Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography – Cab-Clu
CABLE, George Washington, author, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, 12 October, 1844. On his father's side he springs from an old family of colonial Virginia. The Cabells originally spelled the name Cable, and their ancient coats of arms introduce the cable as an accessory. His mother was of old New England stock. The family moved to New Orleans soon after the financial crisis of 1837, and for a time the father prospered in business. In 1859 he failed, and died shortly afterward, leaving the family in such straitened circumstances that the son was obliged to leave school and seek employment as a clerk. He was thus engaged until 1863, when, though very slight and youthful in his appearance and but nineteen years of age, he volunteered in the Confederate service, joining the 4th Mississippi Cavalry. He employed the leisure of camp-life in study, but saw his share of active service, and is described as a good and daring soldier. He was wounded in the left arm, and narrowly escaped with his life. Returning penniless to New Orleans, after the over- throw of the Confederacy, he began to earn a living as an errand-boy in a mercantile house, and varying fortune sent him to Kosciusko, Miss., and subsequently, after he had studied civil-engineering, to the Têche Country, where he was attached to a surveying expedition on the levees of the Atchafalaya. There he caught the malarial fever peculiar to the region, and did not fully recover for two years. During this time he collected material that has since done good literary service. He began writing for the New Orleans “Picayune” over the pen-name of “Drop Shot,” contributing critical and humorous papers and occasionally a poem, and he was soon regularly attached to the editorial staff, which connection was abruptly ended on his refusal, from conscientious motives, to write a theatrical criticism. Once more he became a clerk and accountant, this time for a cotton-dealer, and retained his place until 1879, when the sudden death of the head of the house threw him out of employment. But in the meantime his sketches of creole life, published in “Scribner's Monthly” (now the “Century") proved so successful that he determined to give all his time to literature. He has opened a new field in fiction, introducing to the outside world a phase of American life hitherto unsuspected save by those that have seen it. His rendering of the creole dialect, with its French and Spanish variants, is full of originality, and his keen powers of observation have enabled him to depict the social life of the Louisiana lowlands, creole and Negro, so vividly that he has given serious offence to those whose portraits he has drawn. He has been the means through his publications of effecting reforms in the contract system of convict labor in the southern states. He has successfully entered the lecture-field, reading selections from his own writings, and unaffectedly singing to northern audiences the strange, wild melodies current among the French-speaking Negroes of the lower Mississippi. Mr. Cable's published works are “Old Creole Days” (New York, 1879); “The Grandissimes” (1880); “Madame Delphine” (1881); “Dr. Sevier” (Boston, 1883); “The Creoles of Louisiana” (New York, 1884): “The Silent South ” (1885). He has also £ for the government elaborate reports on the condition of the inhabitants of the Têche and Attakapas country in western Louisiana. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 490.
CADWALADER, George, soldier, born in Philadelphia, in 1804; died there, 3 February, 1879. He was a son of General Thomas Cadwalader. His boyhood was passed in Philadelphia, where he attended school, read law, was admitted to the bar, and practised his profession until 1846, when war with Mexico was declared, and he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He was present at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, and for gallantry in the latter engagement was brevetted major-general. Resuming his law practice in Philadelphia, he followed it until 1861, when the governor appointed him major-general of state volunteers. In May of that year he was placed in command of the City of Baltimore, then in a state of semi-revolt against the national government. He accompanied General Patterson as his second in command in the expedition against Winchester (June, 1861). On 25 April, 1862, he was commissioned major-general of volunteers, and in December of the same year appointed one of a board to revise the military laws and regulations of the United States. He was the author of “Services in the Mexican Campaign of 1847” (Philadelphia, 1848). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 493-484.
CADY, Albemarle, soldier, born in New Hampshire, about 1809. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1829. Joining the 6th Infantry, he served on garrison and frontier duty until 1838, when he served against the Indians in Florida until 1842, being promoted captain 7 July, 1838. In the war with Mexico he was at the siege of Vera Cruz and in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey. In this last engagement he was wounded, and for his conduct was brevetted major. He accompanied the expedition against the Sioux Indians in 1855, and was in the action at Blue-Water, Dakota, 3 September of that year. On 27 January, 1857, he was promoted major. At the beginning of the Civil War he was on duty on the Pacific Coast, and remained there until 1864, when he was for a time in command of the draft rendezvous at New Haven, Connecticut. He was retired 18 May, 1864, for disability resulting from long and faithful service, and received the brevet of brigadier-general U.S.A., 13 March, 1865. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 494.
CALDWELL, Charles Henry Bromedge, naval officer, born in Hingham, Massachusetts, 11 June, 1823; died in Waltham, Massachusetts, 30 November, 1877. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman 27 February, 1838, and became lieutenant 4 September, 1852. With a detachment from the “Vandalia,” he defeated a tribe of cannibals at Wega, one of the Feejee Islands, and burned their town, 11 October, 1858. In 1862 he commanded the gun-boat “Itasca,” of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron and took part in the bombardment of orts Jackson and St. Philip. On the night of 20 April his gun-boat, with the “Pinola,” was sent on an expedition under the command of Fleet-Captain Bell, to make a for the fleet through the chain obstructions near the forts. Lieutenant Caldwell and his party boarded one of the hulks that held the chains, and succeeded in detaching the latter, in spite of the heavy fire to which they were subjected. The “Itasca” was then swept on shore by the current, in full sight of the forts, and it was half an hour before she was afloat again. She was unable to pass the forts with the rest of the fleet, owing to a shot that penetrated her boiler. Lieutenant Caldwell was in the action at Grand Gulf, 9 June, 1862, and was promoted to commander on 16 July. He commanded the iron-clad “Essex,” of the Mississippi Squadron in 1862-’3, and took part in the operations at Port Hudson, from March to July of the latter year, in command of the “Essex” and the mortar flotilla. He commanded the “Glaucus" of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from 1863 till 1864, and the “R. R. Cuyler,” of the same squadron, from 1864 till 1865. He became captain, 12 December, 1867, chief of staff of the North Atlantic fleet in 1870, and commodore on 14 June, 1874. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 496.
CALDWELL, Henry Clay, jurist, born in Marshall County, West Virginia, 4 September, 1835. He was educated in the common schools of Iowa, where his father had moved in 1837, studied law in Keosauque, Iowa, and was admitted to the bar in 1852. He was prosecuting attorney of Van Buren County, Iowa, from 1856 till 1858, and a member of the legislature from 1859 till 1861. He enlisted in the 3d Iowa Volunteer Cavalry in the latter year, and became successively major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of his regiment. He was in active military service from 1861 till 4 June, 1864, when he resigned his commission, having been appointed U. S. Judge for the Eastern District of Arkansas. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 497.
CALDWELL, John Curtis, soldier, born in Lowell, Vermont, 17 April, 1833. He was graduated at Amherst in 1855. At the beginning of the Civil War he became colonel of the 11th Main Volunteers. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers 28 April, 1862, and brevetted major-general 19 August, 1865. General Caldwell was in every action of the Army of the Potomac, from its organization till General Grant took command, and during the last year of the war he was president of an advisory board of the War Department. He was a member of the Maine Senate, adjutant-general of the state in 1867, and in 1869 was U. S. Consul at Valparaiso, Chili. From 1873 till 1882 he was minister to Uruguay and Paraguay, and in 1885, having moved to Kansas, was president of the board of pardons of that state. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 497.
CALL, Richard Keith, soldier, born near Peters- burg, Virginia, in 1791; died in Tallahassee, Fla,, 14 September, 1862, was appointed first lieutenant in the 44th Infantry, 15 July, 1814; brevet captain. 7 November, 1814; volunteer aide to General Jackson in April, 1818; captain, July, 1818; and resigned, 1 May, 1822. He was a member of the legislative council of Florida in April, 1822; brigadier-general of west Florida militia in January, 1823; delegate to Congress from 1828 till 1825; and receiver of the west Florida land-office in March, 1825. He was governor of Florida from 1835 till 1840, and led the army against the Seminoles from 6 December, 1885, till 6 December, 1836, commanding in the second and third battles of Wahoo Swamp, 18 and 21 November, 1830. It is said that at the battle of Ouithlacooehie Governor Call personally saved General Clinch and his command from being cut to pieces, contrary to the statement made by the latter in his history of the Florida War. A controversy with Joel R. Poinsett, Secretary of War in Van Buren's cabinet, relative to the misdirection of the war, cost Governor Call his office. He consequently turned Whig, and worked earnestly for Harrison's election, canvassing the northern states in his behalf. President Harrison reappointed him governor of Florida in 1841, and he held the office till 1844, but was an unsuccessful candidate for the governorship in 1845, when the territory became a state. Although he had sacrificed fortune, health, and popularity to protect the citizens of Florida during the Seminole War, they could not forgive him for turning Whig, and he never held political office again in Florida. But he was major-general of state militia from 1 July to 8 December, 1846. Governor Call took great interest in the development of his state. He projected and built the third railroad in the United States, from Tallahassee to St. Marks, and also located the town of Port Leon, which was afterward destroyed by a cyclone. He always considered himself a Jackson Democrat, as opposed to later democracy. Feeling that he had fought at Jackson's side for every inch of ground from Tennessee to the peninsula, he regarded himself as one of the builders of the nation, and during the Civil War was one of the few men in the south that looked on secession as treason. On 12 February. 1861, Governor Call wrote a long letter to John S. Littell, of Pennsylvania, deploring secession, but defending slavery. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 505.
CALLENDER, Franklin D., soldier, born in New York about 1817; died in Daysville, Illinois, 13 December 1882. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, assigned to duty as brevet second lieutenant of ordnance, and in November of the same year was promoted second lieutenant. Until 1840 he was on duty at Watervliet Arsenal. New York, from 1840 till 1842 served in the Florida War, and was brevetted first lieutenant for "active and highly meritorious services against the Florida Indians." Returning to ordnance duty, he organized a howitzer and rocket battery at Fort Monroe in 1846, and commanded it at the siege of Vera Cruz in the war with Mexico, 1847. He was promoted first lieutenant, 3 March, 1847, participated in the succeeding campaigns, and was twice severely wounded at the battle of Contreras. For his conduct during these campaigns he was brevetted captain of ordnance. In 1858 he was promoted captain of ordnance, having been on continuous duty at different arsenals for fourteen years. During the Civil War he was on foundry and general ordnance duty, and was brevetted major in 1862, receiving his promotion to the full grade, 8 March, 1863. He was engaged in the advance against Corinth. Mississippi, in April and May, 1863, and was afterward chief of ordnance of the Department of Missouri. In 1865 he received successive brevets to include the grade of brevet brigadier-general, and was promoted to the full grades of lieutenant-colonel, 6 April, 1866, and colonel of ordnance, 23 June. 1874. He was retired, 29 May, 1879. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 505.
CAMERON, Robert Alexander, soldier, born in Brooklyn, New York, 22 February, 1828. He was graduated at Indiana Medical College in 1850, and practised his profession at Valparaiso, Indiana, till 1861. He was a member of the Indiana legislature in 1860–1. He entered the national service as a captain in the 9th Indiana Volunteers in 1861, became lieutenant-colonel of the 19th Indiana the same year, and colonel of the 34th in 1862. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 11 August, 1863, and commanded the 13th Army Corps after General Ransom was wounded in Banks's Red River Expedition of 1864. After this he commanded the District of La Fourche, Louisiana, till the close of the war, receiving the brevet of major-general on 13 March, 1865, and it is said that he and Crawford are the only physicians that have attained the rank of general officer since Dr. Warren fell at Bunker Hill. He was superintendent of the colony that founded the town of Greeley, in 1870, and of the Colorado Springs and Manitou Colonies in 1871. In 1885 he was made warden of the state penitentiary at Canon City, Cameron Parish, Louisiana, Cameron's Cone, El Paso County, and Cameron's Pass, Laramie County were named for him. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 508-509.
CAMERON, Simon, 1799-1889, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, statesman, U.S. Senator, Secretary of War, 1861-1862, under President Lincoln. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 508; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 2, Pt. 1, p. 437)
CAMERON, Simon, statesman, born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 8 March, 1799; died there, 26 June, 1889. He early received a fair English education, and began to learn the printer's trade when but nine years of age. He worked as a journeyman in Lancaster, Harrisburg, and Washington, and so improved his opportunities that in 1820 he was editing a newspaper in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, and in 1822 one in Harrisburg. As soon as he had accumulated sufficient capital he became interested in banking and in railroad construction in the central part of the state. He was for a time adjutant-general of Pennsylvania. He was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1845 for the term ending in 1849, and during this period acted with the Democrats on important party questions, such as the Missouri compromise bill. This was repealed in 1854, and Mr. Cameron became identified with the “people's party,” subsequently merged with the Republicans, As its candidate he was re-elected to the Senate for the full term of six years beginning in 1857, a period that covered the exciting crisis of secession. During this time he was so earnest an advocate of peace that his loyalty was suspected. At the Republican Convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln he was strongly supported for the presidency, and again for the vice-presidency; but lack of harmony in the Pennsylvania delegation prevented his nomination to the latter office. Mr. Lincoln at once called him to the cabinet as Secretary of War, and he proved equal to the arduous duties of the place. He advocated more stringent and aggressive war measures than Mr. Lincoln was prepared to carry out, and when General Butler asked for instructions regarding fugitive slaves, directed him to employ them “under such organizations and in such occupations as exigencies may suggest or require.” Similar instructions were given to General Sherman and other officers in the field. In the original draft of his Annual Report to Congress, in December, 1861, he boldly advocated arming fugitive slaves; but this was modified, on consultation with the cabinet. Mr. Cameron resigned the secretaryship 11 January, 1862, was at once appointed minister to Russia, and his influence undoubtedly tended in a large measure to secure the friendship of that powerful nation during the Civil War. His official conduct in a certain transaction was censured by the House of Representatives, 30 April, 1862; but Mr. Lincoln immediately sent a message assuming, with the other heads of departments, an equal share in the responsibility. He resigned as minister to Russia 8 November, 1862, and remained at home until 1866, when he was elected U. S. Senator, and appointed chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs on the retirement of Mr. Sumner in 1872. He was sent to the Senate for the fourth time in 1873, but resigned in favor of his son. During the years of his active public life he was a powerful political leader, practically dictating the policy of the Democratic Party in Pennsylvania, and wielding a strong influence over its policy in the nation at large. The accompanying view represents “Lochiel,” the residence at Harrisburg of the “Czar of Pennsylvania politics,” as Cameron has been called. —His brother, James, soldier, born in Maytown, Lancaster County. Pennsylvania, 1 March, 1801; killed '21 July, 1861. At nineteen years of age he entered the printing-office of his brother Simon, at Harrisburg, and in 1827 moved to Lancaster and assumed the editorship of the " Political Sentinel," studying law in the mean time in the office of James Buchanan. During the Mexican War he accompanied the volunteers of his state as sutler, in January, 1847. When the Civil War began he was living in retirement upon his estate on the banks of the Susquehanna, but upon urgent en- treaty accepted the appointment of colonel of the 79th (Highland) regiment of New York state militia, he was killed while gallantly loading his men in a charge at Bull Run.—Simon's son, James Donald, senator, born in Middletown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, 14 May, 1838, was graduated at Princeton, in 1852, entered the Middletown Bank as clerk, became cashier, and afterward president He was also president of the Northern Central railway Company of Pennsylvania from 1863 until the road was leased by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1874, and in this place did good service to the national cause during the Civil War. The road, although several times cut by the Confederates, was a means of communication between Pennsylvania and Washington, and after the war it was extended, under Mr. Cameron's administration, to Elmira, New York, so as to reach from the great lakes to tide-water. Mr. Cameron has since been connected with various coal, iron, and manufacturing industries in his state, he was Secretary of War under President Grant from 22 May, 1876, till 3 March. 1877, and was then chosen U. S. Senator to fill the vacancy caused by his father's resignation. He was re- elected in 1879, and again in 1885, for the term ending in 1891, He was a delegate to the Chicago Republican conventions of 1868 and 1880, and chair- man of the national Republican committee in the latter year. Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888. Vol. I pp. 509-510.
