabers and about 100 stands of small arms. No casualties were reported on the Union side. Wallace's Ferry, Ark, July 26, 1864. Detachments of the 56th and ooth Colored Infantry, 2nd U. S. Colored Artillery and 15th Illinois Cavalry. Colonel W. S. Brooks, with Lembke's colored battery and portions of the 56th and 60th U. S. colored infantry, was sent out from Helena to ascertain the strength and position of the enemy. Some 150 men of the 15th Illinois cavalry was sent down the Mississippi in a steamer below Old Town and were to cooperate with Brooks. At 5 a. m. of the 26th Brooks crossed Big creek at Wallace's ferry and learned that the Confederate General Dobbin was in force somewhere below. He at once recrossed his command, but Dobbin was quicker and got across 3 miles 'below. The forces met near this point and Brooks was getting the worst of the encounter when Major Carmichael, commanding the 15th Illinois cavalry, came up by a forced march, and scattered the Confederates in all directions. Carmichael had heard the firing when some distance off and had hastened up just in time to save the day. The Federal loss was about 50 in killed and wounded, including many officers; the enemy lost about 150 altogether. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 903.
Waterproof, Louisiana, April 20, 1864. 63d U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 911.
White River, Arkansas, October 22, 1864. S3d U. S. Colored Infantry. While this regiment was proceeding down the White liver on a transport it was fired upon when opposite St. Charles. Three men were killed and 17 were wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 925.
Whiteside, Florida, July 27, 1864. 35 U. S. Colored Infantry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 926.
Willstown Bluff, South Carolina, July 10, 1863. 1st South Carolina Colored Infantry. On the afternoon of the 9th the regiment, under command of Colonel Thomas W. Higginson, left Beaufort on the armed steamer John Adams, the transport Enoch Dean and the tug Governor Milton and proceeded up the South Edisto river. By 4 a. m. next morning a 3-gun battery at Willstown bluff was engaged, but the enemy withdrew after a few shots had been fired. After noon the boats again proceeded up the river, the Dean engaging and driving back the same battery a mile beyond the town. Still farther up the Confederates were again engaged and driven back. On the return down stream the Milton went aground and it was necessary to fire her in order to get down stream with the other 2 vessels before the tide went out. Four men on board the vessels were killed, and 3 were wounded. The Confederates had 2 men wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 940-941.
Wilson's Landing, Virginia, June 11, 1864. 1st U. S. Colored Cavalry. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 942.
Wolf River Bridge, Tennessee, December 4, 1863. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, 16th Army Corps. Colonel Frank Kendrick with a regiment of colored cavalry guarding Wolf river bridge was attacked on the morning of the 4th by Confederate cavalry under Forrest. Colonel Edward Hatch with the 2nd brigade came up just as the enemy was driving the colored regiment back into Moscow and after a severe fight the Confederates were repulsed and obliged to retire, having suffered a loss of 100 in killed, wounded and captured, 26 dead being left on the field. Hatch's command had 4 killed and 19 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 954.
Woodville, Mississippi, Oct 6, 1864. Cavalry of the Military District of Vicksburg. Colonel E. D. Osband with detachments of the 5th, 11th and 4th Illinois, and 2nd Wisconsin and 3d U. S. colored cavalry, a section of the 26th Ohio Battery and one of Company K of the 2nd Illinois light artillery, attacked a Confederate force 250 strong, with 3 guns, in camp near Woodville. The result was the killing of 40 of the enemy, the capture of the guns, 54 men and a quantity of arms, ammunition and supplies. No loss was sustained by Osband's detachment. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, p. 957.
Yazoo City, Mississippi, March 5, 1864. Yazoo Expedition. Early on Saturday morning the Confederates under Ross and Richardson began a vigorous attack on the Federal picket on the Benton road just outside of Yazoo City. The Union troops were collected in two redoubts, commanded respectively by Major McKee, with the 11th Illinois infantry, and Lieut.-Colonel Peebles, with part of the 8th Louisiana colored infantry, and in the city, where Colonel James H. Coates, leader of the expedition, was in command. By 10 a. m. the whole Federal line had become engaged, Coates saw an attempt was being made to outflank him, and before the four companies of the 8th Louisiana colored infantry which he hurried to the support of the detachment of the 1st Mississippi colored cavalry at that point could reach their destination Richardson's whole command was in the city, between McKee and Coates' headquarters. Several times McKee was called on to surrender, but each time refused, even after he had been entirely surrounded. Coates posted his men in doorways and buildings and opened a telling fire upon the enemy in the streets. Subsequently he brought up a piece of artillery from one of the gunboats and under cover of its fire a charge was made at 2 p. m. The result was the driving out of the Confederates in the town and the force surrounding McKee, on seeing their comrades giving way, fell back in disorder. During the night the Confederates withdrew and the next day transports conveyed the expedition back to Vicksburg. The Federal loss in the expedition, which was a part of the Meridian campaign, was 31 killed, 121 wounded and 31 captured or missing, the larger part of whom fell at Yazoo City. Coates reported the Confederate loss on the 5th as 40 killed, but their own reports place it at 6 killed and 51 wounded. The Union Army, 1908, Vol. 5, pp. 959-960.
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