Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - J
JACKSON, Claiborne Fox, statesman, born in Fleming County, Kentucky, 4 April, 1807; died in Little Rock, Arkansas, 6 December, 1862. He emigrated to Missouri in 1822, raised a volunteer company, and served as its captain in the Black Hawk War. For twelve years he was a member of the legislature, was speaker of the house for one term, was one of the originators of the present banking-house system of Missouri, and for several years was bank commissioner. In 1860 he was elected governor, and, his sympathies being with the south, he endeavored to draw Missouri into secession. When General Nathaniel Lyon broke up the secessionist rendezvous at Camp Jackson, Governor Jackson called out 5,000 militia and ordered them " to defend the state from invasion." On the approach of Lyon and his command, Jackson was forced to quit St. Louis, and in July, 1861, was deposed by the legislature. He then entered the Confederate Army with the rank of brigadier-general, but was soon compelled by failing health to resign. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 385.
JACKSON, Conrad Faeger, soldier, born in Pennsylvania, 11 September, 1813; died in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 13 December, 1862. Before the Civil War he had been connected with the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad. He joined the army early in 1861, was appointed colonel of the 9th Regiment of Pennsylvania reserves, which he commanded at the battle of Dranesville. Virginia. and served under General George A. McCall in the Peninsula Campaign. In July, 1862, he was made brigadier-general, and commanded the 3d brigade of McCall's division, participated in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and was killed at Fredericksburg while at the head of the column of attack. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 385
JACKSON, Edward Payson, author, born in Erzeroum, Turkey, 15 March, 1840. His parents were American missionaries in Turkey. Edward came to the United States in 1845, and was graduated in 1870 at Amherst, where he was poet of his class. During the Civil War he served in the 45th Massachusetts Regiment. Since 1877 Mr. Jackson has been master in the Boston Latin-school. He has published ' Mathematic Geography" (New York, 1873); "A Demi-God" (Boston, 1886); and "The Earth in Space " (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 386.
JACKSON, Francis, 1789-1861, Boston, Massachusetts, merchant, social reformer, abolitionist. President of the Anti-Slavery Society. Supported the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS). Generously supported abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Isaac Knapp and their anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator. American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) Member, Executive Committee, 1840-1861, Vice President, 1840-1861, Treasurer, 1844-1861. Vice President, 1836-1837, and President, 1839-1860, of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. Boston Vigilance Committee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 386. The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 318.
JACKSON, Francis, reformer, born in Newton, Massachusetts, 7 March, 1789; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 14 November, 1861. His father, Major Timothy Jackson, who died in 1814 at the age of fifty-eight, was an officer in the Revolution. The son became a well-known citizen of Boston, was at one time a member of the city government, for many years was president of the Anti-Slavery Society, and was the originator of various public improvements in Boston. He published a "History of Newton " (Newton, 1854). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 386.
JACKSON, James Caleb, 1811-1895, New York, abolitionist leader. Member, Executive Committee, 1840-1841, Corresponding Secretary, 1840-1842, American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS). Sorin, 1971, pp. 95-96, 130-131; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 547; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 11, p. 752
JACKSON, William, 1783-1855, Massachusetts, newspaper publisher, abolitionist, temperance activist. U.S. Congressman, Whig Party. Vice president, 1833-1836, and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, December 1833. Founding member, Liberty Party. President of the American Missionary Society from 1846-1854.(Dumond, 1961, p. 286; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III; Biographical Dictionary of the United States Congress; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 561.
JACKSON, William Hicks., soldier, born in Tennessee about 1835, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856, and assigned to the mounted riflemen. He served at the cavalry school for practice, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1856-'7, and afterward, among other services, was engaged in a skirmish with the Kiowa Indians near Fort Craig, N. M., 7 December, 1857, in scouting in the Navajo country in 1859 and in the Comanche and Kiowa Expedition in 1860. He resigned, 16 May, 1861, and entered the Confederate Army. During the Civil War he served in the southwest, fought against Grant at Vicksburg and Sherman at Atlanta, and attained the rank of brigadier-general. Since the war he has been mainly engaged in stock raising, and is the proprietor of the Belle Meade stock farm, in the blue-grass region of Tennessee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 387.
JACKSON, Henry Rootes, soldier, born in Athens, Georgia, 24 June, 1820, was graduated at Yale in 1839. He was admitted to the bar of Georgia in 1840, appointed U. S. District Attorney for the state in 1843, and was colonel of a Georgia regiment in the Mexican War. In 1848-'9 he was editor and part owner of the Savannah "Georgian." He was judge of the superior court of Georgia from December, 1849, till the summer of 1853, when he resigned to become U. S. charge d'affaires at the court of Austria, and was minister resident there from the summer of 1854 till the summer of 1858, when he resigned. Shortly after his return to Savannah he was appointed by the U. S. government associate counsel with the district attorney for Georgia in the prosecution of the persons connected with the importation of slaves on " The Wanderer,' and was actively engaged for two years in this work. In December, 1858, he was elected chancellor of the University of Georgia, but after some correspondence retired from the office. He was appointed major-general to command the forces of Georgia after the passage of the Ordinance of Secession, and was judge of Confederate courts from 20 March, 1861, till 17 August, 1861, when he retired to accept the commission of brigadier-general in the Confederate Army. In December, 1861, he was appointed major-general of a division of Georgia troops in the field, was reappointed brigadier-general in the Confederate Army in 1863, and assigned a command on the upper Potomac. He was under Hood in his expedition to Tennessee in the autumn of 1864. participated in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, and was taken prisoner, with his entire command, at the latter place. As a prisoner of war he was taken first to Johnson's Island, and then to Fort Warren, where he remained till the end of the war. After his liberation he resumed the practice of law at Savannah. He was appointed U. S. minister to Mexico on 23 March, 1885, but resigned, 30 June, 1885, and withdrew from office in the following October. He has been president of the Georgia Historical Society. Savannah, trustee of Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences in that city, and on 8 October, 1875, was made a trustee of the Peabody education fund. He is the author of "Tallulah, and Other Poems" (Savannah, 1851). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 387-388.
JACKSON, James, jurist, born in Jefferson County, Georgia, 18 October, 1819; died in Atlanta, Georgia, 13 January, 1887, was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1837, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1840. He was in the legislature in 1840-'l, and was elected secretary of the senate of Georgia, which office he held for one year. He was elected judge of the superior court in 1846, and remained on the bench till 1859, when he resigned, having been chosen as a Democrat to Congress, where he served until Georgia withdrew from the Union. He was then made judge-advocate of Stonewall Jackson's corps of the Confederate Army, and served until the close of the Civil War. He afterward practised law at Macon, was appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia in August, 1875, and chief justice in 1879, which office he held till his death. He was a delegate to every conference of the Methodist Church after the admission of lay delegates, and was a delegate to the ecumenical conference in London. Judge Jackson was a strong advocate of the union of the northern and southern Methodist Churches. He was for many years a trustee of the University of Georgia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 388.
JACKSON, James Streshley, soldier, born in Fayette County, Kv.. 27 September. 1823: died in Perryvilie, Kentucky, 8 October, 1802. He was graduated at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, and in law at Transylvania University, in 1845, and began practice. At the beginning of the Mexican War he raised a regiment of volunteers, and served for a time as lieutenant. While in Mexico he had a difficulty with Colonel Thomas F. Marshall, which resulted in a duel, and he resigned to avoid trial by court-martial. He then resumed practice first at Greenupsburg, and afterward at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, and in 1860 was elected to Congress as a Unionist, but resigned his seat in autumn, 1861, and organized for the National government the 3d Kentucky Cavalry, of which he became colonel. He took an active part in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, Iuka, and Athens, and on 16 July, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a division of McCook's corps, of the Army of the Ohio, at the battle of Perryville, where he was killed. General Jackson possessed great personal attractions, and his impetuosity led him into several duels in addition to the one above mentioned. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 388.
JACKSON, John Davis, physician, born in Danville, Kentucky, 12 December, 1834; died there, 8 December, 1875. He was graduated at Centre College in 1854, and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1857, and began to practise in Danville, he entered the Confederate Army as a surgeon, served with the Army of Tennessee during the first year, and subsequently with the Army of Northern Virginia. During this service he made a report on vaccination among the troops, which was published, by order of the surgeon-general, at Richmond. At the close of the war he resumed practice at Danville, and was eminently successful. In 1872 he visited England as a delegate from the American Medical Association to the British Association. In 1873, while engaged in an autopsy, he made an abrasion on his finger, which finally resulted in his death. Dr. Jackson was a member of various medical organizations, and was to deliver the address before the alumni of the University of Pennsylvania at the date of his death. He translated Farabeuf's " Manual on the Ligation of Arteries" (Philadelphia, 1874); and was the author of a biography of Dr. Ephraim McDowell, the first operator for ovariotomy (1873); and various contributions to medical literature. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 388-389.
JACKSON, John King, soldier, born in Augusta, Georgia, 8 February, 1828; died in Milledgeville, Georgia, 27 February, 1866. He was graduated with honors at the Columbia University, South Carolina, in 1846, and practised law till the beginning of the Civil War. He then raised the 1st Georgia Infantry and the Augusta Volunteer Battalion for the Confederate Army, was made colonel of the 5th Georgia Regiment in 1861, and subsequently brigadier-general. He commanded a brigade in Bragg's corps at Shiloh, and in August, 1864, took charge of the Department of Florida. After the war he resumed his law practice in Augusta. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 389.
JACKSON, Patrick Tracy, merchant, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, 14 August, 1780; died in Beverly, Mass, 12 September, 1847, was apprenticed to a merchant of Newburyport, and subsequently established himself in Boston in the India trade, in which he acquired a large fortune. In 1812, at the invitation of his brother-in-law, Francis C. Lowell, who had examined the process of cotton-manufacture in England, he engaged in a project to introduce into the United States the power-loom, then newly invented, and also its mode of construction, which was kept secret. As communication with England was prevented by the war, they were forced to invent a power-loom themselves, and after many failures succeeded, in the latter part of 1812, in producing a model from which a machine was constructed by Paul Moody, an ingenious machinist. In 1813 they built a mill in Waltham, near Boston, which is said to have been the first that combined all the operations for converting raw cotton into finished cloth. He made large purchases of land on the Merrimack River, near Pawtucket Canal, in 1821, and several mills were constructed there by the Merrimack manufacturing company, which was organized under his auspices. This settlement formed the nucleus of the city of Lowell. He superintended the formation of another company in the same place, and in 1830 procured a charter for a railroad between Lowell and Boston, the construction of which he directed till its completion in 1835. This was then one of the finest works of its kind in the country. Having met with pecuniary losses in 1837, he took charge of the locks and Canal Company of Lowell, and subsequently of the Great Falls Manufacturing Company at Somersworth, New Hampshire He labored zealously to promote the moral and intellectual improvement of the operatives in his mills. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 389.
JACKSON, Joseph Cooke, lawyer, born in Newark, New Jersey, 5 August, 1835. He was graduated at Yale in 1857, and subsequently studied law at Newark and at the law-schools of Harvard and New York University. He was admitted to the bar in 1860, and began practice in New York City, but at the beginning of the Civil War was appointed aide-de-camp to General Robert Anderson, and ordered to Kentucky. Subsequently he was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 1st New Jersey Regiment, and appointed aide to General Philip Kearny. While serving on the latter's staff he declined the colonelcy of the 61st New York Regiment. In December, 1861, he was ordered to join the division staff of General William B. Franklin. In the summer of 1862 he was promoted to captain for gallant conduct during the seven days' conflict before Richmond, and assigned to the staff of the 6th Corps of the Army of the Potomac. In the following December he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 6th New Jersey Volunteers, and was brevetted colonel for "meritorious conduct" at the battle of Fredericksburg, in the same month. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. At the close of his term of service, he was appointed by the War Department a commissioner of the U. S. naval credits, and succeeded in having 1,900 naval enlistments from New Jersey credited to the quota of troops enlisted from that state, thus rendering a draft unnecessary. Governor Joel Parker said, in a message to the legislature, that the state had in consequence been saved the expenditure of nearly $1,000,000. General Jackson resumed the practice of law in New York City, and in 1870 was appointed assistant district-attorney for the Southern District of New York. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 389-390.
JACKSON, Mortimer Melville, jurist, born in Rensselaerville, Albany County, New York. 5 March, 1814. He was educated in Flushing and New York City, and entered a counting-house, where he remained several years, also studying law. In 1838 he moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and in the following spring he settled in Mineral Point, Iowa County, where he acquired a good law practice. He was a member of the territorial convention that was held in Madison soon after the election of Harrison to the presidency, when the Whig Party was first organized in Wisconsin. As chairman of the committee, he prepared and reported the resolutions embodying the platform of that organization, and strongly opposed the extension of slavery in the territories. From 1842 till 1847 he was attorney-general, and during his term conducted many important cases. He was a member of the committee that was appointed by an educational convention in Madison in 1846, and prepared a plan for improvement in common-school education, a part of which was subsequently incorporated in the state constitution. He was interested in the efforts made in western Wisconsin to have the reserved mineral lands, which were held by the U. S. government, brought into market, and addressed a memorial to President Polk on this subject, which was adopted by the legislature. On the admission of Wisconsin to the Union, he was elected the first circuit judge for the 5th Judicial Circuit, serving also in the supreme court till the organization of a separate supreme court in 1853, when he resumed his law practice. He subsequently united with the Republican Party, and in 1861 was appointed by President Lincoln U. S. consul at Halifax, Nova Scotia. While there he caused the seizure from Confederates of about $3,000,000 worth of war material, and advised the government of suspected vessels. In 1870, at the request of the Secretary of State, he made a report to Congress on the fisheries and fishery laws of Canada, in which he examined and discussed the controversy between Great Britain and the United States. Judge Jackson also addressed a communication to the Secretary of State, reviewing the action of the fishery commission in 1877, and saying that the sum of $5,500,000 that had been awarded to Great Britain was unwarranted and excessive. He resigned his consulship in 1882 and returned to Madison, Wis. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 390.
JACKSON, Nathaniel James, soldier, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, about 1825. He became colonel of the 1st Maine Regiment in June. 1861, and afterward was made colonel of the 5th Maine Regiment. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 24 September, 1862, commanded the 2d brigade, 2d Division of the 12th Corps, and served through the campaigns of McClellan and Pope in Virginia, being wounded at Gaines's Mills. In the autumn of 1864 he commanded the 1st Division of the 20th Corps, taking part in Sherman's march to the sea and in the invasion of the Carolinas. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers at the close of the war, and mustered out, 24 August, 1865. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 390.
JACKSON, Robert Montgomery Smith, physician, born in Pennsylvania about 1820; died in Chattanooga, Tennessee, 28 January, 1865. He was a resident of Cresson, Pennsylvania, where he practised medicine for several years, and was known for his scientific attainments, especially as a botanist and geologist. He was medical inspector of the 23d Army Corps, and acting medical director of the Department of the Ohio. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Geological Commission, of the American Philosophical Society, and other learned bodies. Dr. Jackson was an enthusiastic mountaineer, and published a work entitled " The Mountain " (Philadelphia, 1860). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 390.