CAMPBELL, Charles Thomas, soldier, born in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, 10 August, 1823. He was educated at Marshall College, and on 18 February, 1847, became second lieutenant in the 8th U.S. Infantry. He served through the Mexican War, becoming captain in August, 1847, and was mustered out in August, 1848. In 1852 he was a member of the Pennsylvania legislature. He was commissioned colonel of the 1st Pennsylvania Artillery in May, 1861, but resigned in December, and was made colonel of the 57th Infantry. He was wounded three times at Fair Oaks, and twice at Fredericksburg, and a horse was killed under him in each of these battles. He was taken prisoner with his regiment, but they succeeded in releasing themselves and carrying back more than 200 of the enemy as captives. His wounds, seven in number, necessitated a long and tedious confinement in the hospital, and prevented him from seeing any more active service. He was promoted to brigadier-general on 13 March, 1863, and after the close of the war moved to Dakota. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 512.
CAMPBELL, Cleveland J., soldier, born in New York City in July, 1836; died in Castleton, New York, 13 June, 1865. He was graduated successively at the free Academy, Union College, and the University of Göttingen. Early in the war he enlisted in the 44th New York Volunteers, was soon promoted to be a lieutenant on General Palmer's staff, was next adjutant of the 152d New York Volunteers, then captain in Upton's 121st New York Volunteers, and, after passing a most brilliant examination, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and finally colonel, of the 23d Regiment of Colored Troops. He led his regiment into the hottest of the fight at Petersburg, when the mine exploded, and left in and around the crater nearly 400 of his men, killed or wounded. Colonel Campbell himself received injuries from a bursting shell that ultimately caused his death. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 512.
CAMPBELL, John, surgeon, born in New York state about 1822. He was appointed an assistant surgeon in the U.S. Army in December, 1847, served in Mexico and was stationed successively in Texas, in California, at forts along the western frontier, and at different eastern posts, including the Military Academy at West Point. He was promoted surgeon in May, 1861, acting through the Civil War in that grade, and at its close received brevets of lieutenant-colonel and colonel, U. S. A., for faithful and meritorious services. He was advanced to the full rank of lieutenant-colonel, 8 November, 1877, colonel, 7 December, 1885, and placed on the retired list, 16 September, 1885. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 514.
CAMPBELL, John Allen, soldier, born in Salem, Ohio, 8 October, 1835; died in Washington, D.C., 14 July, 1880. After receiving a common-school education, he learned the printing business, and at the beginning of the war entered the army as second lieutenant of volunteers. He became major and assistant adjutant-general, 27 October, 1862, and was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, “for courage in the field and marked ability and fidelity” at Rich Mountain, Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, and through the Atlanta Campaign. He was mustered out on 1 September, 1866, and for a time assistant editor on the Cleveland “Leader.” In October, 1867, he was appointed second lieutenant in the 5th U.S. Artillery, regular army, and at once brevetted first lieutenant, captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel. He served on General Schofield's staff, but resigned in 1869, and was appointed the first governor of Wyoming Territory. He was reappointed in 1873, and in 1875 became third assistant Secretary of State at Washington. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 514.
CAMPBELL, John Archibald, jurist, born in Washington, Wilkes County, Georgia, 24 June, 1811. His grandfather served in the revolution as aide-de- camp to General Greene. His father, Colonel Duncan G. Campbell, was a distinguished Georgia lawyer, and one of the two commissioners appointed by President Monroe, in 1824, to treat with the Creek Indians for the sale of their lands. John A. Campbell was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1826, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1829 by special act of legislature, as he had not attained his majority. He then moved to Montgomery, Alabama, where he practised law, and was several times a member of the legislature. He was appointed Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court by President Pierce, 22 March, 1853, and held this office till 1861, when he resigned. He exerted all his influence to prevent the Civil War, but though he opposed secession, he believed it to be right. He was afterward assistant Secretary of War of the Confederate States, and was one of the peace commissioners appointed to meet Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Seward at Fort Monroe in February, 1865. After the war he was arrested and lodged in Fort Pulaski, but was discharged on parole, and afterward resumed his law practice in New Orleans. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 514.
CAMPBELL, Lewis Davis, diplomatist, born in Franklin, Ohio, 9 August, 1811; died 26 November, 1882. On leaving school he was apprenticed to a printer in 1828, and was afterward assistant editor of the Cincinnati" Gazette." He published a Whig newspaper at Hamilton, Ohio, from 1831 till 1836, supporting Henry Clay, and was then admitted to the bar and began to practice at Hamilton. He was elected to Congress as a Whig, and served from 3 December 1849, till 25 May, 1858, being chairman of the Ways and Means Committee during his last term. He claimed to have been elected again in 1858, but the house gave the seat to C. L. Vallandigham. He served as colonel of an Ohio regiment of volunteer infantry from 1861 till 1862, when he on account of failing health. President Johnson appointed him minister to Mexico in December, 1865; but, before leaving for his post, he was a delegate to the Philadelphia union Convention and the Cleveland soldiers' Convention of 1866. He sailed for Mexico, in company with General Sherman, 11 November, 1866, authorized to tender to President Juarez the moral support of the United States, and to offer him the use of our military force to aid in the restoration of law. Mr. Campbell remained in Mexico until 1868, and from 1871 till 1873 was again a member of Congress. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I p. 515.
CAMPBELL, William Bowen, governor of Tennessee, born in Sumner county, Tennessee, 1 February, 1807; died in Lebanon, Tennessee, 19 August, 1867. He studied law in Abingdon and Winchester, Virginia, was admitted to the bar in Tennessee, and practised in Carthage. He was chosen district attorney for the fourth District of his state in 1831, and a member of the legislature in 1835. He raised a cavalry company, and served as its captain in the Creek and Florida Wars of 1836, and from 1837 till 1843 was a Whig member of Congress from Tennessee. He was elected major-general of militia in 1844, and served in the Mexican War as colonel of the 1st Tennessee Volunteers, distinguishing himself in the battles of Monterey and Cerro Gordo, where he commanded a brigade after General Pillow was wounded. He was governor of Tennessee in 1851–3, and in 1857 was chosen, by unanimous vote of the legislature, judge of the state circuit court. He canvassed the state in opposition to secession in 1861, and on 30 June, 1862, without solicitation, was appointed by President Lincoln brigadier-general in the National Army. He resigned, 26 January, 1863, on account of failing health. At the close of the war he was again chosen to Congress, but was not allowed to take his seat until near the end of the first session in 1866. He served until 3 March, 1867, and was a member of the committee on the New Orleans riots. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 516.
CANBY, Edward Richard Sprigg, soldier, born in Kentucky in 1819; killed in Siskiyou County, California, 11 April, 1873. His parents moved to Indiana, where he went to school, and whence he was appointed cadet at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835. He was graduated in 1839 in the same class with Generals Halleck, Isaac Stevens, Ord, Paine, of Illinois, and other distinguished officers. After graduation he was at once commissioned second lieutenant, assigned to the 2d U.S. Infantry, and served in the Florida War as quartermaster and commissary of subsistence from October, 1839 till 1842, and after the close of that War Was engaged in the removal of the Cherokees, Creeks, and Choctaws to the present Indian territory. He was on garrison duty from 1842 till 1845, and on recruiting service in: 1845 and part of 1846. In March, 1846, he was appointed adjutant of his regiment, and three months later was promoted to a first lieutenancy. The outbreak of the Mexican War called his regiment into active service. Serving under General Riley, he was present at the siege of Vera Cruz, at Cerro Gordo, Contreras, and Churubusco, as well as at the attack upon the Belen gate, city of Mexico. He received the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel for his services in this campaign, and was promoted to the full rank of captain in June, 1851; but, having been transferred to the adjutant-general's department as assistant £ with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he relinquished his rank in the line. In March, 1855, he was appointed major of the 10th U.S. Infantry, a new regiment, with which he was engaged on frontier duty in western Wisconsin and Minnesota for the next three years, and in 1858 was ordered to Fort Bridger, Utah, where his command included portions of the 2d U.S. Dragoons and 7th and 10th U.S. Infantry. He held this post until 1860, when he was appointed commander of the expedition against the Navajo Indians, and was in command of Fort Defiance, New Mexico, at the beginning of the Civil War. At that critical period, when officers from the border states were daily sending in their resignations, Major Canby did not leave his loyalty in doubt for a moment, and throughout the war was one of the most active and conspicuous defenders of the union. In May, 1861, he was made colonel of the 19th regiment, U. S. Infantry, and was acting brigadier-general of the forces in New Mexico. In 1862 he repelled the Confederate General Sibley in his daring attempt to acquire possession of that territory, and had the satisfaction of seeing the invader retreat, “leaving behind him,” as he observed in his report, in dead and wounded, and in sick and prisoners, one half of his original force.” He was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general of volunteers, 31 March, 1862, and, after transferring the command of the forces in New Mexico, he went to Washington, where he rendered valuable assistance to Secretary Stanton in the War Department. He took command of the U.S. troops in New York City and Harbor during the draft riots of July, 1863, and, by his energetic measures and resolute bearing, assisted materially in the suppression of the rioters. He remained there until November, 1863, when he resumed his place at the war Department. At the opening of the campaign of 1864, General Canby received the rank of major-general of volunteers, and was placed in command of the military division of west Mississippi, a place that he held until some months after the close of the war. His first act in this field of duty was to take charge of General Banks's retreating forces at the Atchafalaya and conduct them safely to New Orleans, where for want of troops he remained inactive throughout the summer and autumn of 1864. While on a tour of inspection on White River, Arkansas, 4 November, 1864, he was severely wounded by Confederate guerillas: but, as soon as he was sufficiently re-enforced, he proceeded, with an army of from 25,000 to 30,000 men, against Mobile, which, with the assistance of the fleet, was captured, 12 April, 1865. On learning of the surrender of the Confederate forces in Virginia, General Richard Taylor, who commanded west of the Mississippi, surrendered to General Canby, and hostilities On 13 March, 1865, General Canby received the brevets of brigadier and major-general of the regular army. He remained in command of Southern Military Departments until 1866, when he was transferred to Washington, and received, 28 July, 1866, the full rank of brigadier-general in the regular army. After the surrender he was placed in command of the different districts having Richmond as its centre, and assumed the responsibility of permitting the paroled cavalry of Lee's army to reorganize for the suppression of “bushwhacking,” which was rife in neighborhood. The measure was entirely successful, and no bad results followed. Subsequently he was appointed a member of the special commission for deciding claims on the War Department, and of the board to prepare plans for a new building for the same department. Afterward he was placed in command of the Department of Columbia, and was during the winter of 1872–3 actively engaged in bringing the Modocs to accept the terms offered them by the government. He was specially adapted for this duty. He had never shared in the bitter hatred of the Indians, so common on the border, but had always leaned to the side of humanity in his dealings with them. Only four days before his death he sent a despatch to Washington, which, read in the tragic light of after-events, shows both his generosity to his slayers and his sagacious doubts of them “I do not question the right or the power of the general government to make any arrangement that may be thought proper; but think they should make such as to secure a permanent peace, together with liberal and just treatment of the Indians. In my judgment, permanent peace cannot be secured if they are allowed to remain in this immediate neighborhood. does are now sensible that they cannot live in peace on Lost River, and have abandoned their claim to it, but wish to be left lava-beds. This means license to plunder and a stronghold to retreat to, and was refused. Their last proposition is to come in and have the opportunity of looking for a new home not far away, and if they are sincere in this the trouble will soon be ended. But there has been so much vacillation and duplicity in their talks that I have hesitated about reporting until some definite result was attained.” On 11 April, in company with two other officers, he met “Captain Jack,” the leader of the Modocs, on neutral ground to confer regarding a treaty of Peace. At a preconcerted signal the Indians killed all the commissioners before the escort could come to the rescue, and escaped to their stronghold in the lava-beds. Subsequently they were captured, and “Captain Jack,” with two of his subordinates, was tried and executed. General Canby was a remarkable instance of an officer of high rank and universal popularity without enemies in his profession. He was so upright that he was very rarely criticised by his brother officers, save by those who gave him reason for official displeasure. He had little ambition beyond his duty, was always satisfied, or appeared to , with any position to which he was assigned, and never engaged in any of those squabbles or intrigues for preferment which deface the record of many able soldiers. He had a singular power of inspiring implicit confidence among those who served under his command. His assignment to any department, where, through incompetence or lack of zeal on the part of the commander affairs, had drifted into confusion, was the signal for the inauguration of order and discipline. The time honored but often misapplied phrase, “an officer and a gentleman,” admirably describes this soldier of the republic. He was tall and athletic, in manner courteous, but rather reserved and silent, the ideal of a thoughtful, studious soldier. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 517-518.
CARLETON, James Henry, soldier, born in Maine in 1814; died in San Antonio, Texas, 7 January, 1873. He was a lieutenant of Maine volunteers during what was known as the Aroostook war, relative to the northeastern boundary of the United States, and in February, 1839, after the conclusion of that controversy, was commissioned second lieutenant of the 1st U. S. Dragoons. He was promoted to first lieutenant on 17 March, 1845, and was assistant commissary of subsistence of Kearny's expedition to the Rocky mountains in 1846. He served on General Wool's staff in Mexico, became captain on 16 February, 1847, and was brevetted major on the 23d of that month for gallantry at Buena Vista. After the Mexican War he was engaged principally on exploring expeditions and against hostile Indians. On 7 September, 1861, he was commissioned major of the 6th U.S. Cavalry and ordered to southern California. In the spring of 1862 he raised a body of troops known as the "California Column," and marched with them across the Yuma and Gila deserts to Mesilla on the Rio Grande. On 28 April he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers and ordered to relieve General Canby as commander of the Department of New Mexico, where he remained for several years, taking part in several engagements. On 13 March, 1865, he was raised by brevet through all ranks up to brigadier-general in the regular army for his services in New Mexico, and brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, for his conduct during the war. On 31 July, 1866, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 4th U.S. Cavalry, and in June, 1868, promoted to colonel of the 2d U.S. Cavalry and ordered with his regiment soon after to Texas. General Carleton published " The Battle of Buena Vista, with the Operations of the Army of Occupation for one Month" (New York, 1848), and occasionally contributed to military periodicals. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 526.