JACKSON, Thomas Jonathan, soldier, born in Clarksburg, West Virginia, 21 January, 1824; died at Chancellorsville, Virginia, 10 May, 1863. His great-grandfather emigrated from London in 1748 to Maryland. Here he married Elizabeth Cummins, and shortly afterward moved to West Virginia, where he founded a large family. At seven years of age Thomas Jonathan, whose father had been a lawyer, became an orphan, and he was brought up by a bachelor uncle, Cummins Jackson. Young Jackson's constitution was weak, but the rough life of a West Virginia farm strengthened it, and became constable for the county. He was appointed a cadet at the U. S. Military Academy at the age of eighteen. His preparation was poor, and he never reached a high grade. On his graduation in 1846 he was ordered to Mexico, became a lieutenant in Magruder's battery, and took part in General Scott's campaign from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico. He was twice brevetted for good conduct at Churubusco and Chapultepec. After the Mexican War he was for a time on duty at Fort Hamilton, New York harbor, and subsequently was sent to Fort Meade. Florida. He resigned from the army in 1851, on his election as professor of philosophy and artillery tactics in Virginia Military Institute. He was noted for the faithfulness with which he performed his duties and his earnestness in matters of religion (he was a member and officer of the Presbyterian Church); but his success as a teacher was not great. He took much interest in the improvement of the slaves and conducted a Sunday-school for their benefit, which continued in operation a generation after his death. A few days after the secession of Virginia he took command of the troops that were collecting at Harper's Ferry, and, when Virginia joined the Confederacy a few weeks later, he was relieved by General Joseph E. Johnston, and then became commander of a brigade in Johnston's army, which rank he held at the battle of Bull Run. In that action the left of the Confederate line had been turned and the troops holding it driven back for some distance. Disaster to the Confederates was imminent, and Johnston was hurrying up troops to support his left. Jackson's brigade was the first to get into position, and checked the progress of the National forces. The broken troops rallied upon his line, other re-enforcements reached the left, the Confederates took the aggressive, and in a short time gained a victory. In the crisis of the fight, General Bernard E. Bee, in rallying his men, said: "See, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall; rally on the Virginians!" Bee fell a few moments after, but his exclamation gave Jackson a new name. For his conduct at Bull Run, Jackson was made major-general, and in November, 1861, was assigned to the command of the district that included the Shenandoah valley and the portion of Virginia northwest of it. In the course of the winter he drove the National troops from his district, but the weather compelled him to return to winter quarters at Winchester. Early in March he was at Winchester with 5,000 men, while General Nathaniel P. Banks was advancing against him from the Potomac. Jackson's instructions were to detain as large a hostile force as possible in the valley, without risking the destruction of his own troops. He fell back forty miles before Banks; but as soon as the latter returned to Winchester and began to send his troops away, Jackson with 3,500 men made a forced march toward Winchester, and on 23 March attacked the troops still left in the valley with great vigor. In this battle (at Kernstown) he was defeated; but so fierce and unexpected was the attack that Banks, with all the troops within reach, returned to the valley. Jackson retreated up the Shenandoah and took position at Swift Run Gap in the Blue Ridge Mountains. At the end of April, 1862, he entered upon a new campaign in the valley. While McClellan's great army was pushing up the peninsula toward Richmond, General Irvin McDowell with 30,000 men lay on the Rappahannock and threatened Richmond from the north. Banks with 20,000 men occupied Harrisonburg and was watching Jackson, while Fremont was gathering a column of 15,000 men on the upper Potomac and moving toward Staunton. Jackson was given control of all the Confederate troops in northern Virginia, with instructions to do the best he could to hamper the operations of the National armies in that region. His troops consisted of his own division of 8,000 men, General Richard S. Ewell's division of about the same number, and General Edward Johnson's brigade of 3,000 men, which was in Fremont's front. Jackson, having united his own division with Johnson's brigade by a circuitous march, struck the head of Fremont's column at the village of McDowell on 8 May, and damaged it so as to paralyze it for some weeks. He then returned rapidly to the Shenandoah Valley and concentrated all his forces against Banks, who, having sent half his troops to General McDowell on the Rappahannock, had taken position at Strasburg and Front Royal. Jackson surprised him, overwhelmed the detachment at Front Royal on 23 May, and on the 25th defeated Banks at Winchester and drove him beyond the Potomac, making large captures of prisoners and stores. The National government took possession of the railroads, and recalled McDowell from Fredericksburg and Fremont from West Virginia to fall upon Jackson's rear, while Banks and Sigel were to move from the Potomac. On the night of 30 May, Jackson at Winchester seemed about to be surrounded; but, making a rapid march next morning, he placed himself at Strasburg directly between his principal antagonists, McDowell and Fremont, and kept one of them at bay by a show of force, and bewildered the other by the rapidity of his movements, until his prisoners and captured stores had been sent to the rear. He then retreated up the valley, pursued by Shields's division of McDowell's forces and by Fremont, whom he kept apart by burning the bridges over the Shenandoah. He turned at bay at Port Republic on 8 June, repelled Fremont at Cross Keys, and, crossing the Shenandoah during the night and the early morning, threw himself unexpectedly upon the head of McDowell's column near Port Republic, which he routed and drove from the battle-field before Shields with the main body of his division could get up or Fremont could render assistance from the other side of the river. The National forces retreated to the lower Shenandoah. Jackson now hastened by forced marches to Richmond to unite with General Lee in attacking McClellan. Here, on 27 June, Jackson turned the scale in the battle of Gaines's Mills, where Fitz-John Porter was overthrown. He also took part in the subsequent operations during McClellan's retreat. About the middle of July, Lee detached Jackson to Gordonsville to look after his old adversaries of the Shenandoah valley, who were again gathering under General John Pope. On 9 August, Jackson, having crossed the Rapidan, defeated Banks at Cedar Run. A week later Lee arrived with Longstreet's corps, and the campaign against Pope began in earnest. On 25 August, Jackson was sent from the Rappahannock with 25,000 men to pass around Pope's right flank, seize his depot at Manassas, and break up his communications; and this movement was successful, and Pope was forced to let go the Rappahannock. Jackson kept his opponent at bay by stubborn fighting, and kept him on the ground until Lee with the rest of the Confederate Army arrived, when Pope was defeated in the battle of 30 August, 1862, known as the second battle of Manassas, Groveton, or Bull Run. In the Maryland Campaign two weeks later General Jackson had charge of the operations that resulted in the investment and capture of the post at Harper's Ferry, 15 September, with 13,000 prisoners and seventy cannon, while Lee held back McClellan at South Mountain and along the Antietam. By a severe night march, Jackson reached Sharpsburg on 15 September, and the next day commanded the left wing of the Confederate army, against which McClellan hurled in succession Hooker's, Mansfield's, and Sumner's corps. With thinned lines, Jackson maintained himself throughout the day near the Dunker Church, while one of his divisions—A. P. Hill's, which had been left at Harper's Ferry— reached the field late in the day and defeated Burnside's corps, which was making rapid progress against the Confederate right flank. At Fredericksburg, 13 December, 1862, Jackson, who meantime had been promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, commanded the right wing of the Confederate Army, which repelled the attack of Franklin's division. When, in the spring of 1863, Hooker's movement upon Chancellorsville was fully developed, Lee ordered Jackson's corps to move up to meet him. On the morning of 1 May, Jackson met Hooker emerging from the wilderness that surrounds Chancellorsville. and at once assumed the aggressive so fiercely that Hooker withdrew into the wilderness and established lines of defence. As these offered no favorable opportunity for attack, Lee ordered Jackson to make a flank movement around the right of the National Army. At sunrise, 2 May. Jackson was on the march, and all day he pursued his way through the wilderness. When his movement was discovered, and General Daniel E. Sickles attacked some of his trains. Jackson sent back a brigade to cover his rear and continued his march. Late in the evening he had reached the old turnpike, upon the flank and rear of General O. O. Howard's corps, which held the right of Hooker's army. Quickly forming his command into three lines of battle. Jackson attacked furiously. He routed Howard's corps in half an hour, and pressed the troops sent to its assistance back to the vicinity of Chancellorsville, when his own forces were checked by a powerful artillery fire from batteries hastily brought into line. (See Pleasonton, Alfred.) Between eight and nine o'clock Jackson with a small party rode forward beyond his own lines to reconnoiter. As he turned to ride back, his party was mistaken for National Cavalry, and a volley was poured into it by Lane's brigade. Several of the party were killed, and Jackson received three wounds, two in the left arm and one through the right hand. When he had been assisted from his horse and the flow of blood stanched, it was some minutes before he could be conveyed within his own lines, so fierce was the artillery fire that swept the field. This fire struck down one of the litter-bearers, and the general was badly injured by the fall. His left arm was amputated, and for some days he seemed to be doing well: but on 7 May he was attacked by pneumonia, which left him too exhausted to rally. His remains were taken to Richmond, whence, after a public funeral, they were moved to Lexington. Jackson was a tall, spare man, of polite but constrained address and few words. He was twice married, first to Miss Eleanor Junkin, and secondly to Miss Mary Ann Morrison. The latter, with one daughter, survives him. A bronze statue of General Jackson, paid for by English subscriptions, was unveiled in Richmond. Virginia, in 1875. His life has been written by Robert L. Dabney (New York. 1863) and by John Esten Cooke (1866). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 391-392.
JACKSON, William, financier, born in Newton, Massachusetts, 2 September, 1783; died there, 20 February, 1855. He received a common-school education, and was trained to mercantile life. He was a member of the state house of representatives from 1829 till 1832, and in the latter year was elected to Congress as a Whig. He was re-elected for the following term, but declined a second re-nomination. He was one of the earliest promoters of railroads in Massachusetts, delivering an address to the legislature in favor of the new method of locomotion, which was derisively received. Subsequently he delivered the address in various cities of New England, awakening an interest in railroads, and when their construction was begun superintended the works on the Boston and Worcester, Boston and Albany, and other lines. He was a pioneer in the temperance movement and an early opponent of slavery, being one of the founders of the Liberty Party, which was afterward merged into the Free-Soil Party. From 1848 till his death he was the president of the Newton Bank. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 393.
JACKSON, William Lowther, soldier, born in Clarksburg, Virginia, 3 February, 1825. He was admitted to the bar in 1847, and practised until the war. Before this time he had served as commonwealth's attorney, was twice in the Virginia House of Delegates, twice second auditor and superintendent of the State Literary Fund, once lieutenant-governor, and was elected judge of the 19th Judicial District of the state in 1860. In 1861 he entered the Confederate Army in command of the 31st Virginia Regiment, and in 1862 became one of the staff of his cousin, "Stonewall" Jackson, whom he followed through the campaign and battles around Richmond, Cedar Run, Harper's Ferry, and Antietam. With the rank of brigadier-general, he recruited in northwestern Virginia a brigade of cavalry, which he led in the subsequent campaigns of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. In May, 1865, he disbanded his troops at Lexington, being among the last to give his parole. He retired to Mexico for a time, and on his return, finding that a statute of West Virginia debarred him from the practice of his profession, moved to Louisville, Kentucky. and pursued the law until 1872, when he was elected judge of the circuit court. He has since been re-elected from term to term. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 393.
JACOB, Richard Taylor, soldier, born in Oldham County, Kentucky, in 1825. He studied law, and travelled in South America. Visiting California in 1846, he raised a company of cavalry, and joined General John C. Fremont in his military operations there until its conquest. Returning home, he was soon afterward called to Washington as a witness for General Fremont, and while there married Sarah, third daughter of Thomas H. Benton. He has filled the offices of legislator and judge for his county, and has been active in politics. Though a supporter of Breckinridge and Lane in 1860, he resisted with boldness and efficiency the effort to take Kentucky out of the Union, in the legislature and before the people. In 1862, at the request of General Boyle, military commandant, he opened camp at Eminence, Kentucky, in ten days had raised a regiment of 1,244 cavalry, and in ten days more was mounted and in the field. He rendered active and valuable services, especially to Buell's army in Kentucky, and was engaged in several severe skirmishes and battles, receiving two disabling wounds. His regiment was engaged in resisting Morgan's raid, and followed him until his capture at Buffington Island. In 1863 Colonel Jacob was elected lieutenant-governor on the ticket with Thomas E. Bramlette. Colonel Jacob fiercely assailed the emancipation proclamation as an act of violated faith toward the friends of the Union cause, and of injustice to the owners of property in slaves in a loyal state, he advocated the election of General McClellan to the presidency in 1864, and censuring the administration in unsparing terms, while canvassing the state, was arrested by order of General Burbridge, and sent through the Confederate lines to Richmond. He afterward received an unconditional release from Mr. Lincoln, and returned to Kentucky, where he now (1887) resides in Oldham County. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 393-394.
JACOBS, Ann Harriet, 1813-1897, author, former slave (Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 64, 184, 348-349, 372, 684-685)
JACOBS, Ferris, soldier, born in Delhi, New York, 20 March, 1836; died in White Plains. New York, 31 August, 1881. He was graduated at Williams in 1856, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1859, and practised in Delhi. Joining a New York regiment of volunteer cavalry, he served through the Civil War, rising to the rank of colonel, and at its close was brevetted brigadier-general. He subsequently served two terms as district attorney of Delaware County, New York, and in 1880 was elected to Congress as a Republican. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 394.
JACOBS, John S., 1815-1873, African American, fugitive slave, abolitionist, author of slave narrative, “A True Tale of Slavery,” in 1861. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 6, p. 288)
JAMES, Charles Tillinghast, senator, born in West Greenwich, Rhode Island., in 1804; died in Sag Harbor, New York, 17 October, 1862. He received a limited education, learned the trade of a carpenter, and in 1823 began to study mechanics, at the same time learning, as a workman in the machine-shops, the construction of cotton-machinery. He afterward moved to Providence, became superintendent of Slater's steam cotton-mills, and was chosen major-general of Rhode Island militia. After a few years' residence in Providence, he moved to Newburyport, Massachusetts, where he erected the Bartlett and James Mills; subsequently built cotton-mills in Salem, Massachusetts, and in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Tennessee, and, returning in 1849 to Rhode Island, erected the Atlantic Delaine-Mill at Olneyville. He was U. S. Senator from Rhode Island from 1851 till 1857, and after his retirement from the senate devoted his attention to the perfection of several inventions, among which was a rifled cannon and a new projectile. He was an excellent marksman, and thoroughly versed in the use and construction of fire-arms. In 1838 Brown University conferred upon him the honorary degree of M. A. General James died of wounds that he received from the explosion of a shell of his own manufacture, with which he was experimenting. He wrote a series of papers on the culture and manufacture of cotton in the south. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 397.
JAMESON, Charles Davis, soldier, born in Gorham, Maine, 24 February, 1827; died in Oldtown, Maine, 6 November, 1862. In his youth his parents moved with him to Oldtown, where, after receiving a limited education, he embarked in the lumber-trade, and became one of the largest manufacturers and shippers of lumber on the Penobscot. In 1860 he was a delegate to the Charleston National Democratic Convention, and at the beginning of the Civil War he was placed in command of the 2d Maine Regiment, the first that left that state for the seat of war. He led his regiment at Bull Run, and with his command protected the rear of the army in its retreat to Centreville. For his services on this occasion he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 3 September, 1861. He participated in the seven days' fight about Richmond, but after the battle of Fair Oaks was attacked with camp fever, and returned home to die. In 1861-2 he was the Democratic candidate for governor of Maine. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 400.
JAMESON, Patrick Henry, physician, born in Monroe, Jefferson County, Indiana, 18 April, 1824. He was graduated at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1849, and established himself in practice in Indianapolis. He was commissioner of the Indiana Hospital for the Insane from 1861 till 1866, and also surgeon in charge of state and National troops in quarters at the several camps, and in hospital at the soldiers' home, Indianapolis. From January, 1863, till March, 1866, he was acting assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, and from 1861 till 1869 physician to the Indiana Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. He has contributed occasionally to medical journals, and has written eighteen consecutive annual reports of the Indiana Hospital for the insane. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 400.
JAMESON, William, naval officer, born in Virginia in 1791; died in Alexandria, Virginia, 7 October, 1873. He was appointed a midshipman from the District of Columbia in 1811. During the war of 1813—'14 he was in several engagements, and received his commission as lieutenant in 1817, commander in 1837, and as captain in 1844. He adhered to the cause of the Union at the beginning of the Civil War, and was commissioned commodore, 16 July, 1862. He was invalided, and remained in Alexandria during the war, and was subsequently placed on the retired list. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 400.
JARVIS, Thomas Jordan, governor of North Carolina, born in Jarvisburg, Currituck County, North Carolina, 18 January, 1836. His youth was spent on a farm, laboring for the support of his family, and his college education was obtained by a loan from a friend. He was graduated at Randolph-Macon in 1860, and in the following year entered the Confederate Army as a private. He soon became 1st lieutenant in the 8th North Carolina Regiment, and in 1863 was promoted captain, but on 14 May, 1864, his right arm was shattered by a bullet, and he was compelled to retire from the service. He was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1865, became a merchant, and while engaged in business studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He began to practise in 1868, was a presidential elector in that year, elected to the legislature, and re-elected in 1870, becoming speaker of the house. He was again a presidential elector in 1872, in 1875 was a member of the state constitutional convention, and in the following year was elected lieutenant-governor of North Carolina. In 1879 he became governor, by the election of Governor Zebulon B. Vance to the U. S. Senate, and in 1880 he was elected to the office, which he held till 1884. In 1885 he was appointed U. S. minister to Brazil. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 407.
JAY, William, 1789-1858, Bedford, NY, jurist, anti-slavery activist, abolitionist leader, anti-slavery Liberty Party. Son of first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Jay. In 1819, he strongly opposed the Missouri Compromise, which allowed the extension of slavery into the new territories. Drafted the constitution of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS). Corresponding Secretary, 1835-1838, Executive Committee, 1836-1837, AASS. Vice President, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (AFASS). He was moved as a judge of Westchester County, in New York, due to his antislavery activities. Supported emancipation of slaves in the District of Columbia and the exclusion of slavery from new territories, although he did not advocate interfering with slave laws in the Southern states. Dumond, 1961, pp. 47, 159, 226, 286, 301; Mabee, 1970, pp. 73, 107, 199, 251, 253, 295; Sorin, 1971, pp. 51, 77-81, 96, 132; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 11; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 473-475; Jay, W., Life and Writings of John Jay, 1833; Jay, W., An Inquiry into the Character and Tendency of the American Colonization and American Anti-Slavery Societies, 1834; Jay, W., A View of the Action of the Federal Government in Behalf of Slavery, 1837; Jay, W., War and Peace, 1848; Jay, W., Review of the Causes and Consequences of the Mexican War, 1849.