CARLIN, William Passmore, soldier, born in Rich Woods, Greene County, Illinois, 24 November, 1829. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1850, and, after serving on garrison duty, became first lieutenant in the 6th U.S. Infantry, 8 March, 1855, and took part in General Harney's Sioux expedition of that year. He commanded a company in Colonel Sumner's expedition of 1857 against the Cheyennes, and took part in the Utah Expedition of 1858. He was in California from 1858 till 1860, and, having been promoted to captain, 2 March, 1861, served on recruiting duty. On 15 August, 1861, he became colonel of the 38th Illinois Volunteers, and defeated General Jeff. Thompson at Fredericktown, Missouri, 21 October, 1861. He commanded the District of south-eastern Missouri from November, 1861, till March, 1862, led a brigade under General Steele in the Arkansas Expedition, and joined Pope's army in season to aid in the pursuit of Beauregard from Corinth. He distinguished himself at Perryville, Kentucky, 8 October, 1862, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers 29 November He defeated Wharton's Confederate cavalry in the skirmish at Knob Gap, near Nolansville, 26 December, 1862, and his brigade bore a prominent part in the battle of Stone River, 31 December, 1862, as is shown by its heavy losses' in that conflict. He was in the Tullahoma Campaign, the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge, and brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 24 November, 1863, for his services in the battle of Chattanooga. After a month's leave of absence he became major of the 16th U. S. Infantry, 8 February, 1864, and took part in the invasion of Georgia, being in the actions at Buzzard's Roost and Resaca, the pursuit of the enemy with almost daily fighting during May and June, 1864, and the siege and capture of Atlanta. He commanded a division in the assault on the intrenchments at Jonesboro, 1 September, 1864, and was brevetted colonel in the regular army for his services on that day. He participated in the march to the sea and through the Carolinas, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general for services at Bentonville, North Carolina, and major-general for services during the war. From 1867 till 1868 he was assistant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau in Tennessee. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the 17th U.S. Infantry, 1 January, 1872, commanded at various posts, and became colonel of the 4th U.S. Infantry, 11 April, 1882. See Wilson's "Sketches of Illinois Officers" (Chicago, 1863). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 527.
CARPENTER, Matthew Hale, senator, born in Moretown, Vermont, 22 December, 1824; died in Washington, D. C., 24 February, 1881. He entered the U.S. Military Academy in 1843, and two years later he returned to Vermont and studied law with Paul Dillingham (subsequently governor), whose daughter he married. At the age of sixteen he tried a suit in a justice's court in Moretown, against his grandfather, and gained it. He received a gold ring valued at five dollars as his first fee. In November, 1847, he was admitted to the bar of Vermont, and, attracted by the splendor of Rufus Choate's fame, set out at once for Boston, to enter his office. Early in 1848 he left Boston and settled in Beloit, Wis. He soon became prominent, and first attracted attention by a land suit involving several millions of dollars, which he tried against James R. Doolittle, Daniel Cady, and Abraham Lincoln. His appearance in the quo-warranto proceedings that moved William A. Barstow from the gubernatorial chair of Wisconsin, in January, 1856, added materially to his reputation, and he then settled in Milwaukee. At the beginning of the Civil War he left his law practice and espoused the cause of the Union as a war Democrat, making recruiting speeches throughout the west. He was also appointed judge advocate-general of Wisconsin. In March, 1868, by invitation of Secretary of War Stanton, Carpenter represented, with Lyman Trumbull, the government in the McCardle case, brought to try the validity of the Reconstruction Act of 7 March, 1867, for the government of the states lately in rebellion. This, up to that time, was the most important case, not excepting that of Dred Scott, that had ever come before the U.S. Supreme Court. Carpenter gained it, though Jeremiah S. Black was on the other side; and, when he completed his argument, Stanton clasped him in his arms and exclaimed, “Carpenter, you have saved us.” Later he was spoken of by Judge Black as “the finest constitutional lawyer in the United States.” His success in this case led to an appeal to the Republicans in Wisconsin by Stanton and Grant, advocating his election to the U.S. Senate. The advice was taken, and he served from 4 March, 1869, till 3 March, 1875, during which time he was a member of the committees on judiciary, patents, and revision of laws, also becoming president pro tem. At the end of his term he received the caucus nomination for re-election, but was defeated in the legislature by a coalition of a “bolting” minority with the Democrats. He then returned to his law practice, which had become very great. Among other important cases, he appeared as counsel for William Belknap, then late Secretary of War, who was charged by the House of Representatives with “high crimes and misdemeanors.” Belknap's acquittal was due to Carpenter's masterly management and great ability, as a political campaign was pending and the secretary's sacrifice was demanded to apply the cry of corruption. In February, 1877, he appeared before the electoral commission as counsel for Samuel J. Tilden, although he had been partially engaged by Zachariah Chandler to represent the other side, and would have done so had not the Republican managers failed to complete their arrangement within the period agreed upon. In 1879 he was again chosen to the U.S. Senate, and served from 4 March until his death. His greatest speeches in the Senate are those on the French arms case; his defence of President Grant against the attack of Charles Sumner; on so-called loyal claimants in the south; on the ku-klux act; on Charles Sumner's second civil-rights bill; on Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation; on the bill to restore Fitz John Porter; on the iron-clad oath; and on consular courts. For logic, that on Porter stands foremost; while for eloquence and passion, that on Grant against Sumner is considered the greatest. Senator Carpenter opposed the Fugitive Slave-Law, and, although a Democrat, was an advocate of emancipation in 1861. In 1864 he declared that the slaves must be enfranchised, and up to his death insisted that they must be protected at every cost. As early as 1865 he advocated state and government control of railway and semi-public corporations, and he had the satisfaction of seeing all his theories in that direction finally affirmed by the highest courts and recognized as settled law. He was christened Decatur Merritt Hammond, but, his initials having frequently led to the belief that his name was Matthew Hale, he adopted that form about 1852. See the “Life of Hale Carpenter.” by Frank A. Flower (Madison, Wisconsin, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 531.
CARPENTER, William Lewis, soldier, born in Dunkirk, New York, 13 January, 1844. He received a public-school education in his native city, and in 1864 enlisted as a private in the artillery of the Army of the Potomac. In 1867 he was promoted to a second lieutenancy in the 9th Infantry, U.S. Army, and in 1873 to the rank of first lieutenant. His attention was directed to natural history, and he became in 1873 naturalist to the U.S. Geological Survey, and two years later was called to a similar office on the Geographical Survey. In connection with this work he furnished valuable reports, which were published by the government in the annual reports of the surveys during the years mentioned. In 1877 he was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 532
CARR, Eugene A., soldier, born in Erie county, New York, 20 March, 1830. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1850, and entered the mounted rifles. In 1852–3 he accompanied expeditions to the Rocky mountains. In a skirmish with the Mescalero Apaches, near Diablo Mountain, 10 October, 1854, he was severely wounded, and for his gallantry was promoted first lieutenant. He took part in the Sioux Expedition of 1855, was engaged in suppressing the Kansas border disturbances in 1856, and was in the Utah Expedition of 1858, receiving promotion as captain on 11 June, 1858. In 1860 he took part in skirmishes with the Kiowa and Comanche Indians, and in May, 1861, marched from Fort Washita to Fort Leavenworth, and at once entered upon active service in the field in General Lyon's campaign in southwestern Missouri. He was engaged at Dug Springs and in the battle of Wilson's Creek, where he won the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for gallantry. In September, 1861, he was commissioned colonel of the 3d Illinois Volunteer Cavalry, was an acting brigadier-general in Frémont's hundred days' Campaign, served under Generals Hunter, Halleck, and Curtis, was assigned, February, 1862, to the command of the Fourth Division of the Army of the Southwest, and participated in the pursuit of the enemy into Arkansas, holding the rank of brigadier-general, having received his commission on 7 March, 1862. At Pea Ridge he deployed his division on the extreme right in the second day's battle, and, though thrice wounded, held his position for seven hours, contributing, in a large measure, to the victory of the day. For his gallantry he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, dating from 7 March, and was assigned a command under General Curtis. He participated in the operations against Little Rock, and in the march to Helena during the summer of 1862, was promoted major in the regular army 17 July, and during the autumn of 1862 commanded the Army of the Southwest. During the Vicksburg Campaign of 1863 he commanded a division and led the attack at Magnolia Church and at Port Gibson. At Big Black River his division led the column, and opened and closed the engagement, for which he was brevetted colonel, U.S. Army. He led the assault on Vicksburg on 18 May, and on the 22d his division was the first to effect a lodgment in the enemy's works. During the autumn of 1863 he commanded at Corinth the left wing of the 16th Corps, was transferred in December to the Army of Arkansas, was engaged in the expedition into Camden and in the action at the Little Red River, was in command at Poison Spring and took part in the engagements at Prairie D'Ane and Jenkins's Ferry. He was engaged at Clarendon, 20 June, 1865, and distinguished himself at the siege of Spanish Fort. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the U.S. Army for gallantry at Little Rock, and major-general for services during the war. He took the field against the hostile Sioux and Cheyennes in October, 1868, and on 18 October defeated a large party of Cheyennes on Beaver Creek, Kansas; routed them on Solomon River on 25 October, and drove them out of Kansas; commanded an expedition to the Canadian River in the winter of 1868–'9, and one to Republican River in June and July, 1869, defeating Tall Bull at Summit Springs, Colonel, on 11 July, 1869, and securing a lasting peace to the frontier. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 17 June, 1873, participated in a campaign against the Sioux in 1876, afterward to the Black Hills District, and was chief officer of the Big Horn and Yellowstone Expedition in the autumn of that year. He was promoted colonel of the 6th U.S. Cavalry, to date from 29 April, 1879, directed the field operations against the hostile Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico in 1880, and commanded the expedition to Old Mexico during the Victorio Campaign. In August, 1881, he conducted with great skill the defence of his command against an attempted massacre by the White mountain Apaches at Cibicu Creek. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 533.
CARR, Joseph B., soldier, born in Albany, New York, 16 August, 1828. He was educated in the public schools, was apprenticed to a tobacconist, entered the militia in 1849, and rose to be colonel. In April, 1861, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and in May colonel, of the 2d New York Volunteers. His regiment was the first to encamp on the soil of Virginia, participated in the battle of Big Bethel, and in May, 1862, went to the front and fought through McClellan's Peninsula Campaign, being attached to General Hooker's command. Colonel Carr was acting brigadier-general in the engagements of the Orchards, Glendale, and Malvern Hill, and was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, 7 September, 1862, for services in the field, especially at Malvern Hill on 2 July. He fought with conspicuous gallantry at Bristow Station and Chantilly, and participated in the battle of Fredericksburg. In January, 1863, he commanded an expedition that severed the communications of the enemy at Rappahannock Bridge. At Chancellorsville, 3 May, 1863, he took command of the division after the fall of General Berry, and acted as division commander till 1 June. At Gettysburg his horse was killed under him and he was injured by the fall, but refused to leave the field and held his troops together, though two thirds of them were killed or wounded. On 4 October, 1863, he was assigned to the command of the 3d Division of the 4th Corps, participated in the actions at Brandy Station, Locust Grove, and Mine Run, and was then transferred to the 4th Division in the 2d (Hancock's) Corps. On 2 May, owing to a resolution of the Senate that caused him to rank below some of the brigade commanders of his division, he was ordered to report to General Butler, and was placed by him in the outer line of defence of the Peninsula. He afterward commanded divisions in the 1st Corps, had charge of the defences of James River, and on 1 June, 1865, was brevetted major-general for gallantry and meritorious services during the war. Before he was mustered out, on 24 August, 1865, he was nominated as Secretary of State of New York by the Democratic Party. He took a prominent part in the politics ''' York, being elected Secretary of State in 1879, and re-elected in 1881 and 1883. In 1885 he was the Republican candidate for lieutenant-governor. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 533-534.
CARRINGTON, Henry Beebee, soldier, born in Wallingford, Connecticut, 2 March, 1824. He was graduated at Yale in 1845, was a teacher of chemistry and Greek in Irving Institute, New York, in 1846–’7, studied in the law-school at New Haven, and was for some time a teacher in the New Haven ladies' collegiate Institute. In 1848 he began the practice of law in Columbus, Ohio, and was active in the anti-slavery agitation. He was a member of the convention that organized the Democratic Party on 13 July, 1854, and chairman of the committee a pointed to correspond with other states and make the movement national. As judge-advocate-general, on the staff of Governor Chase, he aided in the organization of the state militia in 1857, in anticipation of a Civil War. He was afterward appointed inspector-general, and was adjutant-general of Ohio when the war began. When President Lincoln issued the first call for troops he organized and placed in western Virginia nine regiments of militia before the muster of the three-months' volunteers. On 14 May, 1861, he received an appointment in the regular army as colonel of the 18th U.S. Infantry. He commanded the camp of instruction at Camp Thomas, Ohio, took a brigade into the field at Lebanon, Kentucky, served as chief muster-officer in Indiana in 1862, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 29 November, 1862, and on the occasion of Morgan's raid returned to Indiana, commanded the militia of that state, aided in raising the siege of Frankfort, Kentucky, and afterward exposed the “Sons of liberty.” He was mustered out of the volunteer service in September, 1865, and in November was president of a military commission to try guerillas at Louisville, Kentucky. Joining his regiment on the plains, he commanded Fort Kearny, Nebraska, and in May, 1866, opened a road to Montana, amid harassing attacks from the hostile Sioux. He conducted military operations in Colorado till the close of 1869, and on 11 December, 1870, was retired from active service on account of wounds and exposure in the line of duty. From the beginning of 1870 till 1873 he was professor of military science and tactics at Wabash College, Indiana, and after that devoted himself to literary labor. He published, in 1849, “Russia as a Nation ” and “American Classics, or Incidents of Revolutionary Suffering.” Before the assault on Fort Sumter he delivered an address on “The Hour, the Peril, and the Duty,” which was published, with two other orations on the war, in a volume entitled “Crisis Thoughts” (Philadelphia, 1878). He published, in 1868, “Ab-sa-ra-ka, Land of Massacre,” embodying his wife's experience on the plains, extended in later editions so as to embrace an account of Indian wars and treaties between 1865 and 1879, and in 1876 published a work on the “Battles of the American Revolution” (New York). The forty large maps accompanying the work were drawn by the author, who, in 1881, published separately “Battle-Maps and Charts of the American Revolution.” General Carrington has given much time to a work that will appear under the title “Battles of the Bible.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 536.
CARROL, Samuel Sprigg, soldier, born in Washington, D.C, 21 September, 1832. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1856. Entering the 10th U.S. Infantry, he became captain on 1 November, 1861. He was appointed colonel of the 8th Ohio Volunteers on 15 December, 1861, and served in the operations in Western Virginia from 7 December, 1861 till 23 May, 1862. From 24 May till 14 August 1862, he commanded a brigade of General Shields's division, taking part in the pursuit of the Confederate forces up the Shenandoah in May and June, 1862, and in the battle of Cedar Mountain on 9 August On 14 August he was wounded in a skirmish on the Rapidan. He took part in the Maryland Campaign, and in the Rappahannock Campaign from December, 1862, till June, 1863, being engaged in the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and receiving the brevet of major for bravery in the latter action. In the Pennsylvania Campaign he was present at the battle of Gettysburg, where he earned the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. In the battle of the Wilderness he won the brevet of colonel, and in the engagements near Spottsylvania was twice wounded and disabled for service in the field during the rest of the war. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 12 May, 1864, and on 13 March, 1865, received the brevet of brigadier-general, U. S. A, for gallantry at Spottsylvania, and that of major-general for services during the rebellion. On 22 January, 1867, he became a lieutenant-colonel in the regular army. In 1868 he was acting inspector-general of the Division of the Atlantic, and on 9 June, 1869, retired as major-general for disability from wounds received in battle. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 539.