JAY, William, jurist, born in New York City, 16 June, 1789; died in Bedford, New York, 14 October, 1858, studied the classics at Albany with the Reverend Thomas Ellison, of Oxford, England. Among his classmates was James Fenimore Cooper, with whom he formed a life-long friendship, and who inscribed to Jay "Lionel Lincoln" and some of his " Letters from Europe." Jay was graduated at Yale in 1808, and studied law with John B. Henry of Albany, but was compelled to relinquish the profession by weakness of the eyes. He retired to his father's home at Bedford, and in 1812 married Augusta, daughter of John McVickar, a lady "in whose character were blended all the Christian graces and virtues." In 1815 he published a "Memoir on the Subject of a General Bible Society for the United States," and in 1810 assisted Elias Boudinot and others in forming the American Bible Society, of which he was for years an active and practical promoter, and its principal champion against the vigorous attacks of the high-churchmen led by Bishop Hobart. The interest in the controversy extended to England, and Jay's numerous letters and pamphlets on the subject have been commended as models of that sort of warfare. In 1818 Jay was appointed to the bench of Westchester County by Governor De Witt Clinton. His office as first judge was vacated by the adoption of the new constitution in 1821, but he was subsequently reappointed, without regard to politics, until he was superseded in 1843 by Governor Bouck at the demand of a pro-slavery faction. In 1826, Jay, who in 1819, during the Missouri controversy, had written strongly against the extension of slavery, demanding that Congress should "stand between the living and the dead, and stay the plague," was instrumental in calling the attention of the New York legislature and of Congress to the necessity of reforming the slave-laws of the District of Columbia. A free colored man, Gilbert Horton, of Somers, Westchester County, who had gone to Washington, was there arrested as a runaway and advertised by the sheriff to be sold as a fugitive slave, to pay his jail fees, unless previously claimed by his master. Jay called a public meeting, which demanded the interposition of Governor DeWitt Clinton. This was promptly given, Horton was released, and a petition circulated for the abolition of slavery in the District. The New York assembly, by a vote of fifty-seven to thirty-nine, instructed their representatives in Congress to vote for the measure. Pennsylvania passed a similar bill, and upon the memorial presented by General Aaron Ward, the House of Representatives, after a prolonged debate, referred the subject to a special committee. In 1828-'9 the debate was renewed in Congress, and resolutions and petitions multiplied, from Maine to Tennessee. Among Jay's writings at this time were essays on the Sabbath as a civil and divine institution, temperance, Sunday-schools, missionary and educational efforts, and an essay on duelling, to which, in 1830, while the authorship was unknown, a medal was awarded by the Anti-duelling Association of Savannah, by a committee of which Judge James M. Wayne and Governor Richard W. Habersham were members. In 1833 he published the "Life and Writings of John Jay." Its careful sketch of the peace negotiations of 1782, and its exposition of the hostility of France to the American claims was questioned by Dr. Sparks, but their accuracy was certified by Lord St. Helens (Mr. Fitzherbert), and has since been confirmed by the Vergennes correspondence and the " Life of Shelburne." In October, 1832, President Jackson appointed Judge Jay a commissioner to adjust all unsettled matters with the western Indians; but the appointment, which was unsolicited, was declined. Judge Jay contributed a paper on the anti-slavery movement to the first number of the "Emancipator," published in New York, 1 May, 1833. In October of the same year the New York City Anti-Slavery Society was formed, and in December an Anti-slavery Convention met at Philadelphia to form the American Anti-Slavery Society. Each of these bodies, at Judge Jay's suggestion, disclaimed the right of Congress to interfere with slavery in the states, while claiming for Congress power to suppress the domestic slave trade and to abolish slavery in the territories under its exclusive jurisdiction. The significance of the principles and action of these societies is illustrated by the interesting historic facts: first, that nullification in South Carolina in 1832, when a medal was struck inscribed "John C. Calhoun, First President of the Southern Confederacy," was the precursor of the secession of 1861, showing that the pro-slavery policy during the interval was a part of the secession scheme; and next, that the antislavery movement, organized in 1833 on strictly constitutional grounds, culminated in the Republican Party, by which slavery was abolished and the republic preserved. The same year, 1833, was noted for the persecution and trial in Connecticut of Prudence Crandall (q. v.), and for the decision of Judge Daggett that colored persons could not be citizens. Judge Jay's review of that decision and his able enforcement of the opposite doctrine were approvingly quoted by Chancellor Kent in his "Commentaries." The years 1834 and 1835 were memorable for the attempt to arrest, by threats and violence, the expression of anti-slavery sentiments. Judge Jay, in a charge to the grand jury, called their attention to the prevailing spirit of lawless violence, and charged them that any law that might be passed to abridge in the slightest degree the freedom of speech or the press, to shield any one subject from discussion, would be null and void. He prepared also, for the American Anti-Slavery Society, an address to the public, restating their views and principles, which was widely published throughout America and Europe. In 1834 Judge Jay published his "Inquiry into the Character and Tendency of the American Colonization and American Anti-Slavery Societies," which was read "by scholars and statesmen and exerted a powerful influence!" "The work," wrote Prof. E. Wright, Jr., "sells faster than it can be printed," and it was presently reprinted in London. In December. 1835, President Jackson, in his message, assailed the character and designs of the anti-slavery movement, accusing the Abolitionists of circulating through the mails "inflammatory appeals addressed to the passions of the slaves, and calculated to stimulate them to insurrection and all the horrors of Civil War," and the president suggested to Congress a law forbidding the circulation through the mails of incendiary documents. On 28 December the executive committee addressed to the president what Henry Wilson called "an elaborate and dignified protest from the polished and pungent pen of Judge Jay," denying his accusations, and offering to submit their publications to the inspection of Congress. Judge Jay's next work, "A View of the Action of the Federal Government in Behalf of Slavery" (1837), made a deep impression, and had a rapid sale. This was followed in 1839 by a startling presentation of facts on "The Condition of the Free People of Color in the United States." in 1840 by an address to the friends of constitutional liberty on the violation by the House of Representatives of the right of petition, and a review from his pen of the case of the "Amistad" Negroes (see Cinque) was read by John Quincy Adams in Congress as a part of his speech on the subject. In 1842 Judge Jay reviewed the argument by Mr. Webster on the slaves of the "Creole." The two subjects to which Judge Jay's efforts were chiefly devoted were those of war and slavery. His writings on the first, both before and after he became president of the American Peace Society, had no little influence at home and abroad. In his volume entitled " War and Peace; the Evils of the First, with a Plan for Securing the Last" (New York, 1848), he suggested stipulation by treaty referring international disputes to arbitration, as a plan based upon obvious principles of national policy, and adapted to the existing state of civilized society. The suggestion met with the warm approval of Joseph Sturge, the English philanthropist, who visited Judge Jay at Bedford while the work was still in manuscript, and it was embodied by Mr. Sturge in a volume published by him on his return to England. The plan was heartily approved by Mr. Cobden, who wrote to Judge Jay: "If your government is prepared to insert an arbitration clause in the pending treaties, I am persuaded it will be accepted by our government." The main feature of the plan, arbitration, after approval by successive Peace Congresses in Europe (at Brussels in 1848, at Paris in 1849, at London in 1851) was virtually recommended by Protocol No. 23, of the Congress of Paris, held in 1856 after the Crimean war, which protocol was unanimously adopted by the plenipotentiaries of France, Austria. Great Britain. Prussia, Russia, Sardinia, and Turkey. These governments declared their wish that the states between which any serious misunderstanding might arise should, before appealing to arms, have recourse, as far as circumstances might allow, to the good offices of a friendly power. The honor of its introduction in the Congress belongs to Lord Clarendon, whose services had been solicited by Joseph Sturge and Henry Richard, and it was supported by all of his colleagues in the Congress. It was subsequently referred to by Lord Derby as worthy of immortal honor. Lord Malmsbury pronounced it an act "important to civilization and to the security of the peace of Europe," and it was somewhat later approved by all the other powers to whom it was referred, more than forty in number. Among Judge Jay's other writings on this subject are his letter on the "Kossuth Excitement" (1852); an address before the American peace Society at Boston (1845), and a petition from the society to the U. S. Senate in behalf of stipulated arbitration (1853). Perhaps under this head should be included his historic and searching " Causes and Consequences of the Mexican War " (Boston, 1849). In 1846 Judge Jay republished, with an elaborate preface, the concluding chapter of Bishop Wilberforce's " History of the Church in America," which had been announced by two American publishers who relinquished the design when it was found to contain a reproof of the American church for its course on slavery. This was followed by a letter on the same subject to Bishop Ives, of North Carolina. "The Calvary Pastoral, a Tract for the Times," rebuked the attempt to convert the Episcopal Church into a popish church without a pope. In 1849 appeared " An Address to the Non-Slaveholders of the South, on the Social and Political Evils of Slavery." This was in part embodied in an address to the people of California, which was effectively circulated on the Pacific Coast in English and Spanish. In 1850 Judge Jay addressed a letter to William Nelson, on Clay's compromise measures; and this was followed by a review of Mr. Webster's declaration that slavery was excluded from California and New Mexico by the law of physical geography. Subsequent letters and addresses included one to Samuel A. Elliott, in reply to his apology for the fugitive-slave bill, an address to the Anti-Slavery Christians of the United States, and in 1853 several letters and reviews of the conduct of the American tract Society in the interest of slavery. The same year a volume of Judge Jay's miscellaneous writings on slavery was published in Boston. In 1854 he had the satisfaction of seeing the Republican Party founded on the anti-slavery principles that he had early advocated. Of his anti-slavery labors Horace Greeley said: "As to Chief-Justice Jay, the father, may be attributed, more than to any other man, the abolition of Negro bondage in this state [New York], so to Judge William Jay, the son, the future will give the credit of having been one of the earliest advocates of the modern anti-slavery movements, which at this moment influence so radically the religion and the philanthropy of the country, and of having guided by his writings, in a large measure, the direction which a cause so important and so conservative of the best and most precious rights of the people should take." He left in manuscript a commentary on the Bible.—Peter Augustus's son, John Clarkson, physician, born in New York City, 11 September, 1808, was graduated at Columbia in 1827, and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1831. In addition to his practice of medicine he made a specialty of conchology, and acquired the most complete and valuable collection of shells in the United States. This and his costly library on this branch of science were purchased by Catherine Wolfe and presented, in memory of her father, to the American Museum of Natural History, where it is known as the Jay collection. In 1832 he became a member of the Lyceum of Natural History (now New York Academy of Sciences), and was its treasurer in 1836-'43. He took an active part in the efforts that were made during that time to obtain subscriptions for the new building, and bore the principal burden in planning and superintending its construction. He was one of the founders of the New York yacht-club, and for some time its secretary. From 1859 till 1880 he was a trustee of Columbia College. The shells collected by the expedition of Commodore Matthew C. Perry to Japan were submitted to him for examination, and he wrote the article on that subject in the government reports. Dr. Jay was the author of "Catalogue of Recent Shells'" (New York, 1835); "Description of New and Rare Shells" (1836); and later editions of his catalogue, in which he enumerates about 11,000 well-marked varieties, and at least 7,000 well-established species. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 411-413.
JAY, John, 1817-1894, New York, diplomat, lawyer. Grandson of Chief Justice John Jay. President of the New York Young Men’s Anti-Slavery Society in 184. Active and leader in the Free Soil Party and founding member of the Republican Party. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 413-414; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 10; Drake, 1950, pp. 95, 98.
JAY, John, diplomatist, born in New York City, 23 June, 1817, was graduated at Columbia in 1836, and then studied law in his native city. After his admission to the bar in 1839 he became well known by his activity in opposition to slavery, and by his advocacy of St. Philip's Colored Church, which was admitted to the Protestant Episcopal Convention after a nine years' contest. He was secretary of the Irish Relief Committee of 1847, and was counsel for many fugitive slaves, including George Kirk, two Brazilian slaves that were landed in New York, and the Lemmons (see Arthur, Chester Alan), also in the noted Du Lux case, which, after dividing the opinions of the judges of the New York Courts, was tried before the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1854 he organized the meetings at the Broadway Tabernacle that resulted in the state convention at Saratoga, on 10 August, and in the dissolution of the Whig and the formation of the Republican Party at Syracuse, 27 September, 1855. In 1869 he was sent as minister to Austria, where his diplomatic work included a naturalization treaty, the establishment of a convention on trademarks, and the supervision of the U. S. Commission to the World's Fair of 1873. He resigned and returned to the United States in 1875, and has since resided in New York City. In 1877 he was appointed by Secretary Sherman chairman of the commission known as the Jay Commission, to investigate the system of the New York custom-house. In 1883 he was appointed by Governor Cleveland as the Republican member of the State Civil service Commission, of which he is still (1887) president. Mr. Jay was active in the early history of the American Geographical and Statistical Society, and was long manager and corresponding secretary of the New York Historical Society, and an early member of the Union League club, and its president in 1866-70 and 1877. Re was also the first president of the Huguenot' Society organized in 1885 in New York. In connection with his political career, Mr. Jay has delivered numerous addresses on questions connected with slavery, and also bearing on its relation to the Episcopal Church, of which denomination he is one of the leaders among the laity. They have been printed as pamphlets and widely circulated. Among the most important of them are "The Dignity of the Abolition Cause, as compared with' the Political Schemes of the Day " (1839): ' Caste and Slavery in the American Church " (1843); "The Proxy Bill and the Tract. Society " (1859); ' The American Church and the American Slave-Trade" (1860); "The Great Conspiracy and England's Neutrality" (1861); "America Free, or America Slave "; and " The Memories of the Past" (1867). [Appleton’s 1900]
JAY, Peter Augustus, 1776-1843, lawyer, anti-slavery activist. Son of first Chief Justice of the United States and diplomat John Jay. President of the New York Manumission Society in 1816, and President of the Anti-Slavery New York Public School Society. Advocated for suffrage for free African Americans. Dumond, 1961, p. 103; Sorin, 1971, p. 77; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III , 411. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 11.
JAY, Peter Augustus, lawyer, born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 24 January, 1776; died in New York City, 20 Feb., 1843, was graduated at Columbia in 1794, and became his father's private secretary, and in that capacity accompanied him when he was sent as minister to England in 1794. On his return he studied law and achieved a high rank at the New York Bar. In 1816 he was a member of the assembly, being active in promoting legislation for the building of the Erie Canal, and with his brother William supported the bill recommending the abolition of slavery in New York State. He held the office of recorder of New York City in 1819-'21, and was a member of the New York Constitutional Convention in 1821. Mr. Jay was a trustee of Columbia in 1812-'17, and again in 1823-'43, being chairman in 1832. In 1840-'3 he was president of the New York Historical Society, and he was connected with several literary and charitable societies. He received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1831, and from Columbia in 1835. His great learning and strength of intellect, his masterly reasoning, his wisdom and his pre-eminent moral excellence, combined with his thorough refinement and dignity as a man, made him a very marked and remarkable jurist and member of society. Mr. Jay was one of the members of the Kent Club, composed of prominent members of the bar, and was active in the social affairs of New York City. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 411.
JEFFERS, William Nicholson, naval officer, born in Gloucester County, New Jersey, 6 October, 1824; died in Washington. D. C. 23 July, 1883. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 25 September, 1840, took part in the capture of Upper California in 1842, and at the beginning of the Mexican War was ordered to the steamer " Vixen," and was present in all the naval actions in the Gulf of Mexico. He was promoted to master in June, 1854, and commissioned lieutenant in January, 1855, and while in command of the "Water Witch" rescued the Spanish steamer "Cartagena," for which service the queen of Spain presented him with a sword. He was also present at the engagement with the fort at Paso de la Patria, which caused the expedition under Commodore Shubrick to Paraguay. At the beginning of the Civil War he was on sick-leave at his home, but at once applied for service, and was detailed on ordnance duty at Norfolk. He commanded the "Philadelphia" on Potomac River in April and May, 1861, the "Underwriter" during the brilliant operations in the sounds of North Carolina during January and February, 1862, and the “Monitor” in the action with Fort Darling on 15 May of that year. He was commissioned commander in March, 1865, captain in July, 1870, and in April, 1873, became chief of the Bureau of Ordnance. He was made commodore, 26 February, 1878, and in 1875 introduced a system of bronze and steel boat howitzers. In 1876 he doubled the power of the Dahlgren 11-inch smooth-bore by converting it into an 8-inch rifle, and the details of a breach-loading system for every calibre up to 12-inch. He published "Short Methods in Navigation" (1849); "Theory and Practice of Naval Gunnery" (New York, 1850); "Inspection and Proof of Cannon" (1864): "Marine Surveying" (1871); "Ordnance Instructions for U. S. Navy" (1866, 1880), and numerous pamphlets on naval subjects. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 414.
JEMISON, Robert, legislator, born in Lincoln County, Georgia, 17 September, 1802; died in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 16 October, 1871. He moved in 1821 to Alabama, where he became an active Whig, and was long in the legislature. He was president of the state senate in 1863, and soon afterward entered the Confederate Senate, though he had opposed secession in 1861. He did much toward improving the finances of his state, and was the founder of the Alabama Insane Asylum. The construction of the Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad was largely due to his efforts. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 424.
JENCKES, Thomas Allen, 1818-1875, lawyer. Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Rhode Island. Served as Congressman from 1863-1871. Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 425-426; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 41; Congressional Globe)
JENCKES, Thomas Allen, Congressman, born in Cumberland, R.I., 2 November, 1818; died there, 4 November, 1875. He was graduated at Brown in 1838, and was a tutor in mathematics there in 1839-'40. He studied law, was admitted to the Rhode Island Bar in 1840, and attained note in his profession. He was for many years engaged in the important litigation of the Sickles and Corliss steam-engine patents, and the Day and Goodyear rubber suits. He had an office in New York for many years, as well as in Providence, and was retained by the U.S. government in their cases brought against parties to the Credit Mobilier. During the Dorr Rebellion of 1842 Mr. Jenckes served the constituted authorities in a civil and military capacity, and with his pen as well. He was a secretary of the Landholders' Convention of 1841, and of the convention that framed the constitution of 1842. When the governor's council was established he became its secretary. He served in both houses of the legislature, and in the case of Peckham vs. Burrows, involving the right of the legislature to direct a new trial, convinced that body, and carried it against its previously expressed opinion, and against all other obstacles. This is recorded as one of the greatest forensic triumphs in the annals of Rhode Island. In 1855 he was appointed one of the commissioners to revise the laws of the state. He was elected to Congress in 1862 as a Republican, and served from 1863 till 1871, being at the head of the Committee on Patents, and of the Judiciary Committee. His greatest services in Congress were the revision of the patent and copyright laws, the general bankrupt law of 1867, and the introduction and adoption of a law for improving and regulating the civil service. He took an active part in the deliberations of the house, and on legal questions was an acknowledged authority. He foresaw the Civil War, and urged upon the state and Federal governments active measures to meet it. Witnessing a torch-light parade in the political canvass of 1860, he said: "It will not take much to turn those men into soldiers." Mr. Jenckes became convinced of the necessity of a uniform system of bankruptcy throughout the country, and to that end his labors, although they met with vigorous opposition, resulted in the Bankrupt Law of 1867. His services to frame a bill to secure reform in the civil service brought from him, as chairman of the Joint Select Committee on Retrenchment, an elaborate report on the civil-service laws of the world, 14 May, 1868. His bill met with intense and partisan opposition; but, convinced of its desirability, he forced it upon the attention of the country and of Congress, and, after a struggle, succeeded in securing its passage. His advocacy of the bankrupt and civil-service laws brought him before the New York Chamber of Commerce and Cooper Institute audiences, and elsewhere. In Congress he made the presentation address in behalf of his state when the statue of General Nathanael Greene was presented to the nation. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 425-426.
JENKINS, Albert Gallatin, soldier, born in Cabell County, Virginia, 10 November, 1830; died in Dublin, Virginia, 7 May, 1864. He was educated at the Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia, at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1848, and at Harvard law-school, where he was graduated in 1850. He was admitted to the bar, but never practised, devoting himself instead to agriculture, he was delegate to the National Democratic Convention in Cincinnati in 1856, a member of Congress from Virginia in 1857-'61, and a delegate from Virginia to the Provisional Confederate Congress in the latter year. He then entered the Confederate Army, and was appointed brigadier-general, 5 August, 1862. He commanded a brigade in A. P. Hill's division, and afterward in Stuart's cavalry corps, did good service at Gettysburg, and served in the Shenandoah valley and western Virginia. He was killed in action at Dublin, Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 426.
JENKINS, Charles Jones, jurist, born in Beaufort District, South Carolina, 6 January, 1805; died in Summerville. Georgia, 13 June, 1883. He moved with his parents to Jefferson County, Georgia, in 1816, and was educated at the State University and at Union College, where he was graduated in 1824. He became a member of the Georgia legislature in 1830, was attorney-general of the state in 1831, but resigning before the expiration of his term, and was again chosen to the legislature, where he remained from 1836 till 1850, serving as speaker of the house whenever his party was in a majority. He was brought up in the state-rights, Jeffersonian, school of politics, but supported Harrison for president in 1840, and Clay in 1844. He was a Union member of the Georgia Convention in 1850, and as its chairman was the author of the resolutions known as "The Platform of 1850," in which it was "resolved that the state of Georgia, even to the disruption of every tie which binds her to the Union, resist any act of Congress abolishing slavery." He declined the secretaryship of the interior which was offered him by President Fillmore in this year, was state senator in 1856, and in 1860 was appointed to the supreme bench of Georgia to supply the vacancy caused by the resignation of Linton Stephens. He held this office till the close of the war. In 1865 he was a member of the state constitutional convention that was called on the proclamation of President Johnson, and, being elected governor the same year under the constitution so formed, held office till he was superseded by General Thomas S. Ruger, of the U. S. Army, who was appointed provisional governor under the reconstruction act of Congress in 1868. He then retired to private life, but was president of the Georgia Constitutional Convention in 1877. For many years he was president of the board of trustees of the University of Georgia. See his " Life," by Charles Colcock Jones (Augusta, Georgia, 1884). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.426.
JENKINS, David, 1811-1877, free African American, abolitionist leader, newspaper editor and publisher, writer, lecturer, community activist. Publisher of anti-slavery newspaper, Palladium of Liberty, in Columbus, Ohio. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 6, p. 355)
JENKINS, Thornton Alexander, naval officer, born in Orange County, Virginia, 11 December, 1811. He was prepared for college, but entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 1 November, 1828, and in the following spring sailed on the "Natchez " for Cuba, where he performed hazardous services in breaking up nests of pirates. In 1831 he assisted in suppressing Nat Turner's Negro insurrection in Virginia. He was commissioned as lieutenant on 9 December, 1839. and from 1834 till 1842 was employed as assistant to Prof. Ferdinand K. Hassler on the Coast Survey. In 1845 he was sent to Europe to examine lighthouse systems and other aids to navigation, but returned in about a year to prevent being detained in case war should occur with Great Britain. In 1846 he made an elaborate report of the illuminants, towers, light-ships, buoys, beacons, and other adjuncts of the light-house service in England, France, and other European countries. During the Mexican War he served as executive officer of the sloop "Germantown," and afterward in command of the store-ship "Relief," and of the supply and hospital station on Salmadena Island. In the capture of Tuspan and Tobasco he commanded the landing parties from the "Germantown." In 1848 -'51, when Prof. Alexander D. Bache was superintendent of the Coast Survey, he was engaged, while in command of the schooner "John Y. Mason " and the steamers "Jefferson" and "Corwin" in meteorological and hydrographic observations, and in taking deep sea temperatures in the gulf stream. The last-named vessel was built from his designs and under his superintendence. In October, 1852, he was appointed naval secretary to the Light-house Board, having for two years previous served as secretary to the temporary board. He was promoted commander on 14 September, 1855, and given the " Preble" in the Paraguayan Expedition of 1858-'9. Immediately on his return he was ordered to the Caribbean Sea in search of the filibuster William Walker, and thence to Vera Cruz, Mexico, where he took part in the capture of the "Miramon" and "Marquis of Havana," which he convoyed to New Orleans. In conjunction with Captain William F. Smith he was instrumental in saving the forts at Key West and Dry Tortugas from falling into the hands of an expedition that was sent from New Orleans before the Civil War was openly begun. In February, 1861, he was again appointed secretary to the Light-house Board, and during that year performed delicate and secret services at the request of President Lincoln, until he was attacked with serious illness in November. He was promoted captain, 16 July, 1862, and was the senior officer at the repulse of the enemy at Coggin's Point, James River, and at the attack on the U. S. forces at City Point in August, 1862. In the autumn of 1862 he was engaged in blockading Mobile and its approaches in command of the "Oneida," of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron. He was fleet-captain and chief of staff of Farragut's squadron in the Mississippi, commanding the "Hartford" at the passing of the Port Hudson and Grand Gulf batteries. He had encounters with the enemy at various points on the river, and at the capture of Port Hudson was in chief command of the naval forces, Admiral Farragut having gone some time before on necessary business to New Orleans. In the blockade of Mobile in 1864 he commanded the " Richmond " and the 2d Division of Admiral Farragut's fleet, and he was left in command in Mobile bar till February, 1865, when he was ordered to the James River, and remained there until after the surrender of General Lee. He then went to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to investigate seamen's bounty claims, and was president of a board that awarded a large aggregate sum to enlisted men and their families. He was commissioned as commodore on 25 July, 1860. From 1855 till he resigned the office on the change of administration in 1859, he was chief of the Board of Navigation, and then secretary of the Light-house Board till 1871, being promoted rear-admiral on 13 July, 1870. Afterward he commanded the naval forces on the Asiatic Station until he was retired on 12 December, 1873. He had charge of the exhibit of the Navy Department at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 427-428.
JESSUP, William, 1797-1868, Pennsylvania, jurist, abolitionist, temperance activist. Leader of the Republican Party. Wrote party platform for election of 1860. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 431.
JESSUP, William, jurist, born in Southampton, New York, 21 June, 1797; died in Montrose, Pennsylvania, 11 Sept., 1868. He was graduated at Yale in 1815, moved to Montrose in 1818, and was admitted to the bar there. From 1838 till 1851 he was presiding judge of the 11th Judicial District of Pennsylvania, and in April, 1861, was one of the committee of three that was sent by the governors of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio to confer with President Lincoln relative to raising 75,000 men. He was a pioneer in the cause of education and temperance in northern Pennsylvania, and the chief founder of the County Agricultural Society. In 1848 Hamilton College conferred on him the degree of LL.D. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 431.
JEWELL, James Stewart, physician, born near Galena, Illinois, 8 September, 1837; died in Chicago, Illinois, 19 April, 1887. He was graduated at Chicago Medical College in 1860, practised in Williamson County, Illinois, for two years, and then settled in Chicago, where he acquired a reputation as a specialist in nervous and mental diseases. During the Civil War he was a contract surgeon in General Sherman's command. He was professor of anatomy in Chicago Medical College from 1864 till 1869, and of nervous and mental diseases from 1872 till his death. In 1874 he began the publication of the "Quarterly Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 413.
JEWETT, John Punchard, publisher, born in Lebanon, Maine, 16 August, 1814; died in Orange, New Jersey, 14 May, 1884. He was employed when a boy in a book-store and bindery in Salem, Massachusetts, became a partner in the business, and about 1849 established himself in Boston. He was a member in 1835 of the first anti-slavery Society in New England, and wrote many controversial articles for the newspapers. His firm brought out in 1852 the first edition of Mrs. Stowe's " Uncle Tom's Cabin." They also published Maria S. Cummins's " Lamplighter," and other popular works. He was a personal friend of Charles Sumner, Wendell Phillips, Governor John A. Andrew, and John A. Whittier. After losing his property in the panic of 1857, he went to Europe in 1862 in order to introduce a patent, and there became interested in a process of making lucifer-matches, and on his return established a factory in Roxbury, Massachusetts In 1867 he moved to New York City. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 432.
JEWETT, Theodore Herman, physician, born in South Berwick, Maine, 24 March, 1815; died in Crawford Notch, White Mountains, New Hampshire, 20 September, 1878. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 1834, and at Jefferson Medical College in 1840. He was professor of obstetrics and diseases of women and children in the medical department of Bowdoin, consulting surgeon to the Maine General Hospital, surgeon of the first Maine District during the Civil War, and president of the Maine Medical Society, and made many important contributions to current medical literature. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 433.
JOCELYN, Simeon S., New Haven, Connecticut, New York, NY, abolitionist leader. Vice President, 1834-1835, Manager and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, December 1833. Member of the Executive Committee, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1840-1855. Co-founded the Amistad Committee with Lewis Tappan and Joshua Leavitt. Active in the Underground Railroad, aiding escaped slaves. Vice President and co-founder, New England Anti-Slavery Society (NEASS), 1832. Active in training Blacks in schools of manual arts. (Dumond, 1961, pp. 169, 171, 175-176; Mabee, 1970, pp. 4, 30, 31, 150, 235, 396n5; Sorin, 1971; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 326; First, Second, and Third Annual Reports of the Board of Managers of the New England Anti-Slavery Society, Boston, 1833-35)
JOHNSON, Andrew, seventeenth president of the United States, born in Raleigh, North Carolina, 29 December, 1808; died near Carter's Station, Tennessee, 31 July, 1875. His parents were very poor, and when he was four years old his father died of injuries received in saving another from drowning. At the age of ten Andrew was apprenticed to a tailor. A natural craving to learn was fostered by hearing a gentleman read from "The American Speaker." The boy was taught the alphabet by fellow-workmen, borrowed the book and learned to read. In 1824 he moved to Laurens Court-House, South Carolina, where he worked as a journeyman tailor. The illustration on page 437 represents the small shop in which he pursued the calling that is announced on the sign over the door. In May, 1826, he returned to Raleigh, and in September, with his mother and step-father, he set out in a two wheeled cart, drawn by a blind pony, for Greenville, Tennessee. Here he married Eliza McCardle. a woman of refinement, who taught him to write, and read to him while he was at work during the day. It was not until he had been in Congress that he learned to write with ease. From Greenville he went to the west, but returned after the lapse of a year. In those days Tennessee was controlled by landholders, whose interests were fostered by the state constitution, and Greenville was ruled by what was called an "aristocratic coterie of the quality." Johnson resisted their supremacy, and made himself a leader of the opposition. In 1828 he was elected alderman, in 1829 and 1830 was re-elected, and in 1830 was advanced to the mayoralty, which office he held for three years. In 1831 the county court appointed him a trustee of Rhea Academy, and about this time he took part in the debates of a society at Greenville College. In 1834 he advocated the adoption of the new state constitution, by which the influence of the large landholders was abridged. In 1835 he represented Greene and Washington Counties in the legislature. He resisted the popular mania for internal improvements, which caused his defeat in 1837, but the reaction justified his foresight, strengthened his influence, and restored his popularity. In 1839 he was returned. In 1836 he supported Hugh L. White for the presidency, and was a Bell man in the warm personal and political altercations between John Bell and James K. Polk, which distracted Tennessee at this time. Johnson was the only ardent follower of Bell that failed to go over to the Whig Party. In 1840 he was an elector for the state-at-large on Van Buren's ticket, and made a state reputation by the force of his oratory. In 1841 he was elected to the state senate from Greene and Hawkins counties, and while in that body he was one of the "immortal 13 " Democrats who, having it in their power to prevent the election of a Whig senator, did so by refusing to meet the house in joint convention. He also proposed that the basis of representation should rest upon the white votes, without regard to the ownership of slaves.
In 1843 he was elected to Congress over John A. Asken, a U. S. Bank Democrat, who was supported by the Whigs. His first speech was in support of the resolution to restore to General Jackson the fine imposed upon him at New Orleans. He supported the annexation of Texas. In 1845 he was re-elected, and sustained Polk's administration. He opposed all expenditures for internal improvements that were not general, and resisted and defeated the proposed contingent tax of ten per cent, on tea and coffee. He was regularly re-elected until 1853. During this period he made his celebrated defence of the veto power, and urged the adoption of the Homestead Law, which was obnoxious to the slave-holding power of the south. He supported the compromise measures of 1850 as a matter of expediency, but opposed compromises in general as a sacrifice of principle. In 1853 the district lines were so "gerrymandered" as to throw him into a district in which the Whigs had an overwhelming majority. Johnson at once announced himself a candidate for the governorship, and was elected by a fair majority. In his message to the legislature he dwelt upon the Homestead Law and other measures for the benefit of the working-classes, and earned the title of the " mechanic governor.'' He opposed the Know-Nothing movement with characteristic vehemence. In 1855 he was opposed by Meredith P. Gentry, the Whig candidate, and defeated him after a canvass remarkable for the feeling displayed. Mr. Johnson earnestly supported the Kansas-Nebraska Bill.
In 1857 he was elected to the U. S. Senate, where he urged the passage of the homestead bill, and on 20 May, 1858, made his greatest speech on this subject. Finally, in 1860, he had the momentary gratification of seeing his favorite bill pass both houses of Congress, but President Buchanan vetoed it, and the veto was sustained. Johnson revived it at the next session, and also introduced a resolution looking to a retrenchment in the expenditures of the government, and on constitutional grounds opposed the grant of aid for the construction of a Pacific Railroad. He was prominent in debate, and frequently clashed with southern supporters of the administration. His pronounced Unionism estranged him from the slave-holders on the one side, while his acceptance of slavery as an institution guaranteed by the constitution caused him to hold aloof from the Republicans on the other. This intermediate position suggested his availability as a popular candidate for the presidency; but in the Democratic Convention he received only the vote of Tennessee, and when the convention reassembled in Baltimore he withdrew his name. In the canvass that followed, he supported the extreme pro-slavery candidate, Breckinridge. Johnson had never believed it possible that any organized attempt to dissolve the Union could be made; but the events preceding the session of Congress beginning in December, 1860, convinced him of his error. When Congress met, he took decided and unequivocal grounds in opposition to secession, and on 13 December introduced a joint resolution, proposing to amend the constitution so as to elect the president and vice-president by district votes, to elect senators by a direct popular vote, and to limit the terms of Federal judges to twelve years, half of them to be from slave-holding and half from non-slave-holding states. In his speech on this resolution, 18 and 19 December, he declared his unyielding opposition to secession, and announced his intention to stand by and act in and under the constitution. The southern states were then in the act of seceding, and every word uttered in Congress was read and discussed with eagerness by thirty millions of people. Johnson's speech, coming from a southern man, thrilled the popular heart; but his popularity in the north was offset by the virulence with which he was assailed in the south. In a speech delivered 2 March, 1861, he said, referring to the secessionists: "I would have them arrested and tried for treason, and, if convicted, by the eternal God, they should suffer the penalty of the law at the hands of the executioner." Returning to Tennessee from Washington, he was attacked at Liberty, Virginia, by a mob, but drove them back with his pistol. At Lynchburg he was hooted and hissed, and at various places burned in effigy. He attended the East Tennessee union Convention, in Cincinnati, 30 May, and again on 19 June he visited the same place and was received with enthusiasm. Here he declared for a vigorous prosecution of the war.
He retained his seat in the senate until appointed by President Lincoln military governor of Tennessee, 4 March, 1862. On 12 March he reached Nashville, and organized a provisional government for the state. On 18 March he issued a proclamation, in which he appealed to the people to return to their allegiance, to uphold the law, and to accept "a full and competent amnesty for all past, acts and declarations. He required the city council to take the oath of allegiance to the United States. They refused, and he moved them and appointed others. He urged the holding of Union meetings throughout the state, and frequently attended them in person. It was chiefly due to his courage that Nashville was held against a Confederate force. He completed the railroad from Nashville to Tennessee River, and raised 25 regiments for service in the state. On 8 December, 1862, he issued a proclamation ordering congressional elections, and on the 15th levied an assessment upon the richer southern sympathizers, "in behalf of the many helpless widows, wives, and children in the city of Nashville who have been reduced to poverty and wretchedness in consequence of their husbands, sons, and fathers having been forced into the armies of this unholy and nefarious rebellion." On 20 February, 1863, Governor Johnson issued a proclamation warning the agents of all "traitors" to retain their collections until some person should be appointed to receive them for the United States. During the term of his service, Governor Johnson exercised absolute and autocratic powers, but with singular moderation and discretion, and his course strengthened the Union cause in Tennessee. The Republican Convention assembled in Baltimore, 6 June, 1864, and renominated Mr. Lincoln for the presidency by acclamation. There was a strong sentiment in favor of recognizing the political sacrifices made for the cause of the Union by the war Democrats, and it was generally conceded that New York should decide who was to be the individual. Daniel S. Dickinson, of that state, was most prominent in this connection; but internal factional divisions made it impossible for him to obtain the solid vote of that state, and Secretary Seward's friends feared this nomination would force him from the cabinet. Henry J. Raymond urged the name of Andrew Johnson, and he was accordingly selected. Johnson, in his letter of acceptance, virtually disclaimed any departure from his principles as a Democrat, but placed his acceptance upon the ground of "the higher duty of first preserving the government." He accepted the Emancipation Proclamation as a war measure, to be subsequently ratified by constitutional amendment. In his inaugural address as vice-president, 4 March, 1865, a lack of dignity in his bearing and an incoherency in his speech were attributed to the influence of strong drink. As a matter of fact, he was much worn by disease, and had taken a little stimulant to aid him in the ordeal of inauguration, and in his weakened condition the effect was more decided than he anticipated. This explanation was generally accepted by the country.