CARROLL, William H., soldier, born about 1820. He commanded a brigade in General Albert Sidney Johnston's Confederate Army, and was stationed at Memphis when General Zollicoffer was repelled at Wild Cat. Anticipating a general revolt against the Confederacy in Tennessee. General Johnston ordered Carroll to march with his brigade into the eastern part of the state to the support of Zollicoffer. The Unionists rose in scattered bands, but dispersed at the approach of the southern troops. On 14 November, 1862, General Carroll, commanding at Knoxville, proclaimed martial law, but on the 24th rescinded the order. In the rout at Fishing Creek, otherwise called the battle of Logan's Cross-Roads, or of Mill Spring, where Zollicoffer fell, Carroll's brigade formed the Confederate rear, and retreated with comparatively slight losses, but abandoned its guns and supplies, he resigned in February, 1863. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 539.
CARSON, Christopher, better known as “Kit Carson,” soldier, born in Madison County, Kentucky, 24 December, 1809; died at Fort Lynn, Colorado, 23 May, 1868. While he was an infant his parents emigrated to what is now Howard County, Missouri, but was then a wilderness. At the # of fifteen he was apprenticed to a saddler, with whom he continued two years, and then he joined a hunting expedition, thus beginning the adventurous life that made him one of the most picturesque figures of western history. For eight years he was on the plains, leading the life of a trapper, until he was appointed hunter for the garrison at Bent's Fort, where he remained eight years more. After a short visit to his family he met, for the first time, General (then Lieutenant) John C. Frémont, by whom his experience in the backwoods was at once appreciated, and by whom, also, he was engaged as guide in his subsequent explorations. In this capacity he was eminently useful, and to him is probably due much of the success of those explorations. He was perhaps better known to a larger number of Indian tribes than any other white man, and from his long life among them learned their habits and customs, understood their mode of warfare, and spoke their language as his mother tongue. No one man did more than he in furthering the settlement of the northwestern wilderness. In 1847 Carson was sent to Washington as bearer of despatches, and was then appointed second lieutenant in the mounted rifles, U. S. Army. This appointment, however, was negatived by the Senate. In 1853 he drove 6,500 sheep over the mountains to California, a hazardous undertaking at that time, and, on his return to Laos, was appointed Indian agent in New Mexico. Under this appointment he was largely instrumental in bringing about the treaties between the United States and the Indians. He was an instinctive judge of character and knowing the Indians so thoroughly, his cool judgment and wisdom in dealing with them, even under the most trying circumstances, enabled him to render important services to the U. S. Government. During the Civil War he repeatedly rendered great service to the government in New Mexico, Colorado, and the Indian Territory, and was brevetted brigadier-general for his meritorious conduct. At its close, he resumed his duties as Indian agent. In this relation to the Indians he visited Washington, in the winter and early spring of 1868, in company with a deputation of their men, and made a tour of several of the northern and eastern states. Unlike most of the trappers and guides, General Carson was a man of remarkable modesty, and in conversation never boasted of his own achievements. See “Life of Kit Carson, the Great Western Hunter,” by Charles Burdett (Philadelphia, 1869). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p 540.
CARTER, John C., naval officer, born in Virginia in 1805; died in Brooklyn, New York, 24 November, 1870. He was appointed to the naval service from Kentucky, 1 March, 1825, served on the sloop "Lexington" in 1827, and on the frigate "Delaware," of the Mediterranean Squadron, in 1829-'30, was promoted passed midshipman, 4 June, 1831, and commissioned as lieutenant, 9 February, 1837. He served on the steamer " Mississippi," of the Home Squadron, during the Mexican War. On 14 September, 1855, he was made commander. In 1862 he commanded the steamer "Michigan " on the lakes. After the war he was placed in command of the receiving ship " Vermont" and of the naval rendezvous at San Francisco. He was commissioned as commodore on the retired list on 4 April, 1867. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 541.
CARTER, Samuel Powhatan, naval officer and soldier, born in Elizabethtown, Carter County, Tennessee, 6 August, 1819. He was educated at Princeton, but was never graduated, and on 14 February, 1840, became a midshipman in the U.S. Navy. He was promoted to passed midshipman, 11 July, 1846, assigned to the "Ohio," and served on the eastern coast of Mexico during the Mexican War, being present at the capture of Vera Cruz. From 1851 till 1853 he was assistant instructor of infantry tactics at the Naval Academy. He was made lieutenant 18 April, 1855, assisted in the capture of the Barrier Forts near Canton, China, in 1856, and was complimented for gallantry on that occasion. He was ordered again to the Annapolis naval school as assistant instructor of seamanship in 1857. On 11 July. 1861, he was temporarily transferred to the war Department, for the special duty of organizing troops from east Tennessee. He was appoint colonel of the 2d Tennessee Volunteers, was given the appointment of acting brigadier-general of volunteers in September, and received his full commission 1 May, 1862. He was at Zollicoffers repulse at Wild Cat, Kentucky in October, 1861, at Mill Spring in January, 1862, commanded in the operations against Cumberland Gap, and was at its capture, on 17 June, 1862. In December, 1862, he commanded a cavalry expedition which cut the east Tennessee Railroad, destroying nearly 100 miles of the track, besides inflicting other damage, and received the thanks of the general-in-chief of the army. He commanded the division of central Kentucky in March, 1863, was assigned to the command of the cavalry division, 23d Army Corps, July, 1863, and had the advance when Burnside occupied East Tennessee. He defeated Morgan, 28 August, 1863, and Smith, 29 August, and was present, at the siege of Knoxville, December, 1863. He commanded a division under Scofield in the Carolina Campaign of 1865, and was brevet major-general on 13 March. He was mustered out of the army in January, 1866, and returned to the U.S. Navy, becoming commander 23 June, 1865, as commandant of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis from 1869 till 1872, being promoted to captain 28 October, 1870; was a member of the light-house board from 1876 till 1880, was commissioned commodore 13 November, 1878, and retired 6 August, 1881. On 18 May, 1882, he was made a rear-admiral. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 542-543.
CASE, Augustus Ludlow, naval officer, born in Newburg, New York, 3 February, 1813. He entered U.S. Navy as midshipman, 1 April, 1828, and became passed midshipman, 14 June, 1834. From 1837 till 842 he was engaged in the South Sea Surveying and Exploring Expedition, and was promoted to lieutenant, 25 February, 1841. He served in the Gulf of Mexico from 1846 till 1848 during the Mexican War, and was present at the capture of Vera Cruz, Alvarado, and Tabasco, superintending the landing of men, ordnance, and stores for the siege of Vera Cruz. After the capture of Laguna he was sent with twenty-five men up the Palisada River to capture the town of the same name in the hope of intercepting General Santa Anna. The town was taken and held for two weeks against a large body of cavalry. Lieutenant Case commanded the sloop-of-war “Warren” in 1852–3, and was light-house inspector at New York from 1853 till 1857. He was promoted, 14 Sept: 1855, and commanded the steamer “Caledonia" on the Paraguay Expedition in 1859. At the beginning of the Civil War Commander Case was appointed fleet-captain of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, took part in the capture of Forts Clarke and Hatteras, 28 and 29 August, 1861, and was specially named by flag-officer Stringham in his report of 2 September At Hampton Roads he rendered valuable assistance to Flag-Officer Goldsborough in manning and equipping the many vessels sent to him in an unprepared condition, and was commended in a report, together with Commander Rowan, for “marked ability and sound sense.” He took part in all the operations of the North Atlantic till January, 1863, when he was assigned to the “Iroquois,” which was fitted to look after the “Alabama.” He had charge of the blockade of New Inlet, North Carolina, in 1863, and in August of that year, aided by the steamers “James Adger” and “Mount Vernon,” cut out the steamer “Kate ” from under Fort Fisher and the other batteries at New Inlet. He became captain, 2 January, 1863, and in 1865-6 was fleet-captain of the European Squadron. He was made commodore, 8 December, 1867, was chief of the ordnance bureau from 1869 till 1873, and promoted to rear-admiral, 24 May, 1872. In 1874 he commanded the combined European, North Atlantic, and South Atlantic fleets assembled at Key West at the time of the “Virinius” difficulties with Spain. On 3 February, 1875, he was placed on the retired list, and has since resided in Newport, Rhode Island. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 549-550.
CASEY, Silas, soldier, born in East Greenwich, Rhode Island, 12 July, 1807; died in Brooklyn, New York, 22 January, 1882. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1826, and, entering the 2d U.S. Infantry, served on frontier and garrison duty till 1836, becoming first lieutenant on 28 June of that year. He distinguished himself under Worth in the Seminole War of 1837-'42, and was made captain 1 July, 1839. In the Mexican War he was brevetted major, 20 August, 1847, for his gallant conduct in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and was at Molino del Rey and the storming of Chapultepec, where he was severely wounded while leading the assaulting column. For his conduct here he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 13 September, 1847, and he was thanked by the Rhode Island legislature for his services during the war. After this he was engaged on frontier and recruiting service most of the time till the Civil War. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the 9th U.S. Infantry, 3 March, 1855, was a member of the board for examining breech-loading arms in 1854–5, and commanded Puget Sound District, Washington Territory, from 1856 till 1857. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 31 August, 1861, and charged with organizing and disciplining the volunteers in and near the capital. He was afterward assigned a division in General Keyes's Corps of the Army of the Potomac, and, occupying with it the extreme advance before Richmond, received the first attack of the enemy at Fair Oaks, 31 May, 1862, for which he was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, and made major-general of volunteers. From 1863 till 1865 he was president of the board for the examination of candidates for officers of colored troops, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted major-general in the regular army. In 1867 he again received the thanks of the Rhode Island Legislature for his services in the rebellion, and especially for his bravery, skill, and energy at the battle of Fair Oaks. In 1862 the southern papers published a letter from General Casey to Secretary Stanton, said to have been found in the former's tent at Fair Oaks, and proposing a plan for the permanent military occupation of the south by an army of 160,000 men after the rebellion should be over. He was retired from active service on 8 July, 1868, and served on the retiring board, New York City, till 26 April, 1869. He published " System of Infantry Tactics" (2 vols., New York, 1861) and " Infantry Tactics for Colored Troops " (1863). —His son, Silas, born in Rhode Island, 11 September, 1841, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, in 1860, became master in 1861, lieutenant in 1862, lieutenant-commander in 1866, and commander in 1874. He was attached to the steamer "Wissahickon" in 1861, and was in the first attack on Fort Sumter and various engagements with the batteries in Charleston Harbor. He was equipment officer at the Washington U.S. Navy- yard in 1882-'4, light-house inspector in 1885, and in 1886 commanded the receiving-ship " Dale." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 550-551.
CHAMBERLAIN, Daniel Henry, governor of South Carolina, b, in West Brookfield, Massachusetts, 23 June, 1835. He was graduated at Yale in 1862, and at Harvard law-school in 1863. He entered the army in 1864 as lieutenant in the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry, was promoted to be captain, and served in Maryland, Louisiana, and Texas. He went to South Carolina in 1866, and became a cotton-planter. He was a delegate to the constitutional Convention of 1868, and in the same year became attorney-general of the state. On his retirement from this office in 1872 he resumed his law practice at Columbia, South Carolina, and in 1874 was elected governor of the state. In 1875 he refused to issue commissions to two judges who had been elected by the legislature, and who were condemned as corrupt the best men of both parties. For this action the governor was publicly thanked by prominent citizens of Charleston. Governor Chamberlain was renominated by the Republicans in September, 1876. The year had been marked by several serious conflicts between whites and Negroes, and it was reported that more than 16,000 of the former, in all parts of the state, had organized “rifle clubs.” On 7 October, 1876, the governor issued a proclamation commanding these clubs to disband, on the ground that they had been formed to intimidate the Negroes and influence the coming election. An answer to this proclamation was made by the Democratic Executive Committee, denying the governor's statements. Governor Chamberlain then applied to President Grant for military aid, and the latter ordered U.S. troops to be sent to South Carolina. After the election, the returning-board, disregarding an order of the state supreme court, whose authority they denied, declared the Republican ticket elected, throwing out the vote of £ and Laurens counties, on account of alleged fraud and intimidation. The members from these counties were refused admission to the house, whereupon the Democratic members of the legislature withdrew, and, organizing by them: declared Wade Hampton, the Democratic candidate for governor, elected, as he had received a majority of the votes cast, counting those of the two disputed counties. The Republican members declared Chamberlain elected, and he refused to give up his office to Hampton, who was supported by the majority of white people in the state. After the inauguration of President Hayes, both claimants were invited to a conference in Washington, the result of which was that the president withdrew the troops from South Carolina, and Chamberlain issued a proclamation declaring that he should no longer assert his claims. He then moved to New York City, where he resumed the practice of his profession. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 564-565.
CHAMBERLAIN, Joshua Lawrence, soldier, born in Brewer, Maine, 8 September, 1828. His grandfather, Joshua Chamberlain, was a colonel in the war of 1812, and his father, of the same name, was second in command of the troops on the Maine frontier in the “Aroostook war.” He attended, in his boyhood, the Military Academy of Major Whiting at Ellsworth, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1852, and at Bangor Theological Seminary in 1855. He was licensed to preach, but never assumed the ministerial office, as he was called in that year to a tutorship at Bowdoin. He was professor of rhetoric there from 1856 till 1862, became also instructor in modern languages in 1857, and in 1861 was made professor in this department, holding the chair till 1865. In 1862 he obtained leave of absence from the trustees, intending to go abroad for study, but with their permission entered the National Army as lieutenant-colonel of the 20th Maine Infantry. He became colonel in 1863, and was promoted brigadier-general on the field by General Grant, 18 June, 1864, for his gallantry on that occasion. General Grant, in his “Memoirs,” describing the movement against Petersburg, says: “Colonel J. L. Chamberlain, of the 20th Maine, was wounded on the 18th. He was gallantly leading his brigade at the time, as he had been in the habit of doing. He had several times been recommended for a brigadier-generalcy for gallant and meritorious conduct. On this occasion, however, promoted him on the spot, and forwarded a copy of my order to the war Department, asking that my act might be confirmed and Chamberlain's name sent to the Senate for confirmation without any delay. This was done, and at last a gallant and meritorious officer received partial justice at the hands of his government, which he had served so faithfully and so well.” General Chamberlain was again wounded at Quaker Road, on 29 March, 1865, and on the same day was brevetted major-general of volunteers for his conduct in the first successful assault on Lee's right flank. He commanded two brigades of the 1st Division of the 5th Corps, leading the advance, in the operations that ended in Lee's surrender, 9 April, 1865, and was designated by the commissioners in charge of the ceremonial to receive the formal surrender of the arms and colors of the Confederate Army. He was engaged in twenty-four pitched battles, including Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and Five Forks, and was six times wounded, thrice severely. After resuming his professorship for a few months, he was elected governor of Maine in 1866, and thrice re-elected, serving till 1871. He was chosen president of Bowdoin College in 1871, and also held the professorship of mental and moral philosophy from 1874 till 1879. He was made major-general of the state militia in 1876, and by his wise and vigorous action in January, 1880, did much toward averting Civil War, which had become imminent on account of the contest between the Republicans and “fusionists,” and the total absence of a state government. In 1878 he visited Europe as a member of the U. S. Commission to the Paris Exposition of that year. He resigned the presidency of Bowdoin in 1883, but continued to lecture there on public law and political economy until 1885. He has delivered numerous public addresses, several of which have been published, including that at the centennial exhibition, entitled “Maine; Her Place in History” (Augusta, Maine, 1877). A special edition of his Paris report on “Education in Europe” was published by the government (Washington, 1879). [Appleton’s 1900] p. 565.