On 14 April, 1865, President Lincoln was assassinated, and Mr. Johnson was at once sworn in as president, at his rooms in the Kirkwood House, by Chief-Justice Chase. In his remarks to those present Mr. Johnson said: "As to an indication of any policy which may be pursued by me in the administration of the government, I have to say that that must be left for development as the administration progresses. The message or declaration must be made by the acts as they transpire. The only assurance I can now give of the future is reference to the past." In his addresses to various delegations that called upon him, he emphasized the fact that he advocated a course of forbearance toward the mass of the southern people, but demanded punishment for those who had been leaders. "Treason is a crime," he said to the Illinois delegation, "and must be punished." At the time it was generally supposed that Johnson, who was known to be personally embittered against the dominant classes in the south, would inaugurate a reign of terror and decimate those who had taken up arms against the national authority. His protest against the terms of surrender granted to General Lee by General Grant, and utterances in private conversation, strengthened the fear that he would be too bloody and vindictive. He was supposed not to have been in accord with the humane policy that Lincoln had foreshadowed, and his silence in reference to Lincoln's policy, which amounted to ignoring it, was accepted as a proof that he did not intend to follow this course. On one occasion he said: "In regard to my future course, I will now make no professions, no pledges." And again: "My past life, especially my course during the present unholy rebellion, is before you. I have no principles to retract. I defy anyone to point to any of my public acts at variance with the fixed principles which have guided me through life." It was evident that the difference in views of public policy, which were kept in abeyance during the war, would now come to the surface. The surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston's army, 26 April, 1865, was practically the end of the war (although 20 August. 1866, was officially fixed as the close of the Civil War by the second section of the act of 2 March, 1867). and on 29 April President Johnson issued a proclamation for the removal of trade restrictions in most of the insurrectionary states, which, being in contravention of an act of Congress, was subsequently modified. On 9 May, 1865, he issued a proclamation restoring Virginia to the Union, and on 22 May all ports except four in Texas were opened to foreign commerce. On 29 May a general amnesty was declared to all except fourteen specified classes of citizens. Among the number excepted were "all participants in the rebellion the estimated value of whose taxable property is over twenty thousand dollars." This exception was undoubtedly the result of personal feeling on the part of the president. It began to be perceived that a change was taking place in his sentiments, and this was attributed to the influence of Secretary Seward, who was popularly supposed to perpetuate the humane spirit of the dead president. Those who had fears of too great severity now anticipated too great leniency. After the amnesty proclamation, the fundamental and irreconcilable difference between President Johnson and the party that had elevated him to power became more apparent. The constitution made no provision for the readmission of a state that had withdrawn from the Union, and Mr. Johnson, as a state-rights Democrat, held that the southern states had never been out of the Union; that the leaders were solely responsible: that as soon as the seceded states applied for readmission under such a form of government as complied with the requirements of the constitution, the Federal government had no power to refuse them admission, or to make any conditions upon subjects over which the constitution had not expressly given Congress jurisdiction. The Republican leaders held that the action of the seceded states had deprived them of their rights as members of the Union; that in any event they were conquered, and as such at the mercy of the conqueror; and that, at best, they stood in the category of territories seeking admission to the Union, in which case Congress could admit or reject them at will. The particular question that brought on a clash between these principles was the civil status of the Negro. The 13th amendment became a law, 18 December, 1865, with Johnson's concurrence. The Republicans held that slavery had been the cause of the war; that only by giving the freed man the right to vote could he be protected, and the results of the war secured: and that no state should be admitted until it had granted the right of suffrage to the Negroes within its borders. Johnson held this to be a matter of internal regulation, beyond the control of Congress. From 9 May till 18 July he appointed provisional governors for seven states, whose duties were to reorganize the governments. The state governments were organized, but passed such stringent laws in reference to the Negroes that the Republicans declared it was a worse form of slavery than the old. When Congress met in December, 1865, it was overwhelmingly Republican and firmly determined to protect the Negro against outrage and oppression. The first breach between the president and the party in power was the veto of the Freedman's Bureau Bill in February, 1866, which was designed to protect the Negroes. One of the grounds of the veto was, that it had been passed by a Congress in which the southern states had no representatives. On 27 March the president vetoed the civil rights bill, which made freedmen citizens without the right of suffrage. The chief ground of objection was the interference with the rights of the states. This bill was passed over the veto. On 16 June the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which contained the principle of the civil rights bill, was proposed, disapproved by the president, but ratified and declared in force, 28 July, 1868. Both houses of Congress passed a joint resolution that the delegation from a state lately in rebellion should not be received by either the senate or the house until both united in declaring said state a member of the Union. In July the Second Freedman's Bureau bill was passed, vetoed, and passed over the veto. In June, 1866, the Republicans in Congress brought forward their plan of reconstruction, which was called the " Congressional plan," in contradistinction to the president's plan, of which he spoke as "my policy." The chief features of the Congressional plan were, to give the Negroes the right to vote, to protect them in this right, and to prevent the Confederate leaders from voting. Congress met on 3 December, 1866. The bill giving Negroes the right of suffrage in the District of Columbia was passed over a veto. An attempt was made to impeach the president, but it failed. In January, 1867, a bill was passed to deprive the president of the power to proclaim general amnesty, which he disregarded. Measures were adopted looking to the meeting of the 40th and all subsequent Congresses immediately upon the adjournment of the predecessor. The president was deprived of the command of the army by a "rider" to the Army Appropriation Bill, which provided that his orders should only be given through the general, who was not to be moved without the previous consent of the senate. The bill admitting Nebraska provided that no law should ever be passed in that state denying the right of suffrage to any person because of his color or race. This was vetoed, and passed over the veto. On 2 March, 1867, the "bill to provide efficient governments for the insurrectionary states," which embodied the Congressional plan of reconstruction, was passed, vetoed, and passed over the veto. This divided the southern states into military districts, each under a brigadier-general, who was to preserve order and exercise all the functions of government until the citizens had formed a state government, ratified the amendments, and been admitted to the Union. On 2 March, 1867, the tenure-of-office bill was passed over the veto. This provided that civil officers should remain in office until the confirmation of their successors; that the members of the cabinet should be moved only with the consent of the senate; and that when Congress was not in session, the president could suspend, but not remove, any official, and in case the senate at the next session should not ratify the suspension, the suspended official should be reinducted into his office. The elections of 1866 were uniformly favorable to the Republicans, and gave them a two-third majority in both house and senate. On 5 August, 1867, the president requested Edwin M. Stanton to resign his office as Secretary of War. Mr. Stanton refused, was suspended, and General Grant was appointed in his place. When Congress met, it refused to ratify the suspension. General Grant then resigned, and Mr. Stanton again entered upon the duties of his office. The president moved him, and appointed Lorenzo Thomas, adjutant-general, U. S. Army. The Senate declared this act illegal, and Mr. Stanton refused to comply, and notified the Speaker of the House. On 24 February, 1868, the house passed a resolution for the impeachment of the president. The trial began on 5 March. The main articles of impeachment were for violating the provisions of the tenure-of-office act, which it was claimed he had done in order to test its constitutionality. After the trial began, the president made a tour through the northwest, which was called "swinging round the circle," because in his speeches he declared that he had swung around the entire circle of offices, from alderman to president. He made many violent and intemperate speeches to the crowds that assembled to meet him, and denounced the Congress then sitting as "no Congress," because of its refusal to admit the representatives and senators from the south, and on these speeches were based additional articles of impeachment. On 16 May the test vote was had. Thirty-five senators were for conviction and nineteen for acquittal. A change of one vote would have carried conviction. The senate adjourned sine die, and a verdict of acquittal was entered. After the expiration of his term the president returned to Tennessee. He was a candidate for the U. S. Senate, but was defeated. In 1872 he was a candidate for congressman from the state-at-large, and, though defeated, he regained his hold upon the people of the state, and in January, 1875, was elected to the Senate, taking his seat at the extra session of 1875. Two weeks after the session began he made a speech which was a skilful but bitter attack upon General Grant. He returned home at the end of the session, and in July visited his daughter, who lived near Carter's Station in east Tennessee. There he was stricken with paralysis, 29 July, and died the next day. He was buried at Greenville. His "Speeches' were published with a biographical introduction by Frank Moore (Boston, 1865), and his " Life and Times" were written by an anonymous author (New York, 1866). See "also "The" Tailor Boy" (Boston, 1865), and "The Trial of Andrew Johnson on Impeachment" (3 vols., Washington, 1868).—His wife, Eliza Mcardie, born in Leesburg, Washington County, Tennessee, 4 October, 1810; died in Home, Greene County, Tenn., 15 January, 1876, was the only daughter of a widow in Greenville, Tennessee. On 27 May, 1826, she married Andrew Johnson, and devoted herself to his interests and education, contributing effectually toward his future career. She remained in Greenville while he served in the legislature, and in 1861 spent two months in Washington while Mr. Johnson was in the senate. Owing to impaired health she returned to Greenville, and while there received an order, dated 24 April, 1862, requiring her to pass beyond the Confederate lines through Nashville in thirty-six hours. This was impossible, owing to her illness, and she therefore remained in Greenville all summer, hearing constantly rumors of Mr. Johnson's murder. In September she applied for permission to cross the line, and, accompanied by her children and Mr. Daniel Stover, she began her journey to Nashville. At Murfreesboro they were met by General Forrest, who detained them until Isham G. Harris and Andrew Ewing obtained permission from the authorities at Richmond for them to pass. Mrs. Johnson joined her husband at Nashville. During her residence in Washington Mrs. Johnson appeared in society as little as possible.—Their daughter, Martha, born in Greenville, Tennessee, 25 October. 1828, was educated in Georgetown, D. C, and during her school-life was a frequent guest in the White House in President Polk's administration. She returned to east Tennessee in 1851, and on 13 December 1837, married Judge David T. Patterson. She presided at the White House in place of her invalid mother, and, with her sister, assisted in the first reception that was held by President Johnson, 1 January, 1806. During the early spring an appropriation of $30,000 was made by Congress to refurnish the executive mansion, and Mrs. Patterson superintended the purchases. —Another daughter, Mary, born in Greenville, Tennessee, 8 May, 1832; died in Bluff City, Tennessee, 19 April, 1883, married Daniel Stover, of Carter County, who died in 1862, and in 1869 she married William K. Bacon, of Greenville. Tennessee. She resided at the White House from August, 1863, until a short time before the expiration of her father's term. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 436-440.
JOHNSON, Andrew Wallace, naval officer, born in Washington, D. C, 24 February, 1826: died there, 14 June, 1887. He was appointed midshipman in 1841, and commissioned lieutenant, 15 September, 1855. He was made lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, and in 1864-'5 served with the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, being on the iron-clads " Lehigh" and " Montauk " in their engagements with Confederate batteries in Stono River, South Carolina, in July, 1864. He was commissioned commander, 2 February, 1867, and captain, 5 April, 1874, and served as chief of staff of the South Atlantic Squadron from 1869 till 1870. After being assigned to special duty for several years at Washington, D. C, and at Portsmouth, N. H., Captain Johnson was retired by operation of law. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 440.
JOHNSON, Bradley Tyler, lawyer, born in Frederick City, Maryland, 29 September, 1829. He was graduated at Princeton in 1849, receiving the mathematical oration, studied law at Harvard, was admitted to the bar in North Carolina in 1851. and was elected state's attorney of Frederick County in November. He was the Democratic candidate for comptroller of the state in 1857, chairman of the Democratic State Central Committee in 1859-'60, delegate to the National Democratic Convention at Charleston and Baltimore in 1860. and withdrew with a majority of the Maryland delegation from the convention and united in the nomination of Breckinridge and Lane. At the beginning of the Civil War he organized and armed a company at his own expense, which was mustered into the service of the Confederate States, he being captain. On 16 June he was made major, 21 July lieutenant-colonel, and 18 March, 1862, colonel. He commanded his regiment in all the battles of Jackson's valley campaign of 1862 and in the Seven Days' Battles around Richmond. The regiment having been almost annihilated, in August, 1862, the remnant was mustered out, and Colonel Johnson was then assigned to Jackson's division. On 28 June, 1864, was commissioned brigadier-general of cavalry. His services in defeating Dahlgren on his raid toward Richmond were recognized in a general order, and General Wade Hampton presented him with a sabre. He commanded a brigade of cavalry under Early in the campaign of 1864. On Early's advance into Maryland, General Johnson destroyed the railroad bridges north of Baltimore, but on 12 July was ordered by Early to report to him. In December, 1864, General Johnson was assigned to the command of the post at Salisbury, North Carolina. When the prisoners were actually starving. General Johnson stopped a train bound for the Army of Northern Virginia, took from it the provisions with which it was freighted, and used them to feed the prisoners. At the same time he asked to be allowed to carry the prisoners to Goldsboro and release them on parole, and urged upon Governor Vance, of North Carolina, the propriety of furnishing them with blankets and clothes from the depots of the state. After the war General Johnson settled in Richmond, Virginia, and devoted himself to the practice of law. In 1872 he was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention at Baltimore. In 1875 he published "Reports of Chase's Decisions on the 4th Circuit," and in the same year was elected to the Senate of Virginia. In 1877 he made a report from the committee on finance on the public debt of Virginia, and in 1879, as chairman of the joint committee on Federal relations, he prepared the report on the question of the Federal judicial jurisdiction in its relation to the jurisdiction of the state courts. In 1879 he moved to Baltimore. In 1883 he published an examination of the "Foundation of Maryland and the Maryland Act Concerning Religion." In 1884 he was president of the Electoral College of Maryland. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 440
JOHNSON, Bushrod Rust, soldier, born in Belmont County, Ohio, 7 October, 1817; died in Brighton, Illinois, 11 September, 1880. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, served in the Seminole War, and became 1st lieutenant in 1844. During the Mexican War he participated in numerous battles. He became professor and subsequently superintendent of the Western Military Institute of Kentucky at Georgetown. He entered the Confederate service in 1861. was commissioned brigadier-general, and taken prisoner at Fort Donelson, but shortly afterward escaped, and was wounded at Alleghany Camp, and again at Shiloh. He commanded a division at the battle of Chattanooga, served in subsequent engagements in the Army of Tennessee, was promoted major-general in 1864, and in command of a division at the surrender. After the war he became superintendent of the military college in the University of Nashville, and chancellor of that institution. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 440-441.
JOHNSON, Edward, soldier, born in Chesterfield County, Virginia, 16 April, 1816; died in Richmond, Virginia, 22 February, 1873. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1838, was brevetted captain in 1847 for meritorious service during the Florida Wars, and major in 1848 for gallantry at Chapultepec and the city of Mexico, being presented on his return with swords of honor by his native state and county. He was commissioned 1st lieutenant in 1839, and captain in 1851. In 1861 he resigned, and, joining the Confederate Army, was appointed colonel of the 12th Georgia Volunteers, brigadier-general in 1862, and major-general in 1863. He commanded a division at Gettysburg, was taken prisoner, with his entire force, at Spottsylvania Court-House, 12 May, 1864, and subsequently was recaptured at Nashville in December of that year. At the close of the war he retired to his farm in Chesterfield County, Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 442.
JOHNSON, Herschel Vespasian, statesman, born in Burke County, Georgia, 18 September, 1812; died in Jefferson County, Georgia, 16 August, 1880. He was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1834, studied law, and practised in Augusta, Georgia, till 1839, when he moved to Jefferson County. In 1840 he entered politics as a Democrat, and in 1844 he moved to Milledgeville, serving also in that year as a presidential elector. He was subsequently appointed U. S. Senator in place of Walter T. Colquitt, resigned, serving from 3 March, 1849. In November of the latter year he was elected, by the legislature of Georgia, judge of the superior court for the Ocmulgee District, which he occupied until his nomination as governor in 1853, when he resigned. He had in the meantime been a member of the Southern Rights Party, but when Georgia resolved to acquiesce in the compromise measures of 1850 he was one of the first to declare that the causes that had led to the organization of that movement had ceased to exist. He was elected governor in 1853, and re-elected in 1855. In 1860 he was nominated for the vice£ on the ticket with Stephen A. Douglas. He opposed the secession of Georgia to the last; but when the fact was accomplished he cast his lot with his state, and was chosen to the Confederate Senate. In 1864 he began the “peace movement.” on the basis of state sovereignty. In September of the same year he held a conference with Andrew Johnson regarding reconstruction, and the following month presided over the Georgia Constitutional Convention. In January, 1866, on the restoration of his state to the Union, he was chosen as one of the two U.S. Senators to which Georgia was entitled, but was unable to serve under the Reconstruction Acts of Congress. He then resumed the practice of the law, and when his disabilities were finally moved he was, in 1873, placed on the circuit bench for the term of eight years, which office he filled until his death. As an orator, a constitutional lawyer, and a jurist, Judge Johnson took high rank. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 443.
JOHNSON, John Milton, physician, born in Smithland, Livingston County, Kentucky, 15 January, 1812; died in Atlanta, Georgia, 18 May, 1886. His ancestor, Thomas, came to this country in 1700. After receiving an education from his father and from a physician of Madisonville, Kentucky, he began the practice of medicine in 1833. His success in treating an epidemic in western Kentucky that was known as the "milk sickness," between 1840 and 1845, brought him into notice, and his notes upon this disease and its causes were republished in the London "Lancet" and other medical journals. In 1861 he entered the Confederate Army, and in 1862 was surgeon of the post at Atlanta, Georgia. Afterward he was medical director for General Hardee's division, and served in all of General Bragg's engagements. After the close of the Civil War he settled in Atlanta, where he practised his profession until his death. He was president of the Atlanta Academy of Medicine in 1875, and from 1868 till 1872 taught physiology and pathological anatomy in Atlanta Medical College. He has published numerous medical papers. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 445.
JOHNSON, Nathan, 1797-1880, African American, former slave, abolitionist leader, community leader. American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), Manager, 1839-1840, 1841-1842. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 6, p. 479)
JOHNSON, Richard W., soldier, born near Smithland, Livingston County, Kentucky, 7 February, 1827, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, and assigned to the 6th U.S. Infantry. He soon joined the 1st U.S. Infantry, and in March, 1855, was transferred to the cavalry, in which he was quartermaster until December, 1856, when he was made captain and served against the Indians on the Texan frontier. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 3d Kentucky Cavalry (National) on 28 August, 1861, and on 11 October, 1861, was made brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to a brigade in General Buell's army, engaging in the movement to Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee., and also serving in Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky. He was present at the siege of Corinth on 28 May, 1862, and routed a Confederate force in his front. In July, 1862, he commanded a division of the Army of the Ohio, in the Tennessee Campaign. He was taken prisoner at Gallatin, Tennessee, on 21 August, by a greatly superior force under Morgan, and after his exchange in December was placed in command of the 12th Division of the Army of the Cumberland. He was at Stone River, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge, and in the Atlanta Campaign, being engaged in all the battles in the line of march from Nashville to New Hope Church, near Atlanta, where he was severely wounded, 28 May, 1864. He subsequently commanded a division of cavalry at the battle of Nashville, was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, for gallant and meritorious services, 13 March, 1865, and also major-general for his services in the field during the war. He remained on the staff of General George H. Thomas, as provost-marshal and judge-advocate of the Military Division of the Tennessee, serving till 1866, when he was mustered out of volunteer service. He was retired with the rank of brigadier-general on 12 October, 1867. He was military professor in the University of Missouri in 1868-9, and in the University of Minnesota in 1869'70. In 1881 he was the Democratic nominee for governor of Minnesota. He is the author of a "Life of General George H. Thomas" (Philadelphia, 1881), and "A Soldier's Reminiscences" (1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 445.
JOHNSON, Joseph, governor of Virginia, born in Orange County, New York, 19 December, 1785; died in Bridgeport, West. Virginia, 27 February, 1877. In 1800 he moved to Bridgeport, West Virginia, where he worked on a farm and educated himself. He served in the war of 1812 as captain of a volunteer company of riflemen, was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 1823 till 1827, again in 1833 for the unexpired term of Philip Doddridge, and also in 1835-'41 and 1845-7. In 1844 he was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention. From 1852 till 1856 he was governor of Virginia. He was a supporter of the Confederacy in 1861-'5.—His nephew, Waldo Porter, senator, born in Harrison County, Virginia, 16 September, 1817; died in Osceola, Saint Clair County, Missouri, 14 August, 1885, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began practice in Osceola in 1843. In 1846 he enlisted as a private in the Mexican War, and while on the plains was honorably discharged to serve in the Missouri Legislature to which he had been elected. He became prosecuting attorney and judge of his judicial district, and was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Democrat, serving from 4 July, 1861 till 10 January, 1862, when he was expelled, because he had joined the Confederate Army. During the special session of July, 1861, he offered the resolution for a peace convention to meet in Louisville, Kentucky. He was wounded at Pea Ridge, and became lieutenant-colonel, taking part in the first Corinth engagement. Afterward, while he was on special service, he was appointed by Governor Reynolds to the Confederate Senate to fill a vacancy. After the close of the Civil War he went to Hamilton, Canada, where he remained until his return to Osceola. In 1875 he was president of the state constitutional convention. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 445.
JOHNSON, Oliver, 1809-1889, anti-slavery leader, newspaper editor, printer, reformer. An early supporter of William Lloyd Garrison. American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), Member Executive Committee, 1841-1843, Manager, 1852-1853. Occasionally helped Garrison in the editing of The Liberator. In 1832, co-founded and was Counselor for the New England Anti-Slavery Society. Lectured extensively against slavery. Johnson edited various anti-slavery newspapers, including the National Anti-Slavery Standard, the Pennsylvania Freeman, and the Anti-Slavery Bugle. (Mabee, 1970, pp. 86, 87, 214, 215, 226, 261, 262, 297, 335, 368; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 367; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 446; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 412; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 12, p. 107)
JOHNSON, Oliver, editor, born in Peacham, Vermont, 27 December, 1809. He served a printer's apprenticeship in the office of the " Watchman," at Montpelier, Vermont, and in 1831 became the editor of the newly established "Christian Soldier." From 1865 till 1870 he was managing editor of the "Independent," after which he became the editor of the "Weekly Tribune," which post he resigned in 1872 to become editor of the "Christian Union." He was active in the cause of anti-slavery as lecturer and editor, and was one of the twelve that organized the New England Anti-Slavery Society in 1832. He has published "William Lloyd Garrison and his Times, or Sketches of the Anti-Slavery Movement in America" (Boston, 1880). — His wife, Mary Ann, born in Westmoreland, New Hampshire, 24 August, 1808; died in New York, 8 June, 1872, was assistant matron in the female state-prison at Sing Sing, New York, and promoted the reforms introduced at that period. Subsequently she lectured on anatomy and physiology to women. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 446.
JOHNSON, Philip Carrigain, naval officer, born in Maine, 21 November, 1828; died in Portsmouth. New Hampshire. 28 January, 1887. He entered the navy in 1846, and was present at the bombardment of Vera Cruz and Tuspan during the Mexican War. In 1847-'8 he served in the frigate " Ohio," of the Pacific Squadron, and spent the next four years at the naval school and with the Brazil Squadron. In 1854-'9 he was attached to the U.S. Coast Survey. He became a lieutenant in 1855, from 1859 till 1861 was attached to the " San Jacinto." then cruising on the coast of Africa, and from 1861 till 1863 commanded the "Tennessee" of the Western Gulf Squadron, being present at the bombardment and passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip. He became a lieutenant-commander in 1862, and in 1864 was attached to the "Katahdin," of the Western Gulf Squadron. In 1865-'6 he was stationed in the Naval Academy, and two years afterward he served on the "Sacramento." He became a commander in 1867, and from 1868 till 1870 was fleet-captain of the South Pacific Squadron. He was made captain in 1874, and served until 1876 on the South Pacific Station, commanding the "Omaha" and the "Richmond." In 1877-81 he was stationed at the Mare Island U.S. Navy-yard, and was then ordered to the command of the training-ship "New Hampshire." He subsequently served as chief signal officer of the navy, and in 1884 was promoted to the rank of commodore and placed in command of Portsmouth U.S. Navy-yard He was promoted to rear-admiral 26 January, 1887. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 446.