CHAMBERS, Alexander, soldier, born in New York State about 1832. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1853, and made second lieutenant of Infantry. He served first in garrison at Fort Columbus, New York, in 1853-'4, and on frontier and other duty until 3 March, 1855, when he was promoted second lieutenant, took part in hostilities in Florida against the Seminoles, 1856–77, was promoted first lieutenant, 19 January, 1859, and participated in the march to New Mexico in 1860. He became captain in the 18th Infantry, 14 May, 1861, and colonel of the 16th Iowa Volunteers, 24 March, 1862; served in the Tennessee and Mississippi Campaign, 4 April to 19 September, 1862, having been twice wounded in the battle of Shiloh, and was promoted brevet major 7 April for his meritorious services during that action. He was present at the siege of Corinth, and brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 19 September, 1862, for gallant conduct at the battle of Iuka, where he was wounded severely in the Vicksburg Campaign, and was promoted brevet colonel, 4 July, 1863, for meritorious services during the siege; was a brigadier-general of volunteers, 11 August, 1863, and was in garrison at Vicksburg from August, 1863, till 1 February, 1864, when he participated in General Sherman's march to Meridian. He was at Omaha as judge-advocate of the District of Nebraska from January till 7 June, 1866, and in the Department of the Platte from 7 June, 1866, till transferred to the 27th U.S. Infantry, 21 September, 1866. On 5 March, 1867, he became major of the 22d U.S. Infantry. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 566.
CHAMBLISS, John Randolph, soldier, born in Wicksford, Greenville County, Virginia, 23 January, 1833; died in Deep Bottom, near Richmond, Virginia, 16 August, 1864. His father, John R. Chambliss, was a delegate to the Virginia secession Convention of 1861. Young Chambliss was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1858, and served at the cavalry school, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, till 4 March, 1854, when he resigned. He then became a planter at Hicksford, Virginia, was major on the staff of the governor from 1856 till 1861, and colonel in the militia from 1858 till 1861. He joined the Confederate Army at the beginning of the Civil War as colonel of an infantry regiment, and afterward became colonel of the 13th Virginia Cavalry. He was subsequently made a brigadier-general, and was killed in action while leading a brigade of cavalry. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 567.
CHAMBLISS, William Parham, soldier, born in Chamblissburg. Bedford County, Virginia, 20 March, 1827. After attending a private school in Giles County, Tennessee, he served through the Mexican War as second lieutenant in the 1st Tennessee Volunteers from June, 1846, till July, 1847, and afterward as captain of the 3d Tennessee Volunteers. From 1850 till 1855 he practised law in Pulaski, Tennessee, and from 1852 till 1855 edited there the " Citizen," a Democratic weekly newspaper. He was also a member of the legislature from 1853 till 1864. He entered the regular army as first lieutenant in the 2d U.S. Cavalry, 3 March, 1855, and was engaged in Texas against hostile Indians most of the time till March, 1861. He was made captain in the 5th U.S. Cavalry, 6 April, 1861, and served through the Manassas and Peninsular Campaigns, receiving the brevet of major, 4 May, 1862, for gallantry at Hanover Court-House, Virginia. At the tattle of Gaines's Mills, 27 June, 1862, he was wounded in several places, lay four days and four nights on the field of battle, and was then taken to Libby Prison, Richmond. For his conduct at Gaines's Mills he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel on 28 June, 1882. The wounds that he received on this occasion nearly caused his death, and have partially disabled him for the rest of his life. After his release from Libby prison he underwent treatment in St. Luke's Hospital, New York, and then served as instructor of cavalry at the U. S. Military Academy from October, 1862, till June, 1864. He was made major in the 4th U.S. Cavalry, 30 March, 1864, served as special inspector of cavalry, Division of the Mississippi, from August, 1864, till April, 1865, and with his regiment in Texas till 1 November, 1867, when he resigned and became president and general manager of the Cobourg Railway and Mining Company, Cobourg, Canada. He has published a pamphlet on "General McClellan and the Presidency'' (1864). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 567.
CHAMPLIN, Stephen, naval officer, born in South Kingston, Rhode Island, 17 November, 1789; died in Buffalo, New York, 20 February, 1870. He was a cousin of Commodore Perry. When he was five years old his parents moved to Lebanon, Connecticut, where he was employed on his father's farm, and received a common-school education. At the age of sixteen he ran away from home to become a sailor, and at twenty-two was captain of a fine brig in the West India trade. He was appointed a sailing-master in the U.S. Navy, 22 May, 1812, placed in command of a gun-boat under Commodore Perry at Newport, and soon after ordered to Sackett's Harbor, New York, where he soon attracted the attention of his superior officers by his remarkable promptness. On 18 July, 1813, he was ordered to take charge of seventy-four officers and men and report to Commodore Perry at Erie, Pennsylvania, going by way of Lakes Ontario and Erie, and marching across the country from Niagara to Buffalo. He made the entire distance, using only setting-poles and oars for propulsion, in five days. He was ordered, on 25 July, to take command of the “Scorpion,” and engaged with that vessel in the battle of Lake Erie, 10 September, 1813, being at that time under twenty-four years of age. The “Scorpion” fired the first shot on the American side, and was fought with great bravery, keeping its place near the Lawrence throughout the engagement. At ten o'clock in the evening of 13 September Champlin captured the “Little Belt,” and in so doing fired the last shot in the battle. He was afterward placed in command of two of the captured prize-ships, the “Queen Charlotte” and the “Detroit.” In the spring of 1814 he commanded the “Tigress,” and blockaded, with Captain Turner in the 'Scorpion,” the port of Mackinac. They cruised for some months in the service, cutting off the supplies of the British garrison; but both vessels were surprised and captured at nine o'clock on the evening of 3 September by a superior force of Indians and British, sent from Mackinac in five boats to raise the blockade. Every American officer was severely wounded, and Champlin was crippled for life by a canister-shot, which passed through the fleshy part of the right thigh and embedded itself in the left thigh, shattering the bone and remained lodged in the limb for eighteen days. He was taken prisoner and carried to Mackinac, where he lay suffering for thirty-eight days, and was then paroled and sent to Erie, and then, by easy stages, to Connecticut, arriving there in March, 1815. He was prevented by his wounds from seeing much active service after this. He had been made lieutenant on 9 December, 1814, and in 1815 was attached to Perry's flag-ship, the “Virginia” He commanded the schooner “Porcupine” from 1816 till 1818, and was employed during 1816 in surveying the Canada boundary-line. He then retired to Connecticut, still suffering from his wound, and undergoing several operations without relief. He lived here, with the exception of a short service on the receiving-ship “Fulton,” from 1828 till 1834, when he moved to Buffalo, and remained there till his death. He was promoted to commander, 22 June, 1838, put in charge of the rendezvous at Buffalo in 1842, and commanded the “Michigan” from 1845 till 1848. He was made captain, 4 August, 1850, and placed on the retired list in 1855. He was raised to the rank of commodore, 16 July, 1862, and was the last survivor of the battle of Lake Erie. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 570.
CHAMPLIN, Stephen Gardner, soldier, born in Kingston, New York, 1 July, 1827; died in Grand Rapids, Michigan, 24 January, 1864. He was educated in the common schools, and at Rhinebeck Academy, New York, studied law, and admitted to the bar in Albany in 1850. He moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1853, where he became judge of the recorder's court and prosecuting attorney of Kent County He entered the army in 1861, as major in the 3d Michigan Infantry, and became its colonel on 22 October Among the battles in which he took part were Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Groveton, and Antietam. He received at Fair Oaks a severe wound, which prevented him from seeing active service after his promotion to the rank of brigadier-general, 29 November, 1862, and he was placed on detached duty in command of the recruiting-station at Grand Rapids, dying in the service, from the effects of his wound. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 570.
CHANDLER, Ralph, naval officer, born in New York, 23 August, 1829. He was appointed to the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 27 September, 1845, served on the west coast of Mexico during the Mexican War, and was engaged in skirmishes near Mazatlan. He became passed midshipman, 6 October, 1851, was promoted to master in 1855, and commissioned as lieutenant on 16 September of that year, he was on the "Vandalia" at the battle of Port Royal, 7 November, 1861, and in 1862 was assigned to the " San Jacinto," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, on which he was present at the capture of Norfolk. He was promoted to lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, commanded the "Maumee" at both attacks on Fort Fisher, and was made commander, 25 July, 1866. He became captain, 5 June, 1874, and commodore, 1 March, 1884, and in the same year was appointed commandant of the Brooklyn U.S. Navy-yard. He was promoted to rear-admiral on 6 October, 1886, succeeded in command of the U.S. Navy-yard by Commodore Gherardi on 15 October, and was ordered to relieve Rear-Admiral Davis in command of the Asiatic Squadron. . Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 573
CHAPMAN, George H., soldier. He served during the Civil War in the volunteer army, and was appointed a brigadier-general on 21 July, 1864 On 13 March, 1865, he received the brevet of major-general, and was mustered out of service on 7 January, 1866. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 581
CHAPMAN, William, soldier, born in St. Johns, Maryland, 22 January, 1810. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1831, and promoted to lieutenant in the 5th U.S. Infantry, after which he served on frontier duty at Fort Mackinac, Michigan, in 1831–2, on the Black Hawk Expedition in 1832. Chapman was an instructor at West Point in 1832-’3, and with his regiment at various posts on the frontier until 1845. In 1845–6 he was in Texas during the military occupancy of that country, and in the Mexican War was present at the principal engagements. He received the brevet rank of major in August, 1847, and that of lieutenant-colonel in September, for gallant conduct during the war. Subsequently he again served on garrison duty in Texas and New Mexico, becoming major of the 2d U.S. Infantry in February, 1861. During the Civil War he had command of a regiment in the defences of Washington in 1862, and was with the Army of the Potomac during the Peninsular Campaign, being engaged in the siege Yorktown and at Malvern Hill, and afterward at Manassas, where he received the brevet of colonel. He was retired from active service in August, 1863, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and assigned to the command of the draft rendezvous at Madison, Wisconsin Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 582.
CHASE, William Henry, soldier, born in Massachusetts in 1798; died in Pensacola, Florida, 8 February, 1870. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1815, and was at once assigned to the Engineer Corps. He was employed in repairing Fort Niagara from 1817 till 1818, and in 1819 was assigned to duty in constructing defences for New Orleans and the gulf ports, which the war of 1812 had shown to be vulnerable points. His first works were Forts Pike and Macomb. He was made first lieutenant, 31 March, 1819, and from then till 1828 was superintending engineer of various important works, including the forts at Rigolets, Chef Menteur, Bienvenue, and the Bayou Dupre passes to New Orleans. He was promoted to captain, 1 January, 1825, and from 1828 till 1854 was in charge of the construction of the defences in Pensacola Harbor, Florida. He was also in charge of Fort Morgan, Alabama, of Fort Jackson, Louisiana, and of the improvement of the mouth of the Mississippi from 1836 till 1839. He was promoted to major, 7 July, 1838, and served on special boards of engineers for the examination of various points. He superintended the improvement of Mobile Bay. His last work was Fort Taylor, Key West, Florida, of which he had charge in 1854- 6, when he was appointed by President Pierce superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy, but resigned from the army on 31 October, before entering upon his duties there, and became president of the Alabama and Florida Railroad Company. Major Chase took an influential part in all projects connected with the development of the region about Pensacola, where he made his home. When the Civil War began, he joined the Confederates, and was active in the seizure of Pensacola Navy-yard, but after this took no prominent part. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 589.
CHASE, William Henry, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 25 April, 1844; died there, 21 June, 1871. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1865, became a first lieutenant in the Engineer Corps, and served at Willett's Point, New York, St. Paul, Minn., and San Francisco, California. While at St. Paul, he was directed by General Warren to make a topographical survey of the battle-field of Gettysburg. The survey was completed in 1869, and is a valuable contribution to the military history of the war. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 589
CHEANEY, Person Colby, 1828-1901, Manchester, New Hampshire, statesman, soldier, abolitionist, businessman, paper manufacturer, Republican politician, abolitionist. U.S. Senator, 35th Governor of New Hampshire. His father was abolitionist Moses Cheney. (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 2, Pt. 2, p. 54)
CHEATHAM, Benjamin Franklin, soldier, born in Nashville, Tennessee, 20 October, 1820; died there, 4 September, 1886. He served as captain of volunteers in the Mexican War, distinguished himself at Monterey, Medelin, and Cerro Gordo, and, after the expiration of his twelve months term of service, was again mustered in as colonel of the 3d Tennessee Regiment, and served till the end of the war. He was major-general of Tennessee militia after his return, and was a farmer until 1861, when he entered the army of the seceded states, being one of the first Tennesseans to enlist in the Confederate service, and was early appointed a brigadier-general. He commanded at Mayfield, Kentucky, in September, 1861, and at the battles of Belmont and Shiloh, served subsequently at Columbus, Kentucky, was a division commander in Bragg's army when it entered Kentucky in September, 1862, was soon afterward promoted major-general, and was engaged at Stone River, being wounded and having three horses shot in the second battle, and at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Nashville, and other places. President Grant, who was his personal friend, offered him an appointment in the civil service, but he declined. He devoted himself chiefly to agriculture after the war, but served four years as superintendent of state prisons, and in October, 1885, became postmaster of Nashville. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 596
CHENEY, Person Colby, 1828-1901, abolitionist, businessman, Union Army officer. Son of Moses and Abigail Cheney. Later, Governor and Senator from New Hampshire. (Cheney, 1907)
CHESTER, Colby M. naval officer, born in Connecticut in 1845. He was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy, assigned in 1863 to the steam sloop "Richmond," of the Western Gulf Squadron, and participated in the operations against Mobile on 5 August, 1864. He was promoted master, 10 November, 1866, commissioned lieutenant, 21 February, 1867, lieutenant-commander, 12 March, 1868, became commander, 15 October, 1881, and was hydrographic inspector of the Coast Survey from 1881 till 1885. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 599.
CHESTNUT, James, Jr., senator, born near Camden, South Carolina, in 1815. He was graduated at Princeton in 1835. From 1842 till 1852 he served in the South Carolina legislature, and from 1854 till 1858 was a member of the state senate. A vacancy occurring in the U.S. Senate, he was appointed to fill the unexpired term, and was formally elected senator on 5 January, 1859. He resigned on 10 November, 1860, in anticipation of the secession of South Carolina; but his resignation was not accepted, and he was formally expelled, 11 July, 1861. In the meantime he had been appointed a delegate to the Confederate Provisional Congress. He was commissioned colonel in the Confederate Army, and detailed as aide-de-camp on the staff of Jefferson Davis. In 1864 he was promoted brigadier-general and assigned to a command on the coast of South Carolina. In 1868 he was a member of the National Democratic Convention that nominated Horatio Seymour for the presidency. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 600.
CHETLAIN, Augustus Louis, soldier, born in St. Louis, Missouri, 26 December, 1824. His parents, of French Huguenot stock, emigrated from Neufchâtel, Switzerland, in 1823, and were members of the Red River colony. He received a common-school education, became a merchant in Galena, and was the first volunteer at a meeting held in response to the president's call after the bombardment of Fort Sumter in 1861. He was chosen captain of the company when General (then Captain) Grant declined, and on 16 April, 1862, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 12th Illinois Infantry. He was in command at Smithland, Kentucky, from September, 1861, till January, 1862, and then participated in General Smith's campaign on the Tennessee River to Fort Henry, and led his regiment at Fort Donelson. He was engaged at Shiloh, distinguishing himself at Corinth, being left in command of that post until May, 1863, and while there organized the first colored regiment raised in the west. On 13 December, 1863, he was promoted brigadier-general, placed in charge of the organization of colored troops in Tennessee, and afterward in Kentucky, and by 1 January, 1864, had raised a force of 17,000 men, for which service he was brevetted major- general. From January to October, 1865, he commanded the post of Memphis, and then the District of Talladega, Alabama, until 5 February, 1866, when he was mustered out of service. He was assessor of internal revenue for the District of Utah in 1867–'9, then U.S. consul at Brussels, and, after his return to the United States in 1872, established himself in Chicago as a banker and stock-broker. In September, 1886, General Chetlain delivered the annual address before the Society of the Army of the Tennessee, at Rock Island, Illinois. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 600.
CHEW, Robert S., chief clerk of the State Department at Washington, born in Virginia in 1811; died in Washington, D. C., 3 August, 1873. He entered the service of the government in his youth, and had served in the State Department more than forty years, when he was advanced to the chief clerkship on the appointment of William Hunter as second assistant Secretary of State in July, 1866.—His eldest son, Richard S., naval officer, born in the District of Columbia, 7 September, 1843; died in Washington, D. C, 10 April, 1875. He was graduated at the U.S. Naval Academy in 1861, commissioned lieutenant, 22 February, 1864, and lieutenant-commander, 25 July, 1866, served on board the frigate "Minnesota," participating in the actions with the "Merrimac" on 8 and 9 April, 1862, being attached to the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron in 1863-'4, and being present at the battle of Mobile Bay. On 2 February, 1875, he was retired for disability. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 601.
CHRISTIANCY, Isaac Peckham, born 1812, Johnstown, New York. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. p. 611.
CHRISTIANCY, Isaac Peckham, senator, born in Johnstown (now Bleecker), New York, 12 March, 1812. He was educated at the academies of Kingsborough and Ovid, New York, and when thirteen years old became the main support of his father's family. After teaching school he studied law with John Maynard till 1836, when he moved to Monroe, Michigan, and, on the completion of his law studies, was admitted to the bar. He was prosecuting attorney for Monroe county from 1841 till 1846, and in 1848 was a delegate to the Buffalo Free-Soil Convention, having left the Democratic Party on the question of slavery. He was a member of the state senate from 1850 till 1852, and in the latter year was the Free-Soil candidate for governor. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in Michigan, and was a delegate to its first national convention in Philadelphia in 1856. He purchased the Monroe “Commercial” in 1857, and became its editor, and in the same year was an unsuccessful candidate for U. S. Senator. He was elected a judge of the State supreme court in 1857, re-elected in 1865 and 1873, both times without opposition, and became chief justice in January, 1872. He was elected U. S. Senator in 1875, and, resigning in February, 1879, on account of ill health, was sent as minister to Peru, where he remained for two years. During the Civil War Judge Christiancy was for a time on the staff of General Custer and that of General A. A. Humphreys. His judicial opinions, which are to be found in the “Michigan Reports” from volumes 5 to 31, inclusive, contain the best work of his life. Appletons’ Cylcopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. p. 611.
CHRYSLER, Morgan Henry, soldier, born in Ghent, Columbia County, New York, 30 September, 1826. He received a common-school education in his native town, and has been a farmer nearly all his life. He enlisted as a private soldier in the 30th New York Volunteers on 17 April, 1861, was promoted to captain on 7 May, to major on 11 March, 1862, and to lieutenant-colonel on 30 August, serving in the Army of the Potomac. In 1863, went home, and in fifty-five days raised, by his own efforts, the 2d New York Veteran Cavalry, 1,176 men, three quarters of them being veterans from the old “Iron Brigade.” He was commissioned its colonel on 5 December, 1863, and till 8 November, 1865, served in the Army of the Gulf, commanding all the troops in northern Alabama, with headquarters at Talladega, and opening communication with Selma and Montgomery. He was present at the capture of Mobile, with its surrounding defences, was brevetted brigadier-general, 23 January, 1864, and made brigadier-general of volunteers and brevet major-general on 13 March, 1865. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 612.
CHURCH, William Conant, publisher, born in Rochester, New York, 11 August, 1836, moved to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1848, and completed his education at the Boston Latin-school in 1851. In 1853 he moved to New York and engaged with his father in editing and publishing the “New York Chronicle,” it merged with the “Examiner,” in which he retained a proprietary interest. He became the publisher of the New York “Sun” in 1860, and served as war correspondent of the New York “Times” during 1861–2, until his appointment, on 4 October, 1862, as captain of U.S. volunteers. He received the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel on 11 March, 1865. In 1882 he was appointed one of the commissioners to inspect the '' Pacific Railroad. In 1863, with his brother Francis, he established the “Army and Navy Journal,” of which he is at present editor and proprietor, and in 1866 the “Galaxy” magazine. ' £ contributed to the “Century” and other magazines.— Another son, Francis Pharcellus, editor, born in Rochester, New York, 22 February, 1839, was graduated at Columbia in 1859, and, after studying law, became one of the editors and publishers of the “Army and Navy Journal,” and later, with his brother, founded and edited the “Galaxy” magazine. He is also a leading editorial writer for New York daily journals. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 613.
CILLEY, Greenleaf, naval officer, born in Thomaston, Maine, 27 October, 1829, was appointed midshipman in the ''. and attached to the frigate “Cumberland,” of the Mediterranean Squadron, in 1843–’5. In August, 1847, he was promoted to assed midshipman, and spent some time at the U. S. Naval Academy, after which he served on the frigate “Raritan” in 1849-'50, on the Coast Survey in 1851-'2, and on various vessels of the Pacific Squadron in 1852–5. He was commissioned as lieutenant in September, 1855, and connected with the sloop “Saratoga.” in 1856–8, and subsequently served on various other vessels. In July, 1862, he was made lieutenant-commander, and during the Civil War was in command of the “Unadilla,” and later of the monitor “Catskill.” At the close of the war he was retired and commissioned as commander. He now (1886) resides in Buenos Ayres. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 616
CILLEY, Jonathan Prince, soldier, born in Thomaston, Maine, 29 December, 1835, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1858, studied law with A. P. Gould in Thomaston, and, after admission to the bar, settled in his native town. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted 150 men for a light field-battery; but, that arm of the service not being required, he enlisted in the 1st Maine Cavalry, and was commissioned captain. During the retreat of General Banks from the Shenandoah valley he was wounded and made prisoner at Middletown on 24 May, 1862. Subsequently he was promoted to be major, and assigned to duty as judge-advocate and examining officer at the central guardhouse in Washington, D.C. In 1863 he rejoined his regiment with his wound still unhealed, and during 1864 was made lieutenant-colonel. He was placed in command of the regiment, and continued in this capacity until mustered out in 1865, when he received the brevet of brigadier-general for distinguished services at Five Forks, Farmville, and Appomattox Court-House. In his regiment, which was authorized to bear the names of three more battles upon its standards than any other regiment in the Army of the Potomac, General Cilley was “the first man that enlisted, the first man wounded, and nearly the last mustered out.” After the war he resumed his profession in Rockland, Maine, and since has been a member of the state legislature, deputy collector of customs, adjutant-general of the state, and commissioner of the U. S. Circuit Court. He is a member of the Maine Historical Society, and, besides addresses and memorial orations, has published a genealogy of the “Cilley Family.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 616
CIST, Henry Martyn, lawyer, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 20 February, 1839, was graduated at Fanner's (now Belmont) College in 1858, and studied law. In April, 1861, he enlisted as a private in the 6th Ohio Infantry. He was promoted to second lieutenant in the 52d Ohio Infantry, and then to adjutant of the 74th Ohio, and was post-adjutant of Camp Chase during the confinement of the prisoners captured at Fort Donelson. In 1862 he was in the field with his. regiment, serving in middle Tennessee, in September promoted to acting assistant adjutant-general of Miller's brigade, during the Tullahoma Campaign appointed acting assistant, adjutant-general of the Department of the Cumberland, and served on the department staff under Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas until his resignation in January, 1866. Meanwhile he had attained the rank of major and assistant adjutant-general with the brevet of brigadier-general, having served in the Chickamauga and the Eastport Campaigns. General Cist remained in the service after the close of hostilities, at General Thomas's request, to give the necessary orders and to arrange the details providing for the mustering out and disbanding of over 100,000 troops. Subsequent to the war he returned to Cincinnati and resumed the practice of law, and in 1869 he was elected corresponding secretary of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland, to which office he has been re-elected every year since. General Cist has contributed to periodicals many articles on the Civil War, among which are "Cincinnati with the War Fever " and " The Romance of Shiloh." He edited all but vols. ii. and iii. of " Reports of the Society of the Array of the Cumberland " (Cincinnati, 17 vols., 1868-85), and is the author of "The Army of the Cumberland" (New York, 1882). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 617-618.
CLAIBORNE, John Herbert, physician, born in Brunswick county, Virginia, 16 March, 1828. He was graduated at the University of Virginia in 1849, and at the Jefferson Medical College in 1850, after which for a year he was connected with hospitals in Philadelphia, In 1851 he settled in Petersburg, Virginia, and there practised until 1861. In 1857 he was a member of the Virginia Senate. During the Civil War he was a surgeon in the Confederate Army, and in 1862 organized the general hospital in Petersburg, of which he became chief executive officer. He is member of several medical societies, has held the office of vice-president of the Virginia State Medical Society, and of the Confederate States Army and Navy Medical Association. Of late years he has made a specialty of diseases of women and children, and his published articles in medical journals are principally on these subjects. He has published essays on "Diphtheria" and "Dysmenorrhea," and a volume of "Clinical Reports from Private Practice" (1873). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 619.
CLARK, John Bullock, lawyer, born in Madison county, Kentucky, 17 April, 1802; died in Fayette, Missouri, 29 October, 1885. He moved to Missouri with his father in 1818, was admitted to the bar in 1824, and began practice at Fayette, Missouri He was clerk of the Howard county courts from 1824 till 1834, commanded a regiment of Missouri volunteer Cavalry in the Black Hawk war of 1832, where he was twice wounded, and in 1848 was commissioned major-general of militia. He was a member of the legislature in 1850 and 1851, and was at the head of the force sent out to expel the Mormons from Missouri. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat in 1857, to fill a vacancy, and served till 1861, when he withdrew and joined the Confederates. He was formally expelled on 13 July, 1861. At the beginning of the war he was appointed brigadier-general by Governor Jackson, and commanded the Missouri troops till disabled at the battle of Springheld in August, 1861. Before his recovery he was elected to the first Confederate Congress, and was afterward senator from Missouri till the close of the war. He then resumed his law practice at Fayette. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 629
CLARK, John Bullock, lawyer, born in Fayette, Missouri, 14 January, 1831, spent two years in Missouri University, and then entered Harvard law school, where he was graduated in 1854. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the Confederate Army as a lieutenant, and rose through the grades of captain, major, and colonel, to that of brigadier-general. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 1 December, 1873, till 1883, and on 4 December, 1883, was chosen clerk of the House of Representatives. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 629
CLARK, William Smith, educator, born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, 31 July, 1826; died in Amherst, 9 March, 1886. He received his early education at Williston seminary, and was graduated at Amherst in 1848. For two years he taught the natural sciences at Williston seminary, after which he spent two years abroad studying chemistry and botany at Gottingen, where," in 1852, he received the degree of Ph. D. On his return to the United States, in 1852, he was elected to the chair of analytical and applied chemistry, and from 1854 till 1858 was professor of chemistry, botany, and zoology. From 1858 till 1867 he filled the chair of chemistry alone. He was commissioned major in the 21st Massachusetts Infantry in August, 1861, became colonel in May, 1862, and was recommended by General Burnside for a well-deserved promotion as brigadier-general. Colonel Clark participated in the battles of Roanoke Island, Newbern, Camden, North Carolina, the second Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. In 1867 he was elected to the presidency of the Massachusetts agricultural College. This office, with the chair of botany and horticulture, he held until 1879, except during 1876-'7. when he was in Japan, where he had been invited to establish and organize the Imperial College of agriculture at Sapporo. During his stay in Japan he examined the flora of that country, and was the means of introducing new species of shade-trees into the United States. He also sent to Massachusetts a large assortment of seeds, many of which proved of special value to his own state, on account of the high latitude from which they were selected. He discovered a new lichen on the side of Mt. Tieni, at an elevation of 3,200 feet, which was named Cetraria Clarkii, in his honor, by Professor Edward Tuckerman. Subsequent to his resignation from the agricultural college he became interested in a scientific floating college, projected by Mr. Woodruff, whose sudden death caused the abandonment of the scheme. After this Professor Clark resided in Amherst until his death, partly occupied with mining operations. From 1859 till 1861 he was a member of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, and a member ex officio from 1876 till 1879. He was one of the commission of three, appointed by Governor Andrew in 1863, to consider the expediency of establishing a state military academy. He was a presidential elector in 1864, and a representative to the Massachusetts legislature in 1864–75 and 1867. He was a fellow of the American Academy of arts and sciences, and also a member of other scientific societies. His published papers include following papers contributed to the annual reports of the Massachusetts state board of agriculture: “Report on Horses” (1859–60); “Professional Education the Present Want of Agriculture,” “The Work and the Wants of the Agricultural College” (1868); “The Cultivation of the Cereals” (1868): “Nature's Mode of Distributing Plants” (1870); “The Relations of Botany to Agriculture” (1872): “The Circulation of Sap in Plants” (1873): “Observations on the Phenomena of Plant-Life” (1874); and “Agriculture in Japan” (1878). In 1869 he translated, for use in the Agricultural College, Scheerer's “Blow-pipe Manual.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 631-632.
CLARKE, Freeman, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)
CLARKE, Henry Francis, soldier, born in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, 9 November, 1820. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, entered the artillery, served in the military occupation of Texas in 1845-'6, and in the war with Mexico, he distinguished himself at Chapultepec, where he won the brevet of captain, and was present at the assault and capture of the city of Mexico. He was assistant instructor of artillery at the Military Academy in 1848-'9, assistant professor of mathematics in 1850-'l, was engaged with his regiment in the Seminole War of 1851-2, again assistant instructor of artillery at West Point in 1855-'6, made captain, 12 January, 1857, accompanied the Utah Expedition of 1857 as commissary of subsistence, and remained there as chief commissary till 1860, when he was assigned to duty in the office of the commissary-general, he ordered the expedition for the relief of Fort Pickens, 1 April, 1861, was appointed chief commissary of General McDowell's command, 2 July, 1861, served in the Manassas Campaign, was promoted major, 3 August, and served as chief commissary of subsistence of the Army of the Potomac from 20 August, 1861, till 5 January, 1864, being present at the siege of Yorktown, the battles of South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 29 June, 1864, and had charge of purchase of supplies in New York City till 1867; was brevetted brigadier- general for gallantry at the battle of Gettysburg, and major-general for faithful services in the subsistence department during the Civil War. He served as chief of commissariat of the Division of the Missouri in 1868-'75, and of the Division of the Atlantic from 1879 until he was retired, 9 November, 1884, with the rank of colonel, having been advanced to that grade on 20 May, 1882. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 633.