JOHNSON, Reverdy, 1796-1876, lawyer, diplomat, statesman, U.S. Senator, opposed annexing territories acquired in the war with Mexico. Strongly opposed the extension of slavery into the new territories. Ardent supporter of the Union. Believed that African Americans should be recruited into the Union Army and as a result should gain their emancipation. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 446-447; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 112; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 12, p. 116)
JOHNSON, Reverdy, statesman, born in Annapolis, Maryland, 21 May. 1796; died there, 10 February, 1876. He was educated at St. John's College, studied law with his father, John Johnson, chancellor of the state, and was admitted to the bar in 1815. He began to practise in Upper Marlboro', Prince George County, was appointed deputy attorney-general for that judicial district, and in 1817 moved to Baltimore, where he practised with success. In 1821 he was elected to the state senate for a term of five years, and soon distinguished himself for his intelligent, bold, and comprehensive discussion of the question of state and Federal policy that was agitating the country. He was re-elected for the succeeding term, but resigned at the end of the second year to become Attorney-General in President Taylor's cabinet. In 1845 he was sent to the U. S. Senate as a Whig, serving till 1849. One of the most striking characteristics of Mr. Johnson's public life was his occasional disregard of party dictation. A memorable instance of this independent action was his hearty support of the Mexican War measures of Polk's administration, in spite of the violent opposition of the Whigs. On the accession of President Fillmore, Mr. Johnson resigned, and for more than twenty years afterward he was exclusively engaged in his professional duties, appearing during that time in the trial of celebrated cases in almost every part of the country, from New England to California. In 1854 he was employed by some English claimants to argue a case in London before an Anglo-American commission. During his residence of several months in England he was received with marked attention by the barristers and judges of that country, and left a reputation behind him which had not been forgotten when, fourteen years afterward, he went as minister to the Court of St. James. Whether in or out of office, Mr. Johnson was invariably outspoken in his opinions of all public matters. His decided opposition to the proscriptive doctrines of the " Know-Nothing" Party led him, together with many of the Whig leaders in Maryland, to unite with the Democrats in 1856 and in the subsequent support of Buchanan's administration. In the presidential contest of 1860 Mr. Johnson joined the Douglas wing of the party, and was active in his efforts to secure its success. He was a member of the Peace Congress in Washington in 1861 and in 1862. Throughout the Civil War he supported the National cause, and sustained the measures of the administration. When peace was restored he urged the readmission of the southern states without delay. He voted for the first reconstruction bill, supported that measure when it was vetoed by President Johnson, and opposed the second bill. During his term he was engaged by the government as an umpire in adjusting questions that had arisen in New Orleans during the Civil War. In 1868 he resigned his seat in the senate, having been appointed by President Johnson to succeed Charles Francis Adams as minister to England, where he negotiated the "Johnson-Clarendon" Treaty for the settlement of the Alabama claims, which was rejected by the senate. In his negotiations with Lord Clarendon he procured a perfect recognition of everything that our government claimed in the international controversies growing out of the Civil War. The failure of the senate to ratify the Johnson-Clarendon Treaty was due to party jealousy, and nothing more than was embraced in the terms of Mr. Johnson's protocol was afterward obtained from Great Britain. Mr. Johnson's popularity among Englishmen was proverbial, and his recall by President Grant, in 1869, and the nomination of his Republican successor became a party necessity. Although seventy-three years of age when he returned from England, he resumed his law practice with his early eagerness. In 1872 he supported Horace Greeley for president. He was constantly employed in court and office practice until his death, which was caused by apoplexy, and which took place at the executive mansion in Annapolis, where he had been the guest of the governor, and was awaiting the call of a case in the court of appeals. In conjunction with Mr. Thomas Harris he reported the decisions of the Maryland Court of appeals, known as "Harris's and Johnson's Reports " (7 vols., 1820-'7).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 446-447.
JOHNSON, Robert Ward, senator, born in Kentucky in 1814; died in Arkansas about 1879. He received an English education, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and moved to Pine Bluffs, Arkansas, where he practised his profession. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat, and served from 1847 till 1853, when he was chosen U. S. Senator. He was chairman of the committee on printing, and a member of those on military affairs and on public lands. He withdrew in 1861 when Arkansas passed an ordinance of secession, was elected to the Provisional Confederate Congress, and in 1862 elected to the Confederate Senate, in which he was an active member until the close of the Civil War, after which he practised law in Washington. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 447.
JOHNSON, Rossiter, author, born in Rochester, New York, 27 January, 1840. His father, Reuben Johnson (1791-1876), was one of the small company that, with three old guns, drove off the British fleet that bombarded Stonington, Connecticut, in 1814. He was educated at Williams, and was for many years a teacher in Rochester. The son was graduated at the University of Rochester in 1863, delivering the poem on class-day. In 1864-'8 he was connected with Robert Carter (q. v.) in editing the Rochester "Democrat," a Republican newspaper, and in 1869-'72 was editor of the Concord, New Hampshire, " Statesman." In 1873-'7 he was associated with Messrs. Ripley and Dana in editing the "American Cyclopaedia," and in 1879-'80 with Sydney Howard Gay in the preparation of the last two volumes of his "History of the United States." In 1883 he became editor of the "Annual Cyclopaedia." He devised and edited the series of " Little Classics " (16 vols., Boston, 1874-'5; two additional vols., 1880; 25th ed., 1887), and has also edited "Works of the British Poets, with Biographical Sketches " (3 vols., New York, 1876); "Famous Single and Fugitive Poems" (1877): "Play-Day Poems" (1878); and. with Charles A. Dana, "Fifty Perfect Poems" (1882). In 1876 he tried the experiment of making an abbreviated edition of some of the greater novels of the English language (4 vols., 16 mo., New York). Mr. Johnson has written, besides numerous contributions to periodicals, " Phaeton Rogers, a Novel of Boy Life, first published as a serial in "St. Nicholas" (New York, 1881); "A History of the War between the United States and Great Britain in 1812-'15" (1882); "A History of the French War, ending in the Conquest of Canada" (1882); "Idler and Poet," a small volume of verses, of which the most popular is the hot-weather poem "Ninety-nine in the Shade" (Boston, 1883); and "A Short History of the War of Secession," first published serially in the New York " Examiner" in 1885-'7. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 447-448.
JOHNSON, Rowland, 1816-1886, New York, NY, reformer, abolitionist leader. Vice president, American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), 1858-1864. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 448)
JOHNSON, Rowland, reformer, born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, 24 Mav, 1816; died in West Orange, New Jersey, 25 September, 1886. His parents were members of the Society of Friends, and in early life he was a preacher of that denomination. In 1850 he moved to New York, and became a broker and commission-merchant in that city. He was among the earliest supporters of the abolition movement, and at one time was the leader of the Anti-Slavery Party in New York. He was also one of the first members of the Union League Club, and was active in charitable organizations. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 448.
JOHNSON, Samuel, 1822-1882, Unitarian clergyman, abolitionist, reformer, writer (The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 312; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 119)
JOHNSON, Samuel, clergyman, born in Salem, Massachusetts. 10 October, 1822: died in North Andover, Massachusetts, 19 February, 1882. He was graduated at Harvard in 1842, and at the divinity-school in Cambridge in 1846. He entered the ministry without ordination, and his first charge was the Unitarian Church in Harrison Square, Dorchester, where he remained one year. His political preaching and anti-slavery sentiments gave offence, and his engagement was not renewed. About 1851-'2 he became pastor of a free Church in Lynn, Massachusetts, where he remained until 1870, lecturing often upon anti-slavery topics. About 1852-'3 he delivered a course of lectures in Salem, which was the germ of his subsequent works. He compiled with Reverend Samuel Longfellow "Hymns for Public and Private Devotion" (Boston, 1846); and was the author of " Oriental Religions," comprising "India" (Boston, 1872), "China" (1877), and "Persia" (1885). See a memoir of him by Samuel Longfellow (Boston, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 449.
JOHNSON, William Henry, 1833-1918, African American, abolitionist, journalist, lecturer, soldier. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 6, p. 504)
JOHNSTON, Albert Sidney, soldier, born in Washington, Mason County, Kentucky, 3 February, 1803; died near Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, 6 April, 1862. He was the youngest son of Dr. John Johnston, a country physician, a native of Salisbury, Connecticut. Albert Sidney was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy, eighth in his class, in 1826, and was assigned to the 2d U.S. Infantry, in which he served as adjutant until his resignation, 24 April, 1834. In 1829 he married Henrietta Preston, who died in August, 1835. During the Black Hawk war in 1832 Lieutenant Johnston was chief of staff to General Henry Atkinson. His journals furnish an original and accurate account of that campaign. After his wife's death he was a farmer for a short time near St. Louis, Missouri, but in August, 1836, joined the Texas patriots, devoted himself to the service of that state, and by his personal qualities, physical and mental, soon attained notice. He was specially admired for his fine horsemanship, and his feats of daring, one of which was the killing of a puma with his clubbed rifle. He had entered the ranks as a private, but rapidly rose through all the grades to the command of the army. He was not allowed to assume this, however, until he had encountered his competitor. General Felix Huston, in a duel, in which he received a dangerous wound. In 1838 President Mirabeau B. Lamar made him Secretary of War, in which office he provided for the defence of the border against Mexican invasion, and in 1839 conducted a campaign against the intruding U. S. Indians in northern Texas, and in two battles, at the Salines of the Neches, expelled them from the country. In 1843 he married Miss Eliza Griffin, and engaged in planting in Brazoria County, Texas: but when the Mexican War began he joined the army, under General Zachary Taylor, on the Rio Grande. His regiment, the 1st Texas rifles, was soon disbanded, but he continued in service, and was inspector-general of Butler's division at the battle of Monterey. All his superiors recommended him as a brigadier-general, but he was set aside by the president for political reasons, and retired to his farm. General Taylor said he was " the best soldier he ever commanded." General Johnston remained on his plantation in poverty and neglect until, without solicitation, he was appointed a paymaster in the U.S. Army by President Taylor in 1849. He served as paymaster for more than five years, making six tours, and travelling more than 4,000 miles annually on the Indian frontier of Texas. In 1855 President Pierce appointed him colonel of the 2d (now 5th) U.S. Cavalry, a new regiment, which he organized. Robert E. Lee was lieutenant-colonel, and George H. Thomas and William J. Hardee were the majors. General Scott called General Johnston's appointment “a god-send to the army and the country.” He remained in command of his regiment and the Department of Texas until ordered, in 1857, to the command of the expedition to restore order among the Mormons in Utah, who were in '' revolt against the National government. In his conduct of affairs there he won the reputation for energy and wisdom. By a forced march of 920 miles in twenty-seven days, over bad roads, he reached his little army of 1,100 men, to find it lost in the defiles of the Rocky mountains, with the snow a foot deep and the thermometer 16° below zero, their supplies cut off by the hostile Mormons, their starving teams their sole food, and sage-brush their only fuel. By an extraordinary display of vigor and prudence he got the army safely into winter-quarters, and before spring had virtually put an end to the rebellion without actual collision, solely by the exercise of moral force. Colonel Johnston was brevetted brigadier-general, and was retained in command in Utah until 29 February, 1860. He spent 1860 in Kentucky until 21 December, when he sailed for California, to take command of the Department of the Pacific. General Johnston witnessed the culmination of “the irrepressible conflict” in secession, and the prospect of war, with unalloyed grief. He was a Union man from both principle and interest, and the highest posts in the United States Army were within easy reach of his ambition. He believed the south had a grievance, but did not believe secession was the remedy. Still, his heart was with his state, and he resigned his commission, 9 April, 1861, as soon as he heard of the secession of Texas. Regarding his command as a sacred trust, he coned his resignation until he could be relieved. He remained in California until June. After a rapid march through the deserts of Arizona and Texas, he reached Richmond about 1 September, and was appointed at once to the command of all the country west of the Atlantic states and north of the Gulf states. When he arrived at Nashville, 14 September, 1861, he found only 21,000 available troops east of the Mississippi. General Leonidas Polk had 11,000 at Columbus, Kentucky, General Felix K. Zollicoffer had about 4,000 raw levies at Cumberland gap, and there were 4,000 armed men in camps of instruction in middle Tennessee. Tennessee was open to an advance by the National forces, and, for both military and political reasons, General Johnston resolved on a bold course, and occupied Bowling Green, Kentucky, with his 4,000 available troops, under General Simon B. Buckner. This place he strongly fortified, and vainly appealed to the Confederate government and state governments for troops and arms. He was enabled to hold the National Army in check until January, 1862, during which time a single engagement of note occurred, the battle of Belmont, in which General Grant suffered a reverse by the Confederates under Generals Polk and Pillow. On 19 January, General Crittenden, commanding the small army defending east Tennessee, contrary to his instructions, attacked the National forces, under General George H. Thomas, at Fishing Creek. His repulse was converted into a route, and Johnston's right flank was thus turned. General Johnston wrote to his government: “To suppose, with the facilities of movement by water which the well-filled rivers of the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee give for active operations, that they [the National forces] will suspend them in Tennessee and Kentucky during the winter months, is a delusion. All the resources of the Confederacy are now needed for the defence of Tennessee.” As he had to take the risk somewhere, and these were less immediately vital than Bowling Green and Columbus, he took it there. On 6 February, 1862, General Grant and Flag-Officer Andrew H. Foote moved upon Fort Henry on the Tennessee, and, after a few hours' fighting, the fort was surrendered. The Confederate troops, about 4,000, retired to Fort Donelson. The Tennessee River was now open for the National Navy and armies to General Johnston's left flank and rear, and he began a retreat, intending to cover Nashville and the line of the Cumberland if possible, and if not, then to fall back behind the line of the Tennessee. He determined to defend Nashville at Donelson, and laced 17,000 troops there under Generals Floyd, Pillow, and Buckner, to meet Grant's impending attack. For himself he reserved the more difficult task of covering Nashville. He was cheered on the arrival of the rear of his army at Nashville on 15 February by a telegram from his generals at Donelson announcing a brilliant victory, but before daylight next morning he was informed that the fort would be surrendered. (See GRANT, Ulysses S.) Amid the utmost popular demoralization and rage, a blind fury directed against himself, General Johnston preserved his equanimity and fell back to Murfreesboro, where he reorganized his troops. He had given General Beauregard the command of west Tennessee when Fort Henry fell, with large discretionary power, and had advised him of his plan to unite their forces when possible. He now sent his stores and munitions by the railroad, and marched to Decatur, Alabama, and thence moved by rail to Corinth, Mississippi. This was the key of the defence of the railroad system in the Mississippi Valley, and the Confederate government re-enforced him with Bragg's army from Pensacola, 10,000 strong, and 5,000 men from Louisiana, so that on 24 March he had concentrated 50,000 men at Corinth, 40,000 of whom were effectives. It was General Johnston's purpose to attack Grant's forces in detail. He was delayed some time reorganizing Beauregard's forces, but held himself ready to attack as soon as he should hear of Buell's approach. This intelligence reached him late at night on 2 April, and he began his march next day, hoping to assail Grant unprepared. Heavy rains delayed the march of his troops over twenty miles of bad roads, through a wooded and unknown country, so that, instead of being in position to attack on Friday afternoon, a full day was lost, and his troops were not up until the afternoon of the 5th. Then, in an informal council of war, his second in command, General Beauregard, strenuously protested against an attack, and urged a retreat to Corinth. General Johnston listened, and replied: “Gentlemen, we will attack at daylight.” Turning to his staff officer, he said: “I would fight them if they were a million.” General Beauregard twice renewed his protests, but General Johnston, on Sunday morning, as he was mounting his horse to ride forward, gave this final reply: “The battle has opened. It is now too late to change our dispositions.” General Johnston said to a soldier friend early in the battle: “We must this day conquer or perish "; and to all about him: “To-night we will water our horses in the Tennessee River." His plan was to mass his force against the National left, turn it, and crowd it into the angle of Snake Creek and the Tennessee River, where it must surrender, and as long as he lived the battle was fought exactly as he planned. The struggle began before dawn on Sunday, 6 April. The Confederates attacked in three lines of battle under Generals Hardee, Bragg, Polk, and Breckinridge. The National Army was surprised, and Prentiss’s division was broken and driven back. It rallied on its supports, and a tremendous conflict ensued. The struggle lasted all day, and at half-past two o'clock, in leading the final charge, which crushed the left wing of the National Army. General Johnston received a mortal wound. His death was concealed, and his body borne from the field. (For the subsequent conduct of this battle, see articles Beauregard and Grant.) General Johnston's body was first carried to New Orleans, and was finally buried at Austin, Texas. See his life, by his son (New York, 1878).—His son, William Preston, educator, born in Louisville, Kentucky, 5 January, 1831, was graduated at Yale in 1852. He became a colonel in the Confederate Army at the beginning of the Civil War, and served on the staff of Jefferson Davis. After the war he was a professor in Washington and Lee University till November, 1880, when he became president of the Louisiana state University. On the foundation of Tulane University in New Orleans in 1884, he became its first president. Besides fugitive pieces and addresses, he has published a "Life of General Albert Sidney Johnston" (New York, 1878).— Albert Sidney's half-brother, Josiah Stoddard, born in Salisbury, Connecticut, 24 November, 1784; died on Red River, Louisiana, 19 May, 1833. He was taken by his father to Washington, Mason County, Kentucky, in 1788, and when he was twelve years old was sent to New Haven, Connecticut, to school. He was graduated at Transylvania University in 1805, studied law in the office of George Nicholas, and he emigrated to the territory of Louisiana, then lately acquired from the French, settling at Alexandria, Rapides Parish, a frontier village. He won rapid success at the bar, was elected to the territorial legislature, and remained a member until Louisiana became a state in 1852. He held the post of district judge from 1812 till 1821, and also raised a regiment of volunteers late in the war with Great Britain, but it saw no active service. In 1820 he was elected to Congress as a Clay Democrat, and in 1823 to the U. S. Senate, to fill a vacancy. He was re-elected in 1825. and in 1831 was again chosen by a legislature that was politically opposed to him. He was killed by the explosion of the steamboat "Lion" on Red River. In the senate he was chairman of the committee on commerce, and a member of the committee on finance. He gave an independent support to the administration of John Quincy Adams, and was on terms of intimacy with General Winfield Scott, but his closest personal and political association was with Henry Clay, for whom he acted as second in the duel with John Randolph. He opposed nullification, and favored a closely guarded protective tariff. His study of constitutional and international law was close, and he strenuously advocated a mitigation of the laws of maritime war, and that the neutral flag should protect the goods on board, without regard to ownership, and that contraband of war should be limited to the fewest articles possible. He was the author of an able report on the British colonial trade question, and of several pamphlets, including one on the effect of the repeal of the duty on sugar.— Albert Sidney's nephew, Josiah Stoddard, journalist, son of John Harris Johnston, born in Rapides Parish, Louisiana, 10 February, 1833, became an orphan early, and was brought up in Kentucky. He was graduated at Yale in 1853, and was a planter in Louisiana before the Civil War. During the war he served on the staffs of General Braxton Bragg and General Simon B. Buckner, and as chief of staff to General John C. Breckinridge, and shared in over twenty battles. He was with the party that escorted Jefferson Davis in his flight from Richmond, Virginia, to Charlotte, North Carolina. After the war he was editor of the "Kentucky Yeoman," at Frankfort. Kentucky, for nearly twenty years. During the most of this time he has also been secretary or chairman of the Democratic state central committee, and has been noted for the moderation and tact of his party rulings. He was adjutant-general of Kentucky in 1870-'l, and held the office of Secretary of State for the commonwealth for nearly ten years. In 1870 he became president of the Kentucky Press Association. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 454-456.
JOHNSTON, Amos Randall, jurist, born in Maury County, Tennessee., 28 September, 1810: died in Cincinnati. Ohio, 25 June, 1879. He began life in the town of Henry, Tennessee., as a printer, afterward established a newspaper with General Felix R. Zollicoffer, and at an early age became known as a political writer. Moving to Mississippi in 1830, he settled in Clinton, represented Hinds County in the legislature as a Whig in 1836, and was county-clerk from 1837 till his election as probate judge in 1845. In 1851 he was Union delegate to the state constitutional convention, to determine the course of Mississippi regarding the compromise measures of 1850. He opposed secession, and canvassed the state in favor of the preservation of the Union in 1859-'60, and declined the nomination of his party to Congress and to the governorship. He took no active part in the Civil War, but was engaged in the practice of his profession. In 1865 he was a member of the convention that repealed the Ordinance of Secession, and in 1875 served in the state senate as a conservative Democrat. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 456.
JOHNSTON, Harriet Lane, born in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, in 1833. She is the daughter of Elliott T. Lane and his wife, June Buchanan, who, dying, left her to the care of her maternal uncle, James Buchanan. She was educated at the Roman Catholic convent in Georgetown, D. C, and, on the appointment of Mr. Buchanan to the English mission in 1853, accompanied him to London, where she dispensed the hospitalities of the embassy. During his term as president she was mistress of the White house, over which she presided with grace and dignity, receiving, among other distinguished guests, the Prince of Wales and his party. In 1866 she married Henry Elliott Johnston, of Maryland, and since that event has resided in Baltimore and at Wheatland, surviving her husband and their two sons. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 457.
JOHNSTON, Joseph Eggleston, soldier, born in Cherry Grove, near Farmville, Virginia, 3 February. 1807, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1829 in the same class with Robert E. Lee, and was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 4th Artillery. He served in garrison at Fort Columbus, New York, in 1830-'l, at Fort Monroe, Virginia, in 1831-2, was in the Black Hawk Expedition in 1832, in garrison at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1832-'3, at Fort Monroe in 18334, at Fort Madison, North Carolina, in 1834, and on topographical duty in 1834-'5. He was made 1st lieutenant, 4th U.S. Artillery, 31 July, 1836, aide-de-camp to General Winfield Scott in the Seminole War in 1836-'8,and resigned on 31 May, 1837. He was a civil engineer in 1837-'8, and was appointed 1st lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers, 7 July, 1838, and brevetted captain for gallantry in the war with the Florida Indians. On one occasion, having been sent under the escort of a party of infantry and sailors to make a survey or reconnaissance of a region around a lake, and having crossed the lake in boats, the party fell into an ambuscade, and nearly all its officers were killed or disabled at the first fire. The men were thrown into confusion, but Lieutenant Johnston took command, subdued what was fast becoming a panic, and conducted the retreat for seven miles. A ball struck him above the forehead, and ranged backward, grazing the skull the whole distance. The troops repelled the enemy, and carried off their wounded in safety to the boats. The uniform worn by Lieutenant Johnston on this occasion was long preserved by a friend as a curiosity, being perforated by thirty bullets. He was in charge of the Black River improvement, New York, in 1838-'9, of the Sault Ste. Marie in 1840, the boundary between Texas and the United States in 1841, the harbors on Lake Erie in 1841, and the Topographical Bureau at Washington in 1841-'2. He served in the Florida War of 1842-'3, and as acting assistant adjutant-general in 1842-'3, on the survey of the boundary between the United States and the British provinces in 1843-4, on the U.S. Coast Survey in 1844-'6, and became captain in the Corps of Topographical Engineers, 21 September, 1846. In the war with Mexico he participated in the siege of Vera Cruz and the battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras ,Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and the assault on the city of Mexico, and was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel, 12 April, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct on reconnoitering duty at Cerro Gordo. He was severely wounded at Cerro Gordo, and again at Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847, where he led a detachment of the storming party, and General Scott reported that he was the first to plant a regimental color on the ramparts of the fortress. He was mustered out as lieutenant-colonel of volunteers, 28 August, 1848, but was reinstated by act of Congress with his original rank as captain of Topographical Engineers, to date from 21 September, 1846. He served as chief of Topographical Engineers of the Department of Texas in 1852—'3, was in charge of Western River Improvements in 1853-'5, and was acting inspector-general on the Utah Expedition of 1858. On 28 June, 1860, he was commissioned quartermaster-general of the U. S. Army, which post he resigned on 22 April, 1861, to enter the Confederate service. He was commissioned major-general of volunteers in the Army of Virginia, and with General Robert E. Lee organized the volunteers of that state, who were pouring into Richmond. On being summoned to Montgomery, the capital of the Confederate States, he was appointed one of the four brigadier-generals then commissioned, and was assigned to the command of Harper's Ferry. General Robert Patterson, at the head of a National force, was then approaching from the north of the Potomac, and General Johnston withdrew from the cul-de-sac at Harper's Ferry and took position at Winchester with his army, which was called the Army of the Shenandoah. When General Beauregard was attacked at Manassas by the National Army under General McDowell, 18 July, 1861, Johnston, covering his movement with Stuart's cavalry, left Patterson in the valley and rapidly marched to the assistance of Beauregard. On reaching the field he left Beauregard, whom he ranked, in tactical command of the field, and assumed responsibility and charge of the battle then about to be fought. (See Beauregard.) General Johnston remained in command of the consolidated forces (then designated as the Army of the Potomac) and held the position at Manassas Junction until the spring of 1862, when, finding McClellan about to advance, he withdrew to the defensive line of the Rappahannock, whence he moved to meet McClellan. He was wounded at the battle of Seven Pines, 31 May, 1862, and incapacitated for duty until the following autumn. On 31 August, 1861, he was appointed one of the five full generals authorized by an act of the Confederate Congress, who were commissioned in the following order: Samuel Cooper, Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. Johnston, and G. T. Beauregard. This assignment of rank was directly contrary to the act of the Confederate Congress, which required that when officers resigned from the U. S. Army the rank of such officers, when commissioned in the Army of the Confederate states, should be determined by their former commissions in the U. S. Army. The order of rank thus established by law was Joseph E. Johnston, brigadier-general; Samuel Cooper, colonel; Albert S. Johnston, colonel; Robert E. Lee, lieutenant-colonel; Pierre G. T. Beauregard, captain. General Johnston protested against this illegal action, and his protest is believed to have been the beginning and cause of Mr. Davis's hostility, which was exhibited throughout the war. When General Johnston was ordered to the peninsula to oppose McClellan, he asked to be re-enforced with the troops from the sea-coast, to enable him to crush McClellan; but this was not done. On 24 March, 1863, he was assigned to the command of the southwest, including the troops of Generals Bragg, Kirby Smith, and Pemberton. He at once addressed a letter to the Secretary of War, Mr. Randolph, and urged that General Holmes's army, 55,000 strong, then at Little Rock, should be ordered to him, to enable him to defeat Grant. Secretary Randolph had actually issued such an order before Johnston's communication was received, but Mr. Davis countermanded it. and Randolph resigned. In May, 1863, General Grant crossed the Mississippi to attack Vicksburg in the rear, and General Johnston was ordered to take command of all the Confederate forces in Mississippi. Going there at once, he endeavored to withdraw Pemberton from Vicksburg and re-enforce him from Bragg's army, but failed by reason of Pemberton's disobedience of orders, and Vicksburg was taken by Grant. On 18 December, 1863, he was transferred to the command of the Army of Tennessee, with headquarters at Dalton, Georgia. During the winter of 1863-'4 he was occupied in restoring and reorganizing this force, which had been broken by the defeat of Missionary Ridge. By May, 1864, he had collected 43,000 men of all arms (exclusive of officers, musicians, teamsters, etc.), and a week later he was re-enforced by General Polk's corps. (For an account of the campaign that followed, Johnston's army slowly retreating toward Atlanta, followed closely by Sherman's, see Sherman, William Tecumseh.) On 17 July, 1864, the Richmond authorities, dissatisfied with Johnston's movements, relieved him of the command, and directed him to turn it over to General John B. Hood. On 23 February, 1865, General Johnston was ordered by General Lee, then commander-in-chief of all the armies of the Confederate states, to assume command of the Army of Tennessee, and all troops in South Carolina. Georgia, and Florida, "to concentrate all available forces and drive back Sherman." The available forces were 5,000 men of the Army of Tennessee, near Charlotte, North Carolina, and 11,000 scattered from Charleston through South Carolina. Sherman had 60,000 men. An inspection of the railroad depots in North Carolina showed that there were then collected in them four and one half months' provisions for 60,000 men; but these Johnston was ordered not to touch, as they were for the use of Lee's army, so that the difficulty of collecting provisions was added to the other difficulties of his position. General Johnston urged General Lee to withdraw from Richmond, unite with him, and beat Sherman before Grant could join him; but Lee replied that it was impossible for him to leave Virginia. Collecting such troops as could be got together, Johnston threw himself before Sherman, and on 19-21 March attacked the head of his column at Bentonville, south of Goldsboro, and captured four pieces of artillery and 900 prisoners. Then Johnston retired before Sherman to Raleigh, and thence toward Greensboro. In the meantime Richmond had been evacuated, and on 9 April, Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant. Johnston thereupon assumed the responsibility of advising Mr. Davis, whom he found at Greensboro, that, the war having been decided against them, it was their duty to end it, arguing that further continuation of war would be murder. Mr. Davis agreed that he should make terms with Sherman, and, on 18 April, 1865, Johnston and Sherman entered into a military convention, by which it was stipulated that the Confederate Armies should be disbanded and conducted to their state capitals, to deposit their arms and public property in the state arsenals; the soldiers to execute an agreement to abstain from acts of war, and to abide the action of the state and National authorities; that the several state governments should be recognized by the executive of the United States upon their officers and legislatures taking the oath prescribed by the constitution of the United States; the people and inhabitants of the states to be guaranteed all their rights under the Federal and state constitutions; general amnesty for all acts in the late war; war to cease and peace to be restored. This agreement was rejected by the National government, and, on 26 April, Generals Johnston and Sherman signed another, surrendering the Confederate Army on the terms of the agreement between Grant and Lee. After the war General Johnston was president of a railroad in Arkansas, president of the National Express Company in Virginia, agent for the London, Liverpool, and Globe Insurance Company, and for the New York life Insurance Company in Savannah, Georgia. In 1877 he was elected to represent the Richmond District of Virginia in Congress. He is now (1887) commissioner of railroads of the United States, appointed by President Cleveland. The difference of opinion as to the strategy and policy of the war between Mr. Davis and General Johnston exhibited itself at an early date, and from it may be deduced many of the disasters that befell the Confederate arms and the final fall of the Confederate states. Mr. Davis was convinced that the whole territory of the seceded states ought to be protected from invasion by the National forces. Hence the sea-coast was fortified and garrisoned as far as possible, and lines along the frontier were held. General Johnston, on the other hand, was fixed in the opinion, and persistent in urging it, that there should be no defence of positions or of lines; that if any part of the country was given up to invasion by withdrawal of troops provided for its defence, so as to re-enforce armies in the field, the destruction or repulse of the invading army would recover the territory so abandoned. Early in the war General Johnston advised the concentration of his Army of the Shenandoah with Beauregard's Army of the Potomac, for the purpose of fighting McDowell. This was attempted when it was too late, and only part of Johnston's army was engaged in the first battle of Bull Run. When McClellan transferred his operations to the Peninsula, Johnston insisted on abandoning Yorktown so as to draw McClellan further into the interior, re-enforcing the Confederates with the troops from the sea-coast of Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, thus giving him an equality, if not a preponderance, of force over McClellan; but Mr. Davis refused to do this, although it was partly done after Johnston was wounded at Seven Pines. When Grant's army was scattered from Mississippi to Memphis, Johnston argued that General Bragg should be re-enforced from South Carolina, Georgia, and Mobile, and fall upon Grant and beat him in detachments. And he opposed Bragg's march into Kentucky as leading to no decisive result. General Johnston was wounded in the Indian War in Florida, in the Mexican War, and in the Civil War—ten times in all. Early in life he married Louisa McLane. daughter of Louis McLane (q. v.). She died in 1886 without issue. He has published a "Narrative of Military Operations directed during the Late War between the States" (New York, 1874).—Peter's grandson. John Warfield, senator, born in Abingdon, Virginia, 9 September. 1818, was educated at the College of South Carolina, studied law at the University of Virginia, and practised until 1839, when he became judge of the 10th judicial District of Virginia. He was state senator in 1847-'8, and president of the Northwestern Bank at Jeffersonville in 1850-'9. He was elected in 1870 to the U. S. Senate as a Conservative, and by re-elections served till 1883. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 458-460.
JOHNSTON, William Freamie, governor of Pennsylvania, born in Greensburg. Westmoreland County Pennsylvania, 29 November, 1808; died in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 25 October, 1872. He was admitted to the bar in 1829, and, removing to Armstrong County, became district attorney. He also represented his county several terms in the legislature, and originated the bill to issue relief-notes. In 1847 he was elected state senator and president of that body. On the resignation of Francis R. Shunk in July following, he became governor of Pennsylvania, and in October, 1849, was elected for the full term. As an anti-slavery Whig, he took strong grounds against the Fugitive-Slave Law. On retiring from office in 1852, he became president of the Alleghany Valley Railroad. During the Civil War he took an active part in organizing troops, as chairman of the executive committee of public safety, superintended the construction of the defences at Pittsburg, and, in connection with John Harper, became financially responsible for a large amount of ammunition that was sent to West Virginia. He was appointed collector of the port of Philadelphia by President Johnson, but was not confirmed. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 450.
JONAS, Benjamin Franklin, senator, born in Williamstown, Grant County, Kentucky, 19 July, 1834. He moved with his father to Adams County, Illinois, at an early age, and was educated there. He went to reside in New Orleans in 1853, and was graduated at the law department of the University of Louisiana in 1855. He served in the Confederate Army, first as a private and afterward as acting adjutant of artillery in Hood's corps of the Army of Tennessee. He was a representative in the legislature in 1865, a delegate to the Democratic National Convention of 1868, and was elected a state senator in 1872. He was elected city attorney of New Orleans in 1874. and 1876; was again in the legislature in 1876-'7, and was elected U. S. Senator from Louisiana from 4 March, 1879. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 461.
JONES, Alexander H., member of Congress, born in Asheville, Buncombe County, North Carolina, 21 July, 1822. He was well educated, was a farmer during the early part of his life, subsequently a merchant at Asheville, and was for a time an editor. He adhered to the National government in the Civil War, early in the summer of 1863 fled into the Union lines, and was commissioned by General Burnside to raise a regiment of loyal North Carolinians. While so employed he was captured in East Tennessee by Confederate troops, imprisoned at Asheville, at Camp Vance, Camp Holmes, and in Libby Prison, and was drafted into the Confederate Army, but made his escape in November, 1864, without performing any service. After the surrender of General Lee he returned, was elected to the state constitutional convention in 1865, and afterward to Congress as a Republican; but there being no established civil government in the state, he was not received. He was elected to the two ensuing Congresses, and served from 20 July, 1868, till 3 March, 1871. He was a candidate for the 42d Congress, but was defeated. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 462.
JONES, David Rump, soldier, born in South Carolina in 1825; died in Richmond, Virginia, 8 March, 1863. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1846, brevetted 1st lieutenant for bravery at Contreras and Churubusco, and captain for gallantry at Chapultepec during the Mexican War. He was commissioned 1st lieutenant in 1849, was assistant instructor in military tactics at West Point in 1851-'3, assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of captain, in 1853, and resigned in 1861 to enter the Confederate Army, where he was appointed brigadier-general. He led a brigade at the battle of Bull Run, and in 1862 commanded a division tinder General Joseph E. Johnston. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 465.
JONES, Elizabeth H., co-founder and editor, with B. S. Jones, of the abolitionist newspaper, the Anti-Slavery Bugle, in New Lisbon, Ohio, in 1845. They edited the paper until 1849. It was the official newspaper of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society. (Dumond, 1961, p. 265)
JONES, George Wallace, senator, born in Vincennes, Indiana, 12 April, 1804. He was graduated at Transylvania University, Kentucky, in 1825, studied law, and was admitted to the bar, but was prevented by delicate health from practising. Moving to Missouri, he was clerk of the U. S. District Court in 1826, served as aide-de-camp to General Henry Dodge in the Black Hawk War, moved to Wisconsin and settled at Sinsinawa Mound, where he was judge of the county court, and colonel, and subsequently general, of militia. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat in 1834, served till 1837, and in July, 1836, procured a division of Michigan Territory and the establishment of the territory of Wisconsin. In 1839 he was appointed by President Van Buren surveyor-general of the Northwest Territory. He was removed by President Harrison, but reappointed by President Polk. He was U. S. Senator from Iowa from January, 1848, till March, 1859, and was chairman of the Committee on Pensions and on Enrolled Bills. At the conclusion of his last term he was appointed by President Buchanan minister to New Grenada. In 1861, on his return to the United States, he was charged with disloyalty and imprisoned at Fort Warren. Since 1862 he has resided at Dubuque, Iowa. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 465.
JONES, John, 1816-1879, African American, abolitionist, civil rights activist and leader, conductor on the Underground Railroad. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 6, p. 555)
JONES, John Richter, lawyer, born in Salem, New Jersey, 2 October, 1803; died near New Berne, North Carolina, 23 May, 1863, was graduated in 1821 at the University of Pennsylvania, and admitted to the bar in 1827. In 1836 he was appointed one of the judges of the court of common pleas of Philadelphia County, which post he held until 1847. On retiring from the bench he settled in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania In 1861 he raised the 58th Pennsylvania Regiment, of which he was commissioned colonel. He met his death while at the head of a reconnoitering force at New Berne, North Carolina, just after a long march in which he had captured a considerable force of the enemy at Gum Swamp. In this expedition he was in command as acting brigadier-general of several regiments. He was a classical scholar, and carried with him to the camp his Septuagint version of the Old Testament, which he was accustomed to read daily. He was author of " The Quaker Soldier" (Philadelphia, 1858). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 454.