CLARY, Robert Emmet, soldier, born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, 21 March, 1805. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1828, was assigned to the 5th U.S. Infantry, and served on frontier duty till 7 July, 1838, when he was made assistant quartermaster, with the rank of captain. He became captain on 3 April, 1839, served in the Florida War of 1840-'l, and at various posts till the Civil War. He was chief quartermaster of the Department of West Virginia from November, 1861, till July, 1862, of the Army of Virginia to October, 1862, and of the Department of the Northwest till 20 March, 1863. He was made colonel on the staff and additional aide-de-camp, 5 July, 1862. and was in charge of the Memphis military "depot from 1864 till 1866. On 13 March. 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general for his services during the war. He was made assistant quartermaster-general on 29 July, 1866, and served as depot quartermaster at Boston, Massachusetts from 1867 till 1869. On 22 February of that year he was retired, being over sixty-two years of age. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 637.
CLAY, Cassius Marcellus, 1810-1903, Madison County, Kentucky, anti-slavery political leader, emancipationist, large landowner, statesman, lawyer, diplomat, soldier, newspaper publisher. Granted land for Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. Prominent anti-slavery activist with Kentucky State legislature and member of the Republican Party. Published anti-slavery paper, True American, in Lexington, Kentucky.
(Blue, 2005, pp. 151, 171; Clay, 1896; Dumond, 1961, p. 258; Filler, 1960, pp. 213, 221, 248, 256, 272; Mabee, 1970, pp. 4, 237, 258-259, 327, 336, 372; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 5, 63, 64, 71, 107, 147, 156, 199; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 380, 619; Smiley, 1962; Wilson, 1872, pp. 628-635; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 503, 577, 639-640; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 2, Pt. 2, p. 18; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 171-173; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 4; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, pp. 311-312)
CLAY, Cassius Marcellus, politician, born in Madison county, Kentucky, 19 October, 1810, studied at Transylvania University, but afterward entered the junior class at Yale, and was graduated there in 1832. While in New Haven he heard William Lloyd Garrison, and, although his parents were slave-holders, became an earnest abolitionist. He began to practice law in his native county, and was elected to the legislature in 1835, but was defeated the next year on account of his advocacy of internal improvements. He was again elected in 1837, and in 1839 was a member of the convention that nominated General Harrison for the presidency. He then moved to Lexington, and was again a member of the legislature in 1840, but in 1841 was defeated, after an exciting canvass, on account of his anti-slavery views. The improved jury system and the common-school system of Kentucky are largely due to his efforts while in the legislature. Mr. Clay denounced the proposed annexation of Texas, as intended to extend slavery, and in 1844 actively supported Henry Clay for the presidency, speaking in his behalf in the northern states. On 3 June, 1845, he issued in Lexington the first number of an anti-slavery paper entitled “The True American.” Mob violence had been threatened, and the editor had prepared himself for it. He says in his memoirs: “I selected for my office a brick building, and lined the outside doors with sheet-iron, to prevent it being burned. I purchased two brass four-pounder cannon at Cincinnati, and placed them, loaded with shot and nails, on a table, breast high; had folding-doors secured with a chain, which could open upon the mob and give play to the cannon. I furnished my office with Mexican lances, and a limited number of guns. There were six or eight persons who stood ready to defend me. If defeated, they were to escape by a trap-door in the roof; and I had placed a keg of powder with a match, which I could set off and blow up the office and all my invaders; and this I should most certainly have done in case of the last extremity.” In August, while the editor was sick, his press was seized by the mob and taken to Cincinnati, and he himself was threatened with assassination; but, notwithstanding all opposition, he continued to publish the paper, printing it in Cincinnati and circulating it through Kentucky. This was not his only narrow escape. He was continually involved in quarrels, had several bloody personal encounters, and habitually spoke in political meetings, with a bowie knife concealed about him, and a brace of pistols in the mouth of his grip-sack, which he placed at his feet. When war with Mexico was declared, Mr. Clay entered the army as captain of a volunteer infantry company that had already distinguished itself at Tippecanoe in 1811. He took this course because he thought a military title necessary to political advancement in a “fighting state” like Kentucky. On 23 January, 1847, while in the van, more than 100 miles in advance of the main army, he was taken prisoner, with seventy-one others, at Encarnacion, and marched to the city of Mexico. On one occasion, after the escape of some of the captives, the lives of the remainder were saved by Captain Clay's gallantry and presence of mind. After being exchanged, he returned to Kentucky, and was presented by his fellow-citizens with a sword in honor of his services. He worked for General Taylor's nomination in the Convention of 1848, and carried Kentucky for him. He called a convention of emancipationists at Frankfort, Kentucky, in 1849, and in 1850, separating from the Whig Party, was an anti-slavery candidate for governor, receiving about 5,000 votes. He labored energetically for Frémont's election in 1856, and for Lincoln's in 1860, but took pains to separate himself from the “radical abolitionists,” holding that all interference with slavery should be by legal methods. On 28 March, 1861, he was appointed minister to Russia. He returned to this country in June, 1862, having been commissioned major-general of volunteers, and shortly afterward made a speech in Washington, declaring that he would never draw his sword while slavery was protected in the seceding states. He resigned on 11 March, 1863, and was again sent as minister to Russia, publicly supported the revolutionary movement in Cuba, and became president of the Cuban aid Society. In 1871 he delivered an address by invitation at the St. Louis fair, urging speedy reconciliation with the north, and at the same time attacking President Grant's administration. He was identified with the liberal republican movement in 1872, and supported his old friend Horace Greeley for the presidency. He afterward joined the Democratic Party, and actively supported Samuel J. Tilden in 1876, but advocated Blaine's election in 1884. In 1877 Mr. Clay shot and killed a Negro, Perry White, whom he had discharged from his service and who had threatened his life. Mr. Clay was tried, and the jury gave a verdict of “justifiable homicide.” A volume of his speeches was edited by Horace Greeley (1848), and he has published “The Life, Memoirs, Writings, and Speeches of Cassius M. Clay” (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1886). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 503, 577, 639-640.
Chapter: “Vermont and Massachusetts. --John P. Hale. -- Cassius M. Clay,” by Henry Wilson, in History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, 1872.
While Mr. Hale was making his gallant and successful fight in New Hampshire, by which he placed himself at once among the foremost advocates of liberty, freedom found another champion, on the very soil of slavery itself, in the person of Cassius M. Clay. Belonging to an eminent family, reared under the influences of slavery, he was identified with it by birth, inheritance, and position. From personal knowledge and his affiliations of family, party, and business, he had spoken during the presidential canvass of 1844 with authority upon the subject of slavery, revealing to thousands the inner life and workings of the system.
Mr. Clay was a native of Kentucky. Educated at Yale; he had soon learned to recognize the difference between the slave and the free States, while the antislavery discussions that were rife during his stay in New England greatly excited his feelings and changed his sentiments; and at an early day he determined to emancipate his slaves. Entering the Kentucky legislature in 1835, he at once introduced and became the champion of a common-school system for his native State. But he soon learned that such a system was incompatible with the presence and power of slavery wherever the latter was established, and was giving tone to the thought and feeling of society.
In 1841 an act was introduced into that legislature for the repeal of a law adopted in 1833 to prevent the importation of slaves into the State. He, of course, arrayed himself against the repeal, and denounced in fitting language this reactionary measure. Such a demonstration from one occupying his position naturally excited surprise, and provoked that kind and style of opposition in which the slave-masters were accustomed to indulge toward any who opposed their policy or condemned their cherished system. But he declared that denunciation could not silence him; that epithets and the cry of abolition had no terrors for him; and that bowie-knives, pistols, and mobs could not force him to desist. He said that his blood was ready for the sacrifice, though he warned gentlemen that he should not be "a tame victim of either force or denunciation." He affirmed that there was a party in the country which was .the advocate of perpetual slavery, and in favor of destroying the Union. He protested against what he termed the treasonable scheme of the disunionists; and he asserted that on the day when this should be seriously attempted or consummated there should be "one Kentuckian shrouded under the stars and stripes; one heart undesecrated with the faith that slavery is the basis of civil liberty; one being who could not exist in a government denying the right of petition, the liberty of speech and of the press; one man who would not be the outlaw of nations or the slave of a slave."
Entertaining such sentiments, and believing that the proposed annexation of Texas was for “the extension of slavery among men," he interposed a most determined opposition. In a speech in December, 1843, in reply to ex-Vice-President Richard M. Johnson, he made an impassioned appeal to the people of Kentucky to enter their solemn protest against this most unholy scheme. He reminded them, if this project was carried out for the purposes for which it was formed, they could no longer cover themselves, when reproached for the existence of slavery, under the plea that it was an entailed evil for which they could not be held responsible. If they supported this scheme, with this the real and avowed object, they would commit themselves anew to the system it was thus proposed to strengthen and extend.
Holding these ideas of annexation, and deeply impressed with the magnitude of the interests at stake and the gravity of the impending peril, he entered with great earnestness into the presidential contest of 1844. He traversed the free States, urging the claims of Henry Clay. He was especially urgent that antislavery men should give him their votes, as the only way by which annexation could be prevented. Affirming that Mr. Clay had virtually pledged himself to oppose the admission of Texas, by making the conditions of his “support such as could not be fulfilled, he contended that they themselves held the power in their hands to prevent it. Among those conditions was the “common consent of the Union." " So long, then," he said, in one of his speeches, "as the vestal flame of liberty shall burn in your bosoms, eternal and inextinguishable, so long is Mr. Clay, three several times, in the most solemn manner, before the nation and all mankind, irrevocably bound to oppose the annexation of Texas to the United States." " Of all men," he continued, " now present I have the greatest cause to take care that I am not deceived in this matter ; but I can go --I say it before God and man -- with a good conscience for him, because I believe it will save my country from ruin if we shall secure his election." His labors in the canvass were arduous, his feelings were deeply enlisted in the issues at stake, and his consequent disappointment in view of defeat was very great.
The defeat of Mr. Clay, however, while it made annexation certain, did not discourage him. His spirit rose with the occasion, and his purpose to war against the cause of all this scheming and plotting seemed to be strengthened. Returning to Kentucky, he issued, in January, 1845, an address to the people of his State, in which he portrayed the baleful effects of slavery, even upon that " young and beautiful Commonwealth," to whose " Italian skies " and· " more than Sicilian verdure" he mournfully referred as being blighted and clouded by this terrible curse. " Her fields," he says, " relapse into primitive sterility; her population wastes away, manufactures recede from her infected border, trade languishes, decay trenches upon her meagre accumulations of taste or utility, gaunt famine stalks into the portals of the homestead, sullen despair begins to display itself in the careworn faces of men, the heavens and the earth cry aloud, the eternal laws of happiness and existence have been trampled underfoot …Agriculture drags along its slow pace with slovenly, ignorant, and reckless labor. Science, literature, and art are strangers here. Poets, historians, artists, and machinists; the lovers of the ideal, the great, the beautiful, the true, and the useful,--flourish where thought and action are untrammeled… A loose and inadequate respect for the rights of property, of necessity, follows in the wake of slavery. Duelling, bloodshed, and lynch-law leave but little security to person. A general demoralization has corrupted the first minds in the nation, its hot contagion has spread among the whole people; licentiousness, crime, and bitter hate infest us at home; repudiation and the forcible propagandism of slavery is arraying against us the world in arms."
He urged upon them to choose delegates to a convention for amending the Constitution, and to repeat the attempt "until victory shall perch on the standard of the free."
While the struggle was in progress in both Congress and the country for the expansion of slavery, he issued proposals for the establishment of a paper to advocate its “overthrow “in Kentucky. Its publication was commenced at Lexington, and on the 3d of June was issued the first number of the “True American." In it he discussed with great vigor the evils and remedies existing and proposed. The general tone and character of its utterances were very offensive to the slaveholders of the State, whose course he condemned, and whose interests, they felt, he was putting in peril. This indignation was specially increased and intensified by articles that appeared 11 the 12th of August, in which the writer referred not only to the general principles of the contest, but to certain contingencies and possibilities, and which very naturally and very greatly excited their ire.
In those articles not only was emancipation advocated, but the securing of the civil and political rights to the colored people was vindicated. The pride and selfishness of the slave-master, too, was referred to; and the charge was made that, in his esteem, national character, conscience of the people, and sense of duty weighed nothing against that pride and selfishness. The warning, too, was given that the Abolitionists were becoming quite as reckless as the slaveholders themselves; and, when provoked by injustice and wrong, they might manifest something of the same spirit. “It is in vain," it was said,” for the master to try to fence his dear slaves in from all intercourse with the great world, to create his little petty and tyrannical kingdom on his own plantation, and keep it for his exclusive reign. He cannot shut out the light of information any more than the light of heaven. It will penetrate all disguises, and shine upon the dark night of slavery. He must recollect that he is surrounded. The North, the East, the West, and the South border on him, --the free West-Indian, the free Mexican, the free Yankee, the more than free Abolitionists of his own country. Everything trenches upon his infected district, and the wolf looks calmly in upon his fold."
The slaveholders were greatly exasperated, too, by these words: "But we are told the enunciation of the soul-stirring principles of Revolutionary patriots is a lie; that slavery the most unmitigated, the lowest, basest that the world has· seen; is to be substituted forever for our better,, more glorious, holier aspirations. The Constitution.is torn and trampled underfoot, justice and good faith in a nation are divided, brute force -is substituted in the place of high moral tone, all the great principles of national liberty which we inherited from our British, ancestry are yielded up, and we are left without God or help in the world. When the great-hearted of our land weep, and the man of reflection maddens in the contemplation of our national apostasy, there are men, pursuing gain and pleasure, who smile with contempt and indifference at their appeals. But remember, you who dwell in marble palaces, that there are strong arms and fiery hearts and iron pikes in the streets, and panes of glass only between them and the silver plate on the board and the smooth-skinned woman on the ottoman. When you have mocked at virtue, deified the agency of God in the affairs of men, and made rapine your honeyed faith, tremble, for the day of retributio1ds at hand, and the masses will be avenged."
The establishment of such a paper by such a man, with views so radical and a purpose so determined, was naturally regarded by the slaveholders as a challenge to them to come to the defence of their cherished and menaced system. It was, therefore, doomed from the start. Probably no journal, however mildly and courteously conducted, that contemplated and advocated emancipation, would have remained unmolested. Certainly one with sentiments so decided and uncompromising might naturally expect resistance. It came in the form of a committee, which waited upon him on the 14th of' August, while confined to a bed of sickness, requiring him to suspend the publication of his paper, "as," they say in their note, "its further continuance, in our judgment, is dangerous to the peace of the community, and to the safety of our homes and families."
His reply was very decided and defiant. Alluding to the phrase in their letter that they had “been appointed as a committee on the part of a number of the respectable citizens of the city of Lexington," he wrote: "I say, in reply to your assertion that you are a committee appointed by a respectable portion of the community, that it cannot be true. Traitors to the laws and Constitution cannot be deemed respectable by any but assassins, pirates, and highway robbers." After reminding them that their meeting was unknown to the laws and Constitution, and that its “proceedings" were secret, and its purposes were “in direct violation of every known principle of honor, religion, or government," he added: "I treat them with the burning contempt of a brave heart and a loyal citizen. I deny their power and defy their action …Your advice with regard to my personal safety is worthy of the source whence it emanated, and meets with the same contempt from me which the purposes of your mission excite. Go, tell your secret conclave of cowardly assassins that Cassius M. Clay knows his rights, and how to defend them."