JONES, James Chamberlain, senator, born in Davidson County, Tennessee, 20 April, 1809; died in Memphis, Tennessee., 29 October, 1859. He lost his father in infancy, and spent much of his boyhood in working on the plantation of his guardian, from whose library he obtained the elements of an English education, also attending a country school at intervals. After reaching his majority he married, and settled on a farm in Wilson County, Tennessee. He was in the legislature in 1837 and 1839, a candidate for elector on the Harrison and Tyler ticket 1840, and in 1841 and 1843 was elected governor of the state by the Whigs, over James K. Polk, after animated personal canvasses by the two candidates. In 1848 he was a delegate to the National Whig Convention, where he earnestly advocated the nomination of Henry Clay, but he subsequently spoke in several states in support of General Zachary Taylor. He moved to Memphis in 1850, and in 1851-'7 served in the U. S. Senate, afterward retiring to private life. He was a supporter of the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 1854, and was afterward identified with the Democratic Party. He was often called "Lean Jimmy Jones" or "Bean-Pole." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.
JONES, James Kimbrough, senator, born in Marshall County, Mississippi, 29 September, 1839. His parents were residents of Tennessee, but in 1848 moved to a plantation in Dallas County, Arkansas James served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, and then engaged in planting till 1873, when he began to practise law in Dalton County. Arkansas He was a member of the state senate in 1873-'7, and its president in the last-named year. In 1881-'5 he was a member of Congress, having been elected as a Democrat, and in the latter year was chosen to the U. S. Senate. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 466.
JONES, John B., author, born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1810. He was for many years engaged in journalism, and in 1857 established a weekly paper in Philadelphia entitled the " Southern Monitor," devoted to the advocacy of southern interests. He is the author of "Books of Visions" (Philadelphia, 1847); "Rural Sports, a Poem" (1848); "The Western Merchant" (1848); "Wild Western Scenes" (1849); "The Rival Belles" (1852); "Adventures of Colonel Vanderbomb" (1852); "The Monarchist" (1853); "Life and Adventures of a Country Merchant" (1854): "Freaks of Fortune" (1854); and a "Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital" (1866). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 567.
JONES, John Marshall, soldier, born in Charlottesville, Virginia, 26 July, 1820; died in Spottsylvania, Virginia, 10 May, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841, and after serving on frontier duty was assistant instructor of infantry tactics at the academy from 1845 till 1852. In 1854-'5 he was a member of the board to revise rifle and light artillery tactics, and on 3 March, 1855, he was promoted captain. He was then in garrison at various forts, and in the Utah Expedition of 1858-'60, and on 27 May, 1861, resigned and entered the Confederate Army. He was appointed colonel of a Virginia regiment, and in 1863 promoted brigadier-general and given a command in General Longstreet's corps. He was severely wounded at Gettysburg, and took part in the siege of Knoxville, Tennessee., and in the operations from the Wilderness to Spottsylvania, where he was killed. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 467.
JONES, John Sills, soldier, born in Champaign County, Ohio, 12 February, 1836. He was graduated at Ohio Wesleyan University in 1855, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1857. He was elected prosecuting attorney for Delaware County in 1860, but resigned in 1861, and enlisted as a private in the National Army. He served with distinction throughout the war, rising to the colonelcy of the 174th Ohio Regiment, and on 27 June, 1855, he was brevetted brigadier general of volunteers. In 1866 he was elected mayor of Delaware, Ohio, and was prosecuting attorney of Delaware County, 1866-71, when he declined renomination. He was a member of the board of managers of the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home from 1870 till 1874, and was a trustee of Wesleyan Female College at Delaware from 1865 till 1875. He was a presidential elector in 1872, and was afterward elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 15 October, 1877, till 4 March, 1879. He was elected a member of the legislature of Ohio in 1879, re-elected in 1881, and was chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the house. He became a trustee of the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphan Home in 1887. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 469.
JONES, Samuel, soldier, born in Virginia in 1820; died in Bedford Springs, Virginia. 31 July, 1887. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in July, 1841, and assigned to the 1st U.S. Artillery. After serving on garrison duty, he was appointed professor of mathematics and instructor of tactics, holding these offices from 1846 till 1851. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in 1847, and captain in 1853, when he served on frontier duty in Texas. He was assistant to the judge-advocate of the army in Washington, D. C, from 1858 till 1861, when he resigned his commission to enter the Confederate Army with the rank of colonel. Soon afterward he became brigadier-general, and in 1863 he was appointed to command a division with the rank of major-general. He commanded the Confederate forces in West Virginia till 1864, when he brought his troops to re-enforce General Lee's army on Rapidan River. After the war he engaged in farming in Mattoax, Virginia, but moved to Washington in 1880, and obtained a clerkship in the War Department, which he retained until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.
JONES, Walter, 1776-1861, Washington, DC, general, soldier, noted constitutional lawyer. American Colonization Society founding officer and Board of Managers, 1816, Vice-President, 1833-1841, Manager, 1834-1839, Director, 1839-1840. Worked with Henry Clay and other notables. (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, pp. 203-204; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 27, 51, 208)
JONES, William Edmondson, soldier, born near Glade Spring, Washington County, Virginia, in May, 1824; died near New Hope, Augusta County, Virginia, 5 June, 1864. He was educated at Emory and Henry College, and at the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1848. He was assigned to the mounted rifles, and served in various frontier posts till 26 January, 1857, when he resigned, and, after travelling abroad, became a farmer near Glade Spring, Viriginia. He entered the Confederate Army as captain, and on 28 September, 1861, became colonel of the 1st Virginia Cavalry. He was promoted to brigadier-general on 19 September, 1862, and in the winter of 1862-3 commanded the Department of the Valley of Virginia. He was made major-general in 1863, and then had charge of southwestern Virginia and eastern Tennessee till he was ordered back to the valley of Virginia to meet General Hunter. He was killed in an action with the forces of that general. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 472.
JONES, William Palmer, physician, born in Adair County, Kentucky, 17 October, 1819. He attended the Louisville Medical Institute in 1839-'40, and subsequently received diplomas from the Medical College of Ohio, and Memphis Medical College. He moved to Nashville, Tennessee, in 1848, and has since been a resident of that city. He established the "Parlor Visitor" in 1852, was an editor of the "Southern Journal of Medicine" for several years after 1853, and in 1874 was associate editor of the "Tennessee School Journal." He aided in founding Shelby Medical College in 1858, and filled its chair of materia medica, and in 1876 became president of Nashville Medical College, and professor of psychological medicine and mental hygiene. He was in charge of the first military hospital in Nashville on the arrival of the National forces in the state, and in 1862 became superintendent of the Tennessee Hospital for the insane, one of the first institutions of the kind for colored people on the continent. As a member of the state senate he introduced the public-school law. which provides equal educational advantages for children of all races. In 1877 he became postmaster of Nashville. He has contributed to current medical literature, chiefly on the treatment of the insane. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 473
JORDAN, Cornelia Jane Matthews, poet, born in Lynchburg, Virginia, 11 January, 1830. She is the daughter of Edwin Matthews, who was at one time mayor of Lynchburg. Miss Matthews received her education at the Academy of the Visitation in Georgetown, D. C. and in 1851 she married Francis H. Jordan, of Page County, Virginia. In 1863 she visited Corinth, Mississippi, where her husband held a staff appointment under General Beauregard, and where she wrote her poem "Corinth." This was seized on its publication in 1865 as “objectionable and incendiary," and was burned in the court-house yard in Lynchburg, by order of General Alfred H. Terry. Her publications include "Flowers of Hope and Memory" (Richmond, 1861); "Corinth and Other Poems of the War" (1855): "A Christmas Poem for Children" (Lynchburg, 1865); "Richmond: Her Glory and Her Graves" (Richmond, 1867); and " Useful Maxims for a Noble Life" (1884). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 473-474.
JORDAN, Thomas, soldier, born in Luray valley, Virginia, 30 September, 1819. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and served as 2d lieutenant of the 3d U.S. Infantry in the war against the Seminole Indians. He was then on garrison duty in the west and south, and took part in the war with Mexico. He became 1st lieutenant, 18 June, 1846, and captain and quartermaster, 3 March, 1847, serving on the Pacific Coast. He resigned, 21 May, 1861, entered the Confederate army as lieutenant-colonel, and was immediately made adjutant-general of the forces at Manassas Junction. He accompanied General Beauregard to Tennessee as chief of staff, and became brigadier-general after the battle of Shiloh. He served temporarily on the staff of General Bragg, but returned to his former post with General Beauregard during the defence of Charleston in 1862-'4. After the war he was made chief of the general staff of the Cuban insurgent army, and in May, 1869, landed at Mayari with 300 men, and arms, ammunition, and supplies for 6,000. On marching into the interior to join the insurgents he was attacked by the Spanish forces and lost 80 men. In December he succeeded to the chief command of the revolutionists, and in January, 1870, gained a victory over a superior force at Guaimaro. But as the supply of arms and ammunition was exhausted, and as there was small chance of reorganizing an effective force, he resigned in February, 1870, and returned to the United States. He has since resided in New York City and is now (1887) editor of the "Mining Record." Immediately after the Civil War he published a critical review of the Confederate operations and administration in "Harper's Magazine," and was the editor of the "Memphis Appeal" in 1866. He has contributed to periodical literature and published, in connection with J. B. Pryor, " The Campaigns of Lieutenant-General Forrest" (New York. 1808). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 474.
JOUETT, George Payne, soldier, born near Lexington, Kentucky, 14 April. 1813; killed at the battle of Perrysville, Kentucky, 8 October, 1862; was educated at Transylvania, where he studied medicine under Dr. Benjamin VV. Dudley. Subsequently he read law with his brother-in-law Richard H. Menefee and finally engaged in commerce until the Civil War, and was the owner of steamboats on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. He raised with Colonel Curran Pope and Major Campbell the 15th Kentucky Federal Regiment. His amateur efforts in sculpture proved rare artistic talent. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 476.
JOUETT, James Edward, naval officer, born in Lexington, Kentucky, 27 February, 1828, was educated at the high-school in Lexington, and entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman on 10 September, 1841. He served in the Mexican War, was made a lieutenant on 15 September, 1855, and took an active part in the Civil War. In command of the first and second launches of the U. S. frigate "Santee," on the night of 7 November, 1861, he captured by boarding the armed schooner "Royal Yacht," in the harbor of Galveston, Texas, after an obstinate encounter, during which he was twice severely wounded. He was appointed lieutenant-commander in 1862, and ordered by Admiral Farragut to the steamer "R. R. Cuyler," off Mobile. He was afterward sent to command the "Metacomet," which was selected by Farragut to accompany the flag-ship " Hartford " through the engagement in Mobile Bay, the two vessels being lashed together according to his plan of the battle. During the engagement the "Metacomet" cast off to chase Confederate gun-boats, and crippled the ' Gaines, so that she ran ashore and was destroyed bv her captain. The "Morgan" had retreated, and in one hour's running fight up the bay the "Selma" was captured, Captain Jouett having attacked four times the number of his guns in this encounter. In his official report of the battle Farragut says: "Lieutenant-Commodore Jouett's conduct during the whole affair commands my warmest commendations." A board, composed of Admirals Farragut, Dupont. Goldsborough, Davis, and Porter, recommended that Commander Jouett should "receive an advancement of thirty numbers for heroic conduct in battle." He was subsequently engaged with the "Metacomet" on blockade duty off the coast of Texas. He became a commander, 25 July, 1866, and a captain and member of the board of inspection on 6 January, 1874. He was made commodore, 11 January, 1883, and while in command of the North Atlantic Squadron conducted the operations on the Isthmus of Panama in 1885 for the protection of American interests during an insurrection, securing a free transit across the isthmus, restoring order, and receiving the thanks of the citizens, both native and foreign. He became a rear-admiral, 19 February, 1886, and is now (1887) president of the board of inspection and survey. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 476.
JOYCE, Charles Herbert, lawyer, born in Wherwell, Hants, England, 30 January, 1830. He emigrated with his parents to the United States in 1836, and settled in Washington County, Vermont. He afterward studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1852, and began practice at Northfield. He was state librarian in 1855-'6, and county attorney in 1856-'7. Mr. Joyce served in the National Army during the Civil War as major and lieutenant-colonel, and after resuming practice in Rutland, Vermont, was a member of the state legislature in 1869-71, and its speaker in 1870-'l. He was afterward elected to Congress from Vermont as a Republican, and served from 1875 till 1883. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 477-478.
JUDAH, Henry Moses, soldier, born in Snow Hill, Maryland, 12 June, 1821; died in Plattsburg, New York, 14 January, 1866. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in July, 1843, and, entering the 8th U.S. Infantry, served in the Mexican War. He commanded his company at the storming of Monterey, and for bravery at Molino del Rey, and at the capture of the city of Mexico, was brevetted 1st lieutenant and captain. On 29 September, 1853, he became captain in the 4th U.S. Infantry, and served actively against the Indians of California and Washington and Oregon Territories till the Civil War. He was made colonel of a regiment of volunteers in 1861, brigadier-general of volunteers, 21 March, 1862, and acting inspector-general of the Army of the Tennessee. Resigning his staff appointment, he was ordered to command the 1st Division of the Army of the Reserve, which he relinquished after the evacuation of Corinth by the Confederate troops. He was reappointed acting inspector-general of the Army of the Ohio, 10 Oct, 1862, and held various other commands until he was mustered out of volunteer service, 24 August, 1865. He was active in his pursuit of Morgan at the time of the latter's raid into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, in 1863. At his death he was commandant of the post at Plattsburg, New York. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 482.
JUDD, Norman Buel, lawyer, born in Rome, New York, 10 January, 1815; died in Chicago, 10 November. 1878. He received a common-school education, studied law, and in 1836 was admitted to the bar, beginning practice in Chicago. He was city attorney there in 1837-'9, state senator in 1844-,60, a member of the Bloomington Convention which organized the Republican Party in 1856, and chairman of the state central committee of that party in 1856-'61. He was chairman of the Illinois Delegation in the Chicago Convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency, and was U. S. minister to Prussia from 1861 till 1865. He was then elected to Congress, serving from 4 March, 1867. till 8 March, 1871, and was afterward appointed collector of the port of Chicago by President Grant. He was president of the Peoria and Bureau Valley Railroad and of the Rock Island Railroad Bridge Company. A sketch of his life was published bv Arthur Edwards (Chicago, 1878). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 482.
JUDD, Orange, editor, born near Niagara Falls, New York, 26 July, 1822. He was graduated at Wesleyan University in 1847, and, after teaching until 1850, spent three years in studying analytical and agricultural chemistry at Yale. He became editor of the " American Agriculturist" in 1853, and in 1856 its owner and publisher, continuing as such until 1881, and also holding the place of agricultural editor of the "New York Times " in 1855--63. He was the principal member of the firm of Orange Judd and Company, which made a specialty of publishing agricultural and scientific books, and also published "Hearth and Home." During 1863 he served with the U. S. Sanitary Commission at Gettysburg, and then with the Army of the Potomac from the Rapidan to Petersburg. In 1868-'9 he was president of the New York, Flushing, and North Side Railroad, and also president of the New York and Flushing Railroad. He has taken an active interest in the affairs of Wesleyan University and edited the first edition of the "Alumni Record." The Orange Judd Hall of Natural Science, dedicated in 1871, is the result of his munificence, and he held the office of trustee in 1871-81. Mr. Judd has written for the press, notably in his own journals, and originated in 1862 a series of Sunday school lessons for every Sunday in the year, upon which the later Berean and International lessons have been modelled. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 482.
JUDD, David Wright, editor, born in Lockport. New York, 1 September, 1838. He was graduated at Williams in 1860, was connected with the "New York Times," and subsequently became editor and one of the proprietors of the "Hearth and Home," and in 1883 president of the O. Judd publishing company. During the Civil War he enlisted as a private, but received a captain's commission before he resigned. He was elected as a Republican to the New York legislature in 1871. and introduced the Judd jury bill and also the bill establishing the National rifle association. In 1873 he was appointed one of the three commissioners of quarantine, and he has been regularly reappointed to that office. He is the author of "Two Years' Campaigning in Virginia and Maryland " (Rochester, New York, 1864). and has edited "The Educational Cyclopaedia" (New York, 1874), and "The Life and Writings of Frank Forester," in ten volumes (vols. i. and ii., 1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 482.
JULIAN, George Washington, 1817-1899, Society of Friends, Quaker, statesman, lawyer, radical abolitionist leader from Indiana, vice president of the Free Soil Party, 1852. Member of U.S. Congress from Indiana, 1850-1851. Was against the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act. Fought in court to prevent fugitive slaves from being returned to their owners. Joined and supported early Republican Party. Re-elected to Congress, 1861-1871. Supported emancipation of slaves. Husband of Ann Elizabeth Finch, who was likewise opposed to slavery. After her death in 1860, he married Laura Giddings, daughter of radical abolitionist Joshua Giddings. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 486; Blue, 2005, pp. ix, 9, 10, 11, 13, 161-183, 210, 225-229, 259-260, 265-270; Riddleberger, 1966; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 54, 354-355; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 245; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 486-487; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 12, p. 315)
JULIAN, George Washington, statesman, born near Centreville, Indiana, 5 May, 1817. He received a common-school education, taught for three years, studied law, and was admitted to practice in 1840. He was elected to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1845 as a member of the Whig Party; but becoming warmly interested in the slavery question through his Quaker training, severed his party relations in 1848, became one of the founders and leaders of the Free-Soil Party, was a delegate to the Buffalo Convention, and was then elected to Congress, serving from 3 December, 1849, to 3 March, 1851. In 1852 he was a candidate for the vice-presidency on the Free-Soil ticket. He was a delegate to the Pittsburg Convention of 1856, the first National Convention of the Republican Party, and was its vice-president, and chairman of the committee on organization. In 1860 he was elected as a Republican to Congress, and served on the joint committee on the conduct of the war. He was four times re-elected, and served on the Committee on Reconstruction, and for eight years as chairman of the Committee on Public Lands. He espoused the cause of woman suffrage as early as 1847, and in 1868 proposed in Congress a constitutional amendment conferring the right to vote on women. During the discussions on reconstruction he was zealous in demanding the electoral franchise for the Negro. In 1872 he joined the Liberal Republicans, and supported Horace Greeley for president. His most strenuous efforts in Congress were directed to the championship of the homestead policy and the preservation of the public lands for the people. In May, 1885, he was appointed surveyor-general of New Mexico. He has published "Speeches on Political Questions," containing a sketch of his life by Lydia Maria Child (Boston, 1872), and "Political Recollections" (Chicago, 1884), and has contributed to magazines and reviews articles dealing with political reforms.—His brother, Isaac Hooper, journalist, born in Wayne County, Indiana, 19 June, 1823, moved to Iowa in 1846, resided there till 1850, and returning to Indiana settled in Centreville and edited the "Indiana True Republican," which he afterward published in Richmond, Indiana, under the title of "The Indiana Radical." He occupied several local offices in that town, moved to San Marco, Texas, in 1873, and since that date has edited the "San Marco Free Press." He has published, besides numerous poems, pamphlets, and essays, a "Memoir of David Hoover" (Richmond, Indiana, 1857). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 486.