He then issued an appeal to the people of Kentucky to stand by him in his conflict with the enemies of law in the defence of the civil and political rights of all. On the 18th of August a meeting was called to consider the question of suppressing the “True American." To this meeting he sent a communication, in which he endeavored to remove some false constructions which had been placed upon the articles in question, and in which he made some further statements concerning the purposes and plans of his paper, concluding with the solemn and unequivocal averment that his constitutional rights he should never "abandon."
The meeting, unmoved by his appeal, proceeded to the consummation of the purpose for which it was convened, by choosing a committee of sixty, which proceeded to the office of the offending journal, boxed up its press, and sent it out of the State. It also unanimously adopted an address to the people of Kentucky, reported by Thomas F. Marshall. In this address it was charged that a formidable party had arisen in the North which held that slavery was "opposed to religion, morals, and law," and that the Negro was entitled to his freedom. It asserted, too, that the aim of this party was the abolition of slavery in America. It charged Mr. Clay with being in full sympathy with this party; that he had visited the North, and, having been "received there in full communion by the abolition party, caressed and flattered and feasted, hailed in the stages of his triumphal progress by discharges of cannon, and heralded in the papers devoted to the cause as the boldest, the most intrepid, the most devoted of its champions, he returned to his native State, the organ and agent of an incendiary sect, to force upon her principles fatal to her domestic repose, at the risk of his own life and the peace of the community."
Stigmatizing an abolition paper in a slave State as a " nuisance of the most formidable character," a blazing brand in the hands 1of an incendiary or madman, which might scatter ruin, conflagration, revolution, crime unnamable over everything dear in domestic life, sacred in religion, or respectable in modesty, it denounced the " True American " as an example of the worst type of such papers. Representing Abolitionists as traitors to the Constitution, and abolition principles in a slave State as "fire in a magazine of powder," the address urged these considerations as the justification of its authors for the summary measures they adopted.
Mr. Clay also issued several appeals to the people of Kentucky, calling upon them to vindicate their rights, stricken down in his person. But though overpowered, he exhibited the same defiant spirit and unconquerable purpose, as he, dedicated himself anew to the liberty of his country and of mankind, and called upon Americans to “rise up in the omnipotency of the ballot, and peaceably overthrow the slave despotism of the nation."
He re-established his paper, which, though published in Lexington, was printed in Cincinnati. But when the war with Mexico opened, he, to the great regret of many and the sharp censures of others, entered the army; and, under the plea of standing by the flag of his country in the day of battle, volunteered his services for that most indefensible war. After his return he renewed and continued his warfare on slavery until it ceased to exist.
Source: Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 1. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 628-635.
CLAYTON, Powell, governor of Arkansas, born in Bethel, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 7 August, 1833. He was educated in the common schools and in an academy at Bristol, Pennsylvania, studied civil engineering at Wilmington, Delaware, and in 1859 was chosen engineer and surveyor of Leavenworth, Kansas. When the Civil War began he entered the National Army is captain in the 1st Kansas Infantry, 29 May, 1861. He was appointed, 27 February, 1862, lieutenant-colonel of the Kansas cavalry, and was made colonel on 30 March, 1862. On 6 May, 1863, he commanded a successful expedition from Helena, Arkansas, to the White River to break up a band of guerillas and destroy Confederate stores, and later an expedition from Pine Bluff in March, 1864, which inflicted severe loss on the enemy. On 1 August, 1864, he was commissioned a brigadier-general. He settled in Arkansas as a planter after the war, was elected governor, and entered upon the office in June, 1868. He was U.S. Senator from 25 March, 1871, till 3 March, 1877. Afterward he resided at Eureka Springs, and became president of the Eureka improvement Company. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 646.
CLEBURNE (clebborn), Patrick Ronayne, soldier, born in county Cork, Ireland, 17 March, 1828; killed in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee,30 November, 1864. He was a descendant of William Cleyborne, the colonial secretary of Virginia in 1626. His mother was a daughter of Pat rick Ronayne of Annebrook, County Cork, descended from that Maurice Ronayne who obtained from King Henry IV, "a grant of the rights of Englishmen." He was intended for the profession of medicine, but becoming discouraged while a student at Trinity College he ran away and enlisted in the 41st Regiment of foot After three years’ service he came to the United States, settled at Helena, Arkansas, where he studied law, and was in successful practice at the beginning of the Civil War. He joined the Confederate Army as a private, planned the capture of the U.S. Arsenal in Arkansas in March, 1861, was made captain, and soon afterward promoted to colonel. In March, 1862, he was made a brigadier-general, and at Shiloh commanded the 2d Brigade of the 3d Corps, and was commended for valor and ability. He was wounded at the battle of Perryville, and was made a major-general in December, 1862. He commanded a division of the right wing at Murfreesboro and at Chickamauga, and distinguished himself in command of the rear-guard at Missionary Ridge, in November, 1863, and received the thanks of the Confederate Congress for his defence of Ringgold Gap. He distinguished himself in numerous engagements. At Jonesboro he covered the retreat of Hood's defeated army, and commanded a Corps at Franklin, where he was killed after two lines of the National works had been carried by the troops under his command. He was a favorite with the Irish Brigade, and was called “the Stonewall of the West.” He instituted the Order of the Southern Cross, and was among the first to advise the use of colored troops in the armies of the Confederacy. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 647-648.
CLEMENS, Samuel Langhorne, author (better known under his pen-name, Mark Twain), born in Florida, Monroe County, Missouri, 30 November, 1835. He was educated only in the village school at Hannibal, Missouri, was apprenticed to a printer at the age of thirteen, and worked at his trade in St. Louis, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, and New York. In 1851 he became a pilot on Mississippi River steamboats, and in 1861 went to Nevada as private secretary to his brother, who had been appointed secretary of the territory. Afterward he undertook mining in Nevada, and became in 1862 city editor of the Virginia City “Enterprise.” In reporting legislative proceedings from Carson he signed his letters “Mark Twain,” a name suggested by the technical phraseology of Mississippi navigation, where, in sounding a depth of two fathoms, the leadsman calls out to “mark twain!” In 1865 he went to San Francisco, and was for five months a reporter on the “Morning Call,” then tried gold-mining in the placers of Calaveras County, and, having no success, returned to San Francisco and resumed newspaper work. He spent six months in the Hawaiian Islands in 1866. After his return he delivered humorous lectures in California and Nevada, and then returned to the east and published “The Jumping Frog, and other Sketches” (New York, 1867). The same year he went with a party of tourists to the Mediterranean, Egypt, and Palestine, and on his return published an amusing journal of the excursion, entitled “The Innocents Abroad” (Hartford, 1869), of which 125,000 copies were sold in three years. He next edited the Buffalo, New York, “Express.” After his marriage he settled in Hartford, Connecticut He delivered witty lectures in various cities, contributed sketches to the “Galaxy” and other magazines, and in 1872 went to England on a lecturing trip. While he was there, a London publisher issued an unauthorized collection of his writings in four volumes, in which were included papers attributed to him that he never wrote. The same year appeared in Hartford, Connecticut, “Roughing It,” containing sketches of Nevada, Utah, California, and the Sandwich Islands; and in 1873, in conjunction with Charles Dudley Warner, a story entitled “The Gilded Age,” which was dramatized and produced in New York in 1874. This comedy, with John T. Raymond in the leading part, Colonel Mulberry Sellers, had an extraordinary success. Mr. Clemens subsequently published “Sketches, Old and New”; “Adventures of Tom Sawyer,” a story of boy-life in Missouri (1876); “Punch, Brothers, Punch” (1878); “A Tramp Abroad” (Hartford, 1880); “The Stolen White Elephant” (Boston, 1882); “The Prince and the Pauper” (1882); and “Life on the Mississippi” (1883). In 1884 he established in New York the publishing-house of C. L. Webster & Co., which issued in 1885 a new story entitled “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,” a sequel to “Tom Sawyer,” and brought out in that and the following year General U. S. Grant's “Memoirs,” the share in the profits accruing to Mrs. Grant from which publication, under a contract signed with General Grant before his death, amounted, in October, 1886, to $350,000, which was paid to her in two checks, of $200,000 and $150,000. Mark Twain's works have been republished in England, and translations of the principal ones in Germany. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. pp.648-649.
CLINGMAN, Thomas Lanier, senator, born in Huntsville, North Carolina, 27 July, 1812. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1832 with high honors, after which he studied law and was elected a member of the legislature. He settled in Asheville, Buncombe County, North Carolina, in 1836, and was sent to the state senate in 1840. Later he was elected as a Whig to Congress, and served continuously from 4 December, 1843, till 14 June, 1858, with the exception of the 29th Congress. During his long career in the house, extending over thirteen years, he participated in nearly all of the important debates, and as chairman of the committee on foreign affairs acquitted himself with ability. His first week in Congress was marked by an encounter with Henry A. Wise, of Virginia, in which he displayed great readiness and self-possession. His speech against the so-called “21st rule” was extensively published, and his reply to Duncan's “coon speech” made a decided impression. Later his speech on the causes of Henry Clay's defeat led to a duel between himself and William L. Yancey, of Alabama. He also made important speeches on the slavery question, on General Scott's conduct in Mexico, the tariff, against commercial restrictions, on mediation in the eastern war, Texas debts, British policy in Cuba, and especially against the Clayton and Bulwer treaty. It is said that while a member of Congress he attended every day's session of the house without a single exception. He was originally a Whig, but subsequently joined the Democratic Party. In 1858, on the appointment of Asa Biggs as U.S. Judge for the District of North Carolina, Mr. Clingman was selected by the governor of that state to fill the vacancy in the Senate, and subsequently elected for six years after 4 March, 1861; but he withdrew with the southern members on 21 January, 1861. In May of that year he was sent as a commissioner to the Confederate Congress, to give assurances that North Carolina would co-operate with the Confederate states, and was invited to participate in the discussions of that body. In July he was expelled from the U.S. Senate with those who neglected to send in their resignations. He entered the Confederate Army as colonel, and on 17 May, 1862, was appointed a brigadier-general in command of the 8th, 31st, 51st, and 61st North Carolina Infantry. He served through the war, surrendering with General Joseph E. Johnston in April, 1865. He was a delegate to the National Democratic Convention held in 1868. In 1855 he measured and made known through the Smithsonian Institution the highest point of the Black mountain, since designated as “Clingman's peak,” and in 1858 he determined the highest point of the Smoky mountain, designated on the maps of the coast survey as “Clingman's dome. He also made known the existence in North Carolina of the diamond, ruby, platinum, corundum, and many other rare minerals, and the important mica-mines in Mitchell and Yancey Counties were first opened by him. Since the close of the war General Clingman has devoted his attention to mining and to scientific and literary pursuits. He has published a volume of his speeches (1878) and minor works, including “Follies of the Positive Philosophers” (Raleigh, 1878). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 658-659.
CLITZ, John Mellen Brady, naval officer, born in Sacketts Harbor, New York, 1 December, 1821. His father, Captain John Clitz, distinguished himself at Fort Erie, 17 September, 1814, and died in command of Fort Mackinac, 6 November, 1836. The son entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman in 1837, became passed midshipman in 1843, and was on the bomb-brig "Hecla" at the capitulation of Vera Cruz and the capture of Tuxpan in the Mexican War. He was made lieutenant, 6 April, 1851; commander. 16 July, 1863, and commanded at different times the blockading steamers " Penobscot," "Juniata," and "Osceola. He was in both attacks on Fort Fisher, and was recommended for promotion in Admiral Porter's commendatory despatch of 28 January, 1865. He was commissioned captain, 25 July, 1866 did ordnance duty at the Brooklyn U.S. Navy-yard in 1870. and was "made commodore on 28 December, 1872. He was promoted to rear-admiral, 13 March, 1880, commanded the Asiatic station, and was placed on the retired list in 1884. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 662.
CLITZ, Henry Boynton, soldier, born in Sacketts Harbor, N Y., 4 July, 1824, was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1845. He entered the 7th U.S. Infantry, served during the war with Mexico and was brevetted first lieutenant for gallant conduct at Cerro Gordo. From 1848 till 1855 he was assistant instructor of infantry tactics at West Point. He then served on various frontier posts until the beginning of the Civil War. having been made captain in the 3d U.S. Infantry, 6 December, 1858 While on leave in 1859 and 1860 he travelled extensively in Europe. He took part in the defence of Fort Pickens, Florida, in 1861. He became major on 14 May of 1861, and was engaged in the Peninsular Campaign at Yorktown, where he was wounded, and in the battle of Gaines's Mills he was twice wounded and taken prisoner. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 27 June, 1862, for his gallantry at Gaines's Mills, and after a month in Libby prison, was exchanged, and made commandant at West Point, where he remained till 1864, afterward doing garrison duty till the close of the war. He was made lieutenant-colonel of the 6th U.S. Infantry, 4 November, 1863, and brevetted colonel and brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865, for his services during the war. After that time he commanded at various posts. He was made colonel of the 10th U.S. Infantry, 22 February. 1869, and placed on the retired list, 1 July, 1885, at his own request, having been in the service forty years. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 662.
CLUSERET, Gustave Paul, soldier, born in Paris, France, 13 June, 1823. He entered the military school of St. Cyr in 1841, became lieutenant in January, 1848, and was made a chevalier of the legion of honor for bravery in suppressing the insurrection of June, 1848. A few months after the coup d'etat he was retired for political reasons, and opened a painter's studio in Paris, but was shortly afterward replaced and served in Algeria and the Crimean war, being promoted to captain in 1855. He resigned his commission in 1858, joined Garibaldi in 1860, and commanded the French legion in his army, receiving the brevet of colonel in November of that year for gallantry at the siege of Capua, where he was wounded. He came to the United States in January, 1862, entered the National Army, and was appointed aide-de-camp to General McClellan, with the rank of colonel. He was soon afterward assigned to General Fremont, who placed him in command of the advanced guard. He was in several engagements, and was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 14 October, 1862, for gallantry in the battle of Cross Keys. After some further service in the Shenandoah valley, he resigned on 2 March, 1863, and in 1864 edited in New York City the " New Nation," a weekly journal advocating Fremont for the presidency, and vehemently opposing the renomination of Lincoln. General Cluseret returned to Europe in 1867, took part in the Fenian agitation of that year, and was accused by the journals of leading, under an assumed name, the attack on Chester castle. In the same year Cluseret wrote for the "Courrier Francais" a series of articles on "The Situation in the United States." In 1868 an obnoxious article in "L'Art," a journal founded by him, caused his imprisonment for two months, and in 1869, on account of his violent attacks on the organization of the army, he was again arrested, but pleaded that he was a naturalized American citizen, and was given up to Minister Washburne, who sent him out of the country. He returned to Paris on the fall of the second empire, which he had predicted, and began to assail the provisional government, but soon afterward engaged in attempts at insurrection in Lyons and Marseilles. In the following spring he became minister of war under the commune, and for a time was at the head of all its military operations. He was arrested on suspicion of treachery on 1 May, 1871. but escaped to England, and after a short visit to this country settled near Geneva. Switzerland, in 1872. He was condemned to death in his absence by a council of war. on 30 August of that year. Cluseret has published a pamphlet on "Mexico and the Solidarity of Nations " (1866); "L'Armee et la Democratie " (1869); and assisted to prepare the "Dietionnaire historique et geographique de l'Algerie." Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 663